Contents. Colour Plates Foreword John Beddington Notes on Contributors. xv xvii. xix

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1 Contents Colour Plates Foreword John Beddington Notes on Contributors xv xvii xix Chapter 1 Ecolabelling of Seafood: The Basic Concepts 1 Trevor J. Ward and Bruce Phillips 1.1 Introduction Ecolabelling programmes How ecolabelling works Types of ecolabels Ecolabelling governance Sustainability standards Ecolabelling in the marketplace The Blue Angel Uptake by business Seafood ecolabelling in Asia A chef s story 29 References 36 Chapter 2 The Economics of Ecolabelling 38 Cathy A. Roheim 2.1 Introduction The economics of consumer demand for ecolabelled products The theoretical foundation: economics of information Demand for attributes Empirical analysis of consumer demand for ecolabelled seafood Consumer demand for dolphin-safe tuna The economics of the market The economics of certification of fisheries Conclusions and need for future research 54 References 56 v

2 vi Contents Chapter 3 FAO Guidelines for Ecolabelling in Wild-Capture Fisheries 58 Rolf Willmann, Kevern Cochrane & William Emerson 3.1 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and capture fisheries The origins of the ecolabelling debate in FAO The development of the FAO ecolabelling guidelines Scope Principles General considerations Terms and definitions Minimum substantive requirements and criteria for ecolabels Procedural and institutional aspects Conclusions 79 References 79 Chapter 4 The Marine Stewardship Council Programme 81 Rupert Howes 4.1 Introduction The MSC background and history How the MSC programme works The concepts Implementing the programme The MSC vision and mission Progress to date Europe North America Central and South America Asia-Pacific region Africa The ecological case Proof of concept Retailers Restaurants and foodservice Consumer awareness Strengthening the fishery assessment process Traceability and assurance in the supply chain Developing world programme The GASSDD project System of governance The MSC s future 102 References 103

3 Contents vii Chapter 5 Aquaculture Certification 106 Daniel Lee 5.1 Introduction Sustainable aquaculture Environmental pressure Economic pressure Aquaculture certification schemes Unintended consequences The alliance The GAA principles The GAA vision Codes of practice Standards The Aquaculture Certification Council, Inc GAA perspectives Mangroves Fishmeal Antibiotic residues Trade issues Conclusions 131 References 131 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 GLOBALGAP Building Consumer Confidence in Aquaculture Sustainability 134 Aldin Hilbrands 6.1 Background About GLOBALGAP Governance Process of standard development Training and implementation Auditing and certification Accreditation of certification bodies Benchmarking and approval of equivalent certification standards The integrated aquaculture assurance standard 141 References 142 Advancing the Global Marketplace for Sustainable Seafood: The Seafood Choices Alliance 143 Michael Boots 7.1 Introduction Conditioning the climate for sustainable seafood 143

4 viii Contents The power of social marketing Filling a unique niche Shifting perceptions and attitudes Building the Seafood Choices Movement The early days of the movement Structure of the movement: Five pillars of seafood choices Seafood Choices Alliance: An international association for sustainable seafood Philosophy and approach The work of the alliance Looking forward: The evolution of a more diverse and global alliance Conclusions 159 References 160 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Developing an International Standard for the Trade in Live Reef Food Fish 161 Geoffrey Muldoon & Peter Scott 8.1 Introduction The live reef food fish trade in Asia-Pacific Certification within the LRFFT Developing the international standard Background Collaborative management models Determining key elements for inclusion in the LRFFT standard The scope of the LRFFT standard Defining a preliminary standard structure Development, review and revision of the standard Best-practice guidance and implementation Implementing the standard Compliance Implementation frameworks Assessing the feasibility of certification Conclusions 182 References 184 Market-Based Mechanisms Improving Fisheries Management? 187 Duncan Leadbitter 9.1 Introduction Trends in seafood trade Impacts of trade on fish and fisheries 189

5 Contents ix 9.4 Illegal fishing a compelling issue The private sector and demand control Catch tracking and identification Marketplace identification and the role of consumers Issues associated with seafood ecolabelling Sourcing policies retailers and the food trade Species bans and advisory cards Threats and opportunities Summary and conclusions 202 References 203 Chapter 10 Measuring the Success of Seafood Ecolabelling 207 Trevor J. Ward 10.1 Introduction Producing seafood sustainably The issues of concern Assessing ecological sustainability The nature of success The sustainability standard Clear and unequivocal standard Scope and focus Outcomes and processes A balanced standard Technical clarity Achievable Fixed versus flexible standard? Normative standard Verification Verification cost versus quality Grading of performance Determining success What to measure? The decision basis for determining success Dealing with uncertainty and gaps in knowledge Timescales for improvement Conclusions 241 References 243 Chapter 11 Case Study 1: Toothfish An MSC-Certified Fishery 247 David Agnew 11.1 Introduction Substantive issues 249

