Advances in Environmental Biology

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1 AENSI Journals Advances in Environmental Biology ISSN EISSN Journal home page: Corticolous Lichen Flora on Quercus suber L. in the wetlands of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria) 1 Lamia Boutabia, 2 Salah Telailia and 1 Gérard de Bélair 1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University, PO Box 12 (23 000) Annaba, (Algeria). 2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Sciences of Nature and Life, Chadli Bendjedid University, PO Box 73 (36 000) El Tarf, (Algeria). A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 26 December 2014 Received in revised form 26 January 2015 Accepted 20 February 2015 Available online 10 March 2015 Keywords: Lichens, Quercus suber, Wetlands, El Kala National Park, North-Eastern Algeria. A B S T R A C T The national park of El Kala is caracterised with an exceptional lichen flora, taking in to account the diversity of the phorophytes. Three sites have made the object of our study: Lake Tonga, Lake Oubeïra and Lake Mellah. The associations with Quercetum suberis being the most representative in the round of wetlands, where we studied the lichen flora on Quercus suber and making systematic surveys on 2 m high for four faces of the substrate. Moreover, a number of data on environmental conditions of the stations studied was considered and thus allowed us to appreciate the importance of specific lichen biodiversity in defined micro-climatic conditions. We have examined the influence of phorophyte diameter on the lichen cover and with respect to inter-category competitions observed during the statistical analysis. Our survey of epiphytic lichens in the cork forests of the wetlands of El Kala National Park was a success. From a systematics point of view, with 25 families comprising 135 catalogued species, we can certainly say that the region supports a wide variety of lichens. Most of the lichen taxa are essentially from the Parmeliaceae family, principally represented by the genus Parmelia, and from the Physciaceae family, represented by the genera Physcia and Physconia recognized by their nitrophilous species. From a morphological point of view, the catalogued taxa are divided into 69 crustose species, 37 foliose species, 15 fruticose species, 9 gelatinous species, 4 compound species and 1 squamulose species AENSI Publisher All rights reserved. To Cite This Article: Lamia Boutabia, Salah Telailia and Gérard de Bélair, Corticolous Lichen Flora on Quercus suber L. in the wetlands of El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algeria). Adv. Environ. Biol., 9(4), , 2015 INTRODUCTION More than a century ago, more precisely in 1840, naturalists: Nylander [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], Cosson [6], Stitzenberger [7] and others began publishing the first collections of Algerian lichen discovered during their scientific explorations. At that time, however, research on lichens was limited to only collecting samples. It was not until the end of the 19th century that lichenology developed and became more popular with the efforts of Flagey [8, 9, 10, 11, 12], followed by Werner [13, 14, 15, 16] and Faurel et al. [17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23], whose contribution to the study of lichens in North Africa, and particularly in Algeria, was ground-breaking in the region and led to the first publications devoted to lichens. In the 1980s, Algerian and foreign researchers began studying lichenology, although, aside from the study of the use of lichens as bioindicators of atmospheric pollution [24, 25, 26, 27], a comprehensive survey of epiphytic lichens had yet to be published. Surveys that touch on lichens have been conducted in Eastern Algeria: Tébessa [28], Guelma, Annaba and El Tarf [29], Azaba [30]; Western Algeria: Oran, Mostaganem, Thniet El Had and Ténès [31, 32, 33, 34, 35] and Central Algeria: Alger and Tipaza [35]; Tizi Ouzou, Bouira and Béjaia [36, 37, 33, 38, 39]. None of these surveys focus on a specific phorophyte, but rather on random samples or even on specimens gathered by collectors and subsequently identified by specialists. Research conducted in a number of Southern European countries: Spain [40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45], France [46, 47, 48, 49, 50], Italy [51, 52, 53, 54, 55] and Portugal [56, 57, 58, 59], have shown that cork oak is the substrate that bears the widest variety of lichens. Corresponding Author: Lamia Boutabia, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar University, PO Box 12, (23000) Annaba (Algeria). Tel.: ;

