APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

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1 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink? 23 November 2012 Gergely Tóth Senior Manager, Security & Privacy

2 Agenda APT examples How to get inside? Remote control Once we are inside Conclusion 2 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

3 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Definition The term is commonly used to refer to cyber threats, in particular that of Internetenabled espionage using a variety of intelligence gathering techniques to access sensitive information Wikipedia Advanced Sophisticated attack potentially combining several types of techniques including zero-day exploits and social engineering Persistent Targeted instead of being opportunistic: i.e. attack is tailored to the organization at hand Threat 3 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

4 APT example Spear phishing attack 4 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

5 Spear Phishing Example #1 5 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

6 Spear Phishing Example #1, cont d 6 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

7 Spear Phishing Details of the attack Attack lasted two days Two user groups received spear phishing s They were not privileged users Interesting s 2011 Recruitment Plan At least one user Retrieved the from the Junk s folder Opened the attachment Source: 7 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

8 Spear Phishing Details of the attack, cont d The payload Excel document with embedded Flash object Zero-day (CVE ) Flash exploit Modified Poison Ivy installed by the payload Well-known remote management software Reverse connect mode workstation connects to attacker s server Privilege escalation Domain users Service users Domain admins Internal attacks Internal servers Staging server storage, compression, encryption FTP out collected data to a cracked server Clean-up after the attack: wipe traces Source: 8 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

9 APT example Traditional systems compromise 9 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

10 Traditional systems compromise Example #2 Secure LAN DMZ Office LAN 10 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

11 Traditional systems compromise Details of the attack Attack lasted one month Systems compromise route Web server in the DMZ used as file manager and proxy Office LAN systems Secure LAN Scale of the attack All CA servers compromised Certificates issued using the HSM module used later in a large-scale attack (300k+ victims potentially) Log files tampered with to hide traces of activity Source: 11 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

12 HSM Myths and reality We use HSM (Hardware Security Module) in business critical systems for sensitive transactions HSM used in batch processes or automatically Compromised systems will to use the HSM just as easily 12 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

13 How to get inside? The Spear 13 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

14 The Spear Example #3 Approx users 57 clicks :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: :::::: Approx. 530 targets 2 successful exploits Source: 14 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

15 The Spear The Ignore the security warnings training course 15 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

16 The Spear Myths and reality Anti-virus and IDS/IPS stops such attacks Signature-based mechanisms are ineffective against unknown attack types (e.g. zero-day vulnerabilities, customized payloads) 16 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

17 The Spear Experiences (1) Targeted users 17 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

18 The Spear Experiences (2) Fooled users Insider info (disgruntled employee) Stolen laptop Compromised account? Does Corporate templates Culture/language habits Systems, typical it really matter? Autopilot The myth of templates 18 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

19 The Spear Experiences (3) Successful exploits Insider info (disgruntled employee) Stolen laptop Zero-day exploit Custom payload 19 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

20 What would be your conversion rate? Targeted users: 1 in 4 Fooled users: 1 in 3 Successful exploits: 1 in 2 20 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

21 Remote control 21 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

22 Remote control Poison Ivy 22 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

23 Remote control Metasploit - Meterpreter 23 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

24 Remote control Metasploit - Meterpreter 24 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

25 Remote control Myths and reality We use proxies to access the Internet, which require username-password authentication The typical exploit injects the code responsible for communication into Internet Explorer IE authenticates automatically at the proxy as the logged in (attacked) user 25 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

26 Once we are inside 26 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

27 Once we are inside An attacker s heaven Normal business user Application access access Network (share) access Helpdesk access Privilege escalation Two-tier applications Direct database access Weak authentication schemes Access with admin role Weak passwords Unauthorized access Unpatched systems Exploits 27 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

28 Once we are inside The reality Length of the patching cycle Ratio of unpatched devices Criticality of the system 28 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

29 Once we are inside Where is your data? User Application Server Printer server User User Application Server User Mail Server User Application Server Admin File Server User 29 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

30 Results of systems compromise Example #1 Several major VLANs compromised Access to undisclosed internal sensitive information Example #2 Several major VLANs compromised (DMZ, office, secure server) All critical systems compromised (all CAs and the HSM) Bankruptcy within 2 months of the attack Example #3 Access to undisclosed internal sensitive information Commonalities Skilled and customized attacks Access to sensitive information Sophisticated attempts to hide traces 30 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

31 Conclusion 31 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

32 APT The schematics Example #1 Spear phishing Example #3 Traditional systems compromise Do they look similar? It s not a coincidence APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

33 Defenses Prevent Defense in depth network zones Hardening on the external-facing and internal networks Detect IDS, IPS, anti-virus Awareness Log analysis Correct Incident response 33 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

34 Conclusion Targeted and sophisticated attacks high probability to succeed External attacker internal attacker Prevent / detect / correct there is no silver bullet 34 APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

35 Contact Gergely Tóth Senior Manager Security & Privacy Tel: + 36 (1) APT Advanced Persistent Threat Time to rethink?

36 Deloitte refers to one or more of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee, and its network of member firms, each of which is a legally separate and independent entity. Please see for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited and its member firms..

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