6 x Contents 11.3 The objection Chain of custody Current status of certification Conclusions 257 References 258 Chapter 12 Case Study 2: The Baja California, Mexico, Lobster Fishery 259 Bruce Phillips, Luis Bourillón & Mario Ramade 12.1 Introduction Management system Status of the stock Why MSC certification was sought The MSC assessment The fishery and the market for products since certification Benefits to the community and the environment Some reflections on the certification 266 References 267 Chapter 13 Case Study 3: MSC Certification of the Alaska Pollock Fishery 269 Jim Gilmore 13.1 Introduction The At-sea Processors Association The Alaska pollock fishery The MSC assessment process January 2001 to February Issues encountered by APA in the assessment process A 4-year long assessment process Subjectivity in scoring Retroactive application of new rules Alaska pollock and the sustainable seafood marketplace The MSC reform agenda Private foundations and NGO attitudes Clarifying, interpreting or changing the MSC sustainability standard The environmental benefits project Continuous improvement of participating fisheries Improving the assessment process for participating fisheries Conclusions 285 References 285

7 Contents xi Chapter 14 The Marine Stewardship Council and Developing Countries 287 Stefano Ponte 14.1 Introduction The Marine Stewardship Council initiative General features Early criticism of MSC New challenges MSC and the South African hake industry Main features of the South African hake industry Motivations for the adoption of MSC certification The certification process Verification after certification An evaluation of MSC certification in South Africa Conclusions 301 References 304 Chapter 15 Benefits of Certification for Small-scale Fisheries 307 Meredith Lopuch 15.1 Introduction The certification dilemmas Benefits of the certification process Filling knowledge gaps Filling knowledge gaps in practice Lobbying power Creating lobbying power Creating insurance Using the process as insurance Community organisation and empowerment Creating community organisation and empowerment Social and political benefits Creating social and political benefits Conclusions 320 References 321 Chapter 16 New England Aquarium: Supporting Environmentally Responsible Seafood Choices 322 Heather Tausig, Michael Tlusty, Lydia Bergen, Gregory Stone & Kathleen Szleper 16.1 The New England Aquarium 322

8 xii Contents 16.2 The Aquarium s programme Encouraging increased fishery performance The Aquarium s decision-ranking tool Wild fisheries decision-ranking tool Aquaculture decision-ranking tool Applying the decision-ranking tool to business recommendations Expectations for outcomes Industry-related outcomes Consumer-related outcomes New directions Increased focus on aquaculture New corporate partners Working with suppliers Increased involvement in collaborative efforts 337 Acknowledgements 337 References 338 Chapter 17 Monterey Bay Aquarium s Seafood Watch Programme 340 Jennifer Dianto Kemmerly 17.1 Introduction History of the Monterey Bay Aquarium and the Seafood Watch programme Target audiences of the Seafood Watch programme Partnerships: Moving from awareness to action Reaching consumers through partnerships Reaching consumers through the internet Reaching restaurateurs Sustainable seafood for big businesses Distribution of seafood purchasing recommendations Developing regional seafood recommendations Seafood Watch methodology for evaluating seafood Seafood Watch principles of sustainability and evaluation criteria Other information accompanying our seafood recommendations Seafood Watch s role in the seafood movement Salience through context-setting activities Increasing demand by bringing major buyers to the table 360

9 Contents xiii Creating a viable supply of sustainable seafood to support the demand What does success look like? Seafood Watch evaluation Implications for the future of Seafood Watch Conclusions 365 References 366 Chapter 18 The New Zealand Best Fish Guide 367 Barry Weeber & Cath Wallace 18.1 Introduction Description of the programme Information sources, procedures and methodologies Information sources Precautionary management Criteria Weighting Individual fish species Expectations for outcomes Influencing consumer choices Programme marketing Effectiveness in the marketplace New directions Conclusions 385 References 386 Chapter 19 Guiding Australian Consumers to Sustainable Seafood Choices 389 Craig Bohm 19.1 Introduction Description of the Guide Funding Information sources Target audiences Measuring sticks Species Assessments Criteria wild fisheries Criteria aquaculture Guide impact The challenges Paucity of information Resolving the complex nature of fishing Inadequate seafood labelling 401

10 xiv Contents 19.6 New directions 401 References 402 Chapter 20 Towards Sustainable Seafood: The Evolution of a Conservation Movement 403 Michael Sutton & Laura Wimpee 20.1 Introduction Early campaigns From stick to carrot: The Marine Stewardship Council Sustainable seafood goes mainstream The future of sustainable seafood The blue revolution 413 References 414 Chapter 21 Anecdotes and Lessons of a Decade 416 Trevor J. Ward & Bruce Phillips 21.1 Introduction Design of ecolabelling programmes The motivations for certification Voluntary assessment systems Government assessment systems Quality of the standard The business of certification Business models The price Lobbying Funding base Future business models The costs and benefits of pre-assessment Assessment and certification the processes Stakeholder engagement Technical inputs Environmental monitoring Product recommendations and buying guides The evolutionary path Certification and ecolabelling systems of the future 432 Acknowledgements 434 References 434 Index 437 Colour Plates appear between pages 138 and 139 and pages 282 and 283.

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