2 361 Lamia Boutabia et al, 2015 The aim of this research project is to study corticolous lichen flora on Quercus suber in the wetlands of El Kala National Park. The lichens in this world-renowned protected area have never been the subject of a lichenological publication. General characteristics of the site: Geographical location: Part of the North-Eastern Algerian Tell, El Kala National Park occupies an area of 76,438 ha in the El Tarf province and encompasses wetlands of international importance on the Ramsar list. It is bordered on the North by a dune ridge along the Mediterranean Sea, on the East by the Algerian-Tunisian border, on the South by Medjerda Mountains, and on the West by the city of El Tarf and the extensive Mekhada marshes (Fig. 1). Its geographical coordinates extend from to North and 7 43 to 8 37 East [60]. Fig. 1: Location of the El Kala National Park (North-Eastern Algerian). General climate: El Kala National Park is part of the hot-subhumid Mediterranean bioclimate. The average annual temperatures range from 12.2 C to 25.9 C. Average annual precipitation varies between mm in the littoral zone to 1191 mm in the mountainous zone. The prevailing winds are from the North-West to South-East, with maximum speeds of between 9 m/s and 23 m/s [61]. Plant formations: A number of types of vegetation prosper in El Kala National Park. From North to South, the main formations are: Quercus coccifera in the littoral dunes, Quercus suber, the most common tree species, which extends from the wetlands to the massifs, and Quercus canariensis, found only in the fresh and humid upland forests [62]. Methodology: Choice of phorophyte: The choice of cork oak as phorophyte takes into account the importance of this species not only in the area being investigated, but in the greater (surrounding) area [63]. In addition, the genus Quercus presents a very strong affinity for lichens, as shown by [53, 64, 65]. Choice and description of stations: The choice of the study stations reflects ecological factors such as the homogeneity of the plant growth, the abundance of supports promoting this growth, as well as certain physical factors, such as the topography and accessibility of the given environment [66]. Six study stations were chosen where cork oak can be found in large, homogeneous formations (Fig. 2). It is important to mention that the forest stations chosen have not been harvested, and that the trunks of the phorophytes studied have not been stripped. These stations are located at the following study sites: Site 1- Lake Tonga: naturally endorheic and artificially exorheic system. - Station 1: Cork oak forest of Feid M Rad (Western Lake), N and E Station 2: Cork oak forest of Aïn T bib (Southern Lake). N and E Site 2- Lake Oubeïra: freshwater lake that does not flow into the sea. - Station 1: Cork oak forest of Boumerchène (N-N.E. Lake), N and E Station 2: Cork oak forest of El Ach Lahmer (Western Lake).

3 362 Lamia Boutabia et al, 2015 N and E Site 3- Lake Mellah: marine lagoon right at sea level. - Station 1: Cork oak forest of El Frin (Western Lake), N and E Station 2: Cork oak forest of El Melha (S-S.W. Lake). N and E Fig. 2: Location of study sites in the wetlands of El Kala National Park [67]. Sampling method: In 2005, six forest formations were studied in the wetlands of El Kala National Park surrounding Lakes Tonga, Oubeïra and Mellah. Three hundred sixty lichen surveys were conducted on sixty cork oak trees. These surveys systematically included all four sides of the phorophyte (N.S.E.W). Systematic sampling: Serves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the forest lichen flora and their spatial distribution [68, 69]. It was done on ten trees per station, selecting such with the richest lichen growth and with diameter at breast height greater than 20 cm. The observations were performed on the four sides of the trunk, at 1.50 to 2.0 m above soil-level in order to avoid the basal protection offered by the grass cover and the eutrophication caused by animal feces [66, 70]. The samples were distributed in such way as to reflect the diversity of potential ecological situations to the greatest possible extent [49]. Technique for the determination of lichens: In order to determine the gathered lichen specimens, we have used the following sources, using for the chemical characters the usual reagents P, K and C: - Les lichens, étude biologique et flore illustrée, Ozenda and Clauzade [71], - Likenoj de occidenta europo, illustrita déterminlibro, Clauzade and Roux [72], - Guide des lichens, Van Haluwyn and Lerond [66], - Guide des lichens, Tievant [73], - Guide des lichens de France: Lichens des arbres, Van Haluwyn et al. [74]. Statistical analysis: Statistical analyses were carried out using MINITAB version Results: Inventory of lichens: List of lichen taxa: The list of lichen species found in the study area in alphabetical order is as follows: 1. Acrocordia gemmata (Ach.) A. Massal. 2. Alyxoria lichenoides (Pers.) 3. Alyxoria varia (Pers.) Ertz et Tehler 4. Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. 5. Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. ex A. Massal. 6. Arthonia atra (Pers.) A. Schneid. 7. Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr.

