Research for High Speed. Pierre-Etienne Gautier INEXIA, Scientific Director St Denis la Plaine, France

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1 Research for High Speed Pierre-Etienne Gautier INEXIA, Scientific Director St Denis la Plaine, France

2 Presentation Outline Learning from the speed record (574,8 km/h=357.2 mph) Tests on Duplex trainsets at 360km/h (225 mph) Research program first results Conclusion and Future needs

3 Learning from the speed record

4 The test train (both platforms are tested on the same train ) TGV Duplex AGV Running direction M2 R8 lab R4 Motor bogies R1 Instrumented active pantograph M1 Voiture VIP Instrumented wheelsets AGV bogies 4

5

6 Campagnes d'essai à haute vitesse et projet V150 Overview of cumulated mileage at high speed nearly 1375 V 250 mph More than 437 V 310 mph Parcours cumulés (km) ,2 1, Vitesse (km/h) Campagnes d'essai précédentes Projet V150

7 250 Main results: traction power 200 effort (kn) POS (1950kW) AGV (1000kW) Total RAME V MW at wheel 50 Traction equipment position TGV Motrice vitesse (km/h) asynchronous motor (TGV POS) Nominal power 1160 kw Max power 1950 kw Permanent magnet motor Nominal power 800 kw Max power 1000 kw Bloc moteur 1 Bloc moteur 2 TFP Bloc commun Compresseur Remorque 4 Coffre self 2 Coffre commun Coffre self 1 Coffre Traction 2 TFP Coffre Traction 1 AGV for2 bogies position of traction eqt

8 Aerodynamic drag Results and conclusions Better knowledge of progress to be expectd on drag Enregy saving (solution on current + future trainsets) Modification progress Panto cavity M2 2.1% Optimizing cavity M1 1.6% Bogie shrouds M2 + M1 1% deflectors 1% Glazing window 1% Intercar gaps 1 à 2% Total 7 à 8% C test 0,0316 Wind tunnel 0,0318 Numerical simulation 0,0328 Validation of the C V2 drag term )

9 Curent collection TGV Evolution des soulèvements aux supports LGV EE PM C PK 195 Portées de 54 m Soulèvements (cm) TFC 4000 dan - Cu 150 mm² 30 TFP 2000 dan - Bz 116 mm² Flèche 1/2 portée ~ 20 mm Zone de risque Réglage Jour J S maxi 10 S mini Vitesse (km/h) Courbe maxi Courbe optimale Current collection under control 24MW (800 A) Models validated

10 External noise High contribution of aerodynamic noise above 360 km/h acoustic antenna

11 Improving efficiency of noise barriers Evolution de l'efficacité acoustique de l'écran en fonction de la vitesse au passage (exemple de la configuration d'écran n 1) 20,0 15,0 320km/h (RameV150) 448km/h (RameV150) 390km/h (RameV150) 472km/h (RameV150) 320 kph 10,0 Gain (db) 5,0 0,0 480 kph -5,0-10, Global A Tiers d'octave (Hz) Effeiciency increased by top devices

12 Conclusions from the record Traction power mastered with new technology (permanent magnets motors) Aerodynamic drag can be reduced, aerodynamic noise from 360 km/h, noise barrier efficiency can be improved Current collection under control, panto-catenary interaction predictable Dynamic safety parameters well under limits (50% for lateral forces, 25% Y/Q)

13 Test campaign at 360 km/ with commercial trains on ballasted track, october 2008 Commercial TGV-Duplex (DASYE series)in single/ two racks configurations 2 Ballasted tracks configurations with various track conditions to assess passenger comfort Check of safety parameters well below limits: lateral forces (ΣY)2m lower than 26 kn ( limit 66 kn ) Lateral accelerations y* in carbodies lower than 1.4 m/s2 (limit 3m/s2 ) Lateral accelerations on bogies y+ lower than 5.8 m/s2, (limit value of 11 m/s2 ) 13 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

14 Flying ballast risk limited impact numbers measured with innovative method on end trailer and motorcar Impacts preferably measured during morning first run at 300 km/h 5 impacts up to 360 km/h less than in the morning runs Influence of the ballast level 14 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

15 External noise, 25m from the track 3 db(a) Noise level increase between 300 and 360 km/h Rolling noise important due to high wheel roughness (recent delivery and braking tests ) Sources identified from acoustic array measurements 15 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

16 Vibration levels from the track to 72 m 1.3 db level increase from 300 to 320 km/h 1.4 db level increase from 320 to 360 km/h All areas from 28m from the tracks acceptable according to DIN in the measured site condition RMS values of the vertical acceleration (m/s 2 ) in ground Train speed km/h Near the ballast 12m 24m 36m 60m 300 0,2 0,04 0,02 0,01 0, ,8 0,03 0,02 0,09 0, ,3 0,05 0,02 0,01 0,01 Pierre-Etienne 16Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

17 Internal noise in passenger cabins and gangways Level increase of 4 to 5 db(a) with lower values at the far end of the lower cabin Special investigations needed for platforms and gangways Peak at km/ level increased by 5 km/h 17 Typical Internal noise levels measured at different speeds Train speed km/h Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A Lower cabin far end Higher cabin middle Platform top

18 Passenger Dynamical Comfort as a function of the Track Quality Subjective assessment with subjects: globally very satisfactory, but in standing position depending on the track condition, coherent with physical NVD indicator Range of variation of N VD calculated on different segments with speed and track condition 300 km/h LGVNE 320 km/h LGV EE 350 km/h LGVNE 360 km/h LGV EE 1.6 to to to to Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

19 Follow-up research program first results External noise can be reduced by 2 to 2.5 db(a) (VAMPASS simulations) by wheel and rail noise absorbers and shrouds Transfer paths and weak points identified for internal noise reduction (in progress) Probabilistic method developed for flying ballast risk assesment, calibrated on existing train sets Specification of track quality in progress in order to meet dynamical comfort criteria Headway between trains can be maintained at 360 km/h with respect to 300 km/h through appropriate specification of number of power bogies and braking capacity 19 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

20 Conclusions The record settled main basic questions (traction and braking, aerodynamics, current collection, dynamic safety) Test campaign at 360 km/h with TGV Duplex series commercial trainsets, on different ballasted track qualities identified subsidiary questions raised by speed increase External noise increase can be mitigated at least partially Internal noise to be reduced though weak points identification Development of a probabilistic method for ballast flying risk assessment, results available for different trainsets Track quality spec in progress to guarantee dynamical comfort Running Headway can be maintained at 360 km/h 20 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

21 Future Needs Implementation of aerodynamic drag and noise reduction Internal comfort (noise and vibration) to be controlled throughout the life of rolling stock Increasing capacity without jeopardizing performances ( crash safety, noise and vibration...) Passenger info (Internet on board) at very high speed Infrastructure LCC cost reduction (ballasted or slab track systems) New signalling systems for very dense traffic Energy management and saving for the whole system 21 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

22 Thank you for your attention! 22 Pierre-Etienne Gautier (et al.) Scientific Director Innovation & Research, SNCF, France Dec 8th, Session: Engineering A

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