4 363 Lamia Boutabia et al, Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. 9. Arthonia galactites (DC.) Dufour 10. Arthonia granosa B. de Lesd. 11. Arthonia melanophthalma Dufour 12. Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. 13. Bacidia igniarii (Nyl.) Oksner 14. Bacidia rosella (Pers.) De Not. 15. Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. 16. Bacidina phacodes (Körb.) Vězda 17. Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd 18. Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb. 19. Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Th. Fr. 20. Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. 21. Caloplaca pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta 22. Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr. 23. Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau 24. Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau 25. Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon 26. Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. 27. Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng. 28. Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. 29. Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. 30. Collema conglomeratum Hoffm. 31. Collema fasciculare (L.) Weber ex F. H. Wigg. 32. Collema furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz 33. Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC. f. nigrescens 34. Collema subflaccidum Degel. 35. Collema subnigrescens Degel. 36. Dendrographa decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Ertz & Tehler (morphotype decolorans) 37. Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. 38. Dirina ceratoniae (Ach.) Fr. 39. Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée 40. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. (chemotype prunastri) 41. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. (chemotype herinii) 42. Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale 43. Flavoparmelia soredians (Nyl.) Hale 44. Fuscopannaria mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. 45. Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. 46. Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt 47. Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. 48. Lecanora allophana Nyl. (morphotype allophana) 49. Lecanora carpinea (L.) Vain. 50. Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. subsp. chlarotera f. chlarotera 51. Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. subsp. chlarotera f. crassula (H. Magn.) Poelt 52. Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. subsp. chlarotera f. rugosella (Zahlbr.) Poelt 53. Lecanora expallens Ach. 54. Lecanora glabrata (Ach.) Malme 55. Lecanora hagenii (Ach.) Ach. (morphotype hagenii) 56. Lecanora horiza (Ach.) Linds. 57. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. (chemotype pulicaris) 58. Lecidea exigua Chaub. 59. Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy (chemotype elaeochroma) 60. Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) M. Choisy (chemotype euphorea) 61. Lepraria incana (L.) Ach. 62. Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl. 63. Melanelixia glabratula (Lamy) Sandler & Arup 64. Naetrocymbe punctiformis (Pers.) R. C. Harris 65. Nephroma laevigatum Ach. 66. Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach.

5 364 Lamia Boutabia et al, Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl. 68. Ochrolechia balcanica Vers. 69. Ochrolechia turneri (Sm.) Hasselr. 70. Opegrapha celtidicola (Jatta) Jatta 71. Opegrapha niveoatra (Borrer) J. R. Laundon 72. Opegrapha vulgata Ach. 73. Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach. s.l. 74. Parmelia sulcata Taylor s.l. 75. Parmelina carporrhizans (Taylor) Poelt & Vězda 76. Parmelina quercina (Willd.) Hale 77. Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.) Hale s.l. 78. Parmeliopsis ambigua (Wulfen) Nyl. 79. Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold (morphotype hyperopta) 80. Parmotrema hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale 81. Parmotrema perlatum (Huds.) M. Choisy 82. Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) M. Choisy 83. Parmotrema robustum (Degel.) Hale 84. Pertusaria albescens (Huds.) M. Choisy & Werner (morphotype albescens) 85. Pertusaria albescens (Huds.) M. Choisy & Werner (morphotype corallina) 86. Pertusaria amara (Ach.) Nyl. var. amara 87. Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. 88. Pertusaria flavida (DC.) J. R. Laundon 89. Pertusaria hymenea (Ach.) Schaer. 90. Pertusaria leioplaca DC. 91. Pertusaria pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. 92. Phaeophyscia hirsuta (Mereschk.) Essl. 93. Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Neck.) Moberg 94. Phlyctis agelaea (Ach.) Flot. 95. Phlyctis argena (Spreng.) Flot. 96. Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier 97. Physcia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr. 98. Physcia biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. var. biziana 99. Physcia clementei (Turner) Lynge 100. Physcia leptalea (Ach.) DC Physcia stellaris (L.) Nyl. (morpho. stellaris) 102. Physcia tenella (Scop.) DC Physconia distorta (With.) J. R. Laundon var. distorta 104. Physconia enteroxantha (Nyl.) Poelt 105. Physconia grisea (Lam.) Poelt subsp. grisea 106. Physconia perisidiosa (Erichsen) Moberg 107. Porina aenea (Wallr.) Zahlbr Punctelia borreri (Sm.) Krog 109. Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog 110. Pyrenula chlorospila (Nyl.) Arnold 111. Pyrrhospora quernea (Dicks.) Körb Ramalina canariensis J. Steiner 113. Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. (chemotype farinacea) 114. Ramalina fastigiata (Pers.) Ach Ramalina fraxinea (L.) Ach. (morphotype fraxinea) 116. Ramalina fraxinea (L.) Ach. (morphotype luxurians) 117. Ramalina lacera (With.) J. R. Laundon 118. Ramalina pusilla Le Prev. ex Duby 119. Rinodina exigua (Ach.) Gray 120. Rinodina pruinella Bagl Rinodina pyrina (Ach.) Arnold 122. Schismatomma dirinellum (Nyl.) Zahlbr Scytinium lichenoides (L.) Otálora, P. M. Jørg. & Wedin 124. Staurolemma omphalarioides (Anzi) P. M. Jørg. et Henssen 125. Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (L.) Th. Fr.

6 365 Lamia Boutabia et al, Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner var. torulosa (Flot.) Hafellner 127. Thelopsis isiaca Stizenb Tuckermanopsis chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale 129. Usnea ceratina Ach Usnea fulvoreagens (Räsänen) Räsänen 131. Usnea glabrescens (Nyl. ex Vain.) Vain Usnea rubicunda Stirt Varicellaria hemisphaerica (Flörke) Schmitt & Lumbsch 134. Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. subsp. parietina 135. Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Rieber Systematic spectrum of lichen taxa sampled at the site of study: The 135 species belong to 25 families. The most prominent are the Parmeliaceae with 24 species, the Physciaceae with 22 species, the Lecanoraceae, Pertusariaceae and Ramalinaceae each with 11 species (Fig. 3). Fig. 3: Systematic spectrum of lichen taxa observed in the cork oak forest at the wetlands of El Kala National Park. Physionomic spectrum of lichen taxa sampled at the site of study: An examination of the lichens list reveals that all physiognomic of the categories are represented among the phorophyte at each of the study stations. According to figure 4, the category of crustose lichens is the most significantly represented numerous at the study site, having 69 species, followed by leafy the foliose lichens, having 37 species. The category of squamulose lichen has only 1single species. Fig. 4: Physiognomic spectrum of the lichen taxa observed in the cork oak forest at the wetlands of El Kala National Park. Statistical analysis: In order to be able to get a better grasp of the interactions that might exist between the lichens and the bryophytes, that is, between inter-category lichens and lichens and the diameter of the given phorophyte, a

7 366 Lamia Boutabia et al, 2015 statistical analysis is clearly indispensable. To this end, correlation matrices were used in the current project. These allow for a characterization of the lichen flora at the different stations studied. Correlations: The results related to the correlations between the bryolichen cover and phorophyte diameter are found in the table below. Table 1: Correlations between the bryolichen cover and the diameter of the phorophyte at the study sites. Lichens Bryophytes / / Site Diameter of the Phorophyte Diameter of the Phorophyte Site 1 Lake Tonga Site 2 Lake Oubeïra Site 3 Lake Mellah Station 1 Feid M Rad Station 2 Ain T Bib Station 1 Boumerchène Station 2 El Ach Lahmer Station 1 L Frine Station 2 El Malha ** (F.S.) 0.751* (F.S.) *** (F.E) 0.868** (F.N) ** (F.N.) 0.823** (F.S.) *** (F.E.) 0.945*** (F.W.) *** (F.S.) 0.658* (F.W.) *** (F.W.) - According to the above table 3, it is clear that in the six stations present a correlation between the lichen cover and phorophyte diameter. To this end, there is a significant negative correlation between the lichen and the diameter of the phorophyte, where r = *, observed on the Eastern side, at site 1. On the other hand, the bryophytes present a significant correlation vis-à-vis diameter at the same site and vis-à-vis the same phorophyte. This explains the concurrence with respect to the space between the lichen and the bryophytes, that is when one of these increases, the other decreases. Table 2: Significant correlations between the bryolichen cover and inter-category lichen covers for the phorophyte at the study stations. Crustose Lichen Lichen Foliose Lichen / / / Site Foliose Lichen Bryophyte Fruticose lichen Site 1 Lake Tonga Site 2 Lake Oubeïra Site 3 Lake Mellah Station 1 Feid M Rad Station 2 Ain T Bib - -1 *** (The four sides) Station 1 Boumerchène - Station 2 El Ach Lahmer Station 1 L Frine - -1 *** (The four sides) Station 2 El Malha - -1 *** (The four sides) *** (F.S.) *** (F.E.) *** (F.W.) *** (F.N.) *** (F.S.) *** (F.E.) *** (F.W.) *** (F.N.) *** (F.S.) *** (F.E.) *** (F.W.) * (F.N.) 0.699* (F.S.) *** (The four sides) *** (F.N.) *** (F.S.) *** (F.E.) *** (F.W.) Based on the calculated correlation matrices, as related to the samples taken from the six study stations, the obtained results indicate that there is a very significant high correlation between the bryophyte cover and the lichen cover on the phorophyte at the station 2 of Lake Tonga and station 1 of Lake Mellah, r = ***, whereby, the more the first increases, the greater the decrease in the second and vice-versa, this observable regardless of the side of the forest sampled. In addition, the same results are obtained for the cover across the different categories of lichen, in particular among the foliose lichen and the crustose lichen, where the correlation between the two categories is negative, and very highly significant, r always tending to be 1 ****. - -

8 367 Lamia Boutabia et al, 2015 Significant correlations were also observed as existing between the foliose lichen and fruticose lichen, but only at station 1 of Lake Oubeïra. Discussion: One hundred thirty-five lichen species were surveyed in the study region. A number of the lichen taxa surveyed at the six stations were found on Quercus suber. Zedda [53] inventoried 168 lichen species on the same phorophyte in Sardinia. Our study s findings are similar. The total numbers were compared with those of lichenologists working in Algeria. The number of corticolous lichen taxa surveyed on Quercus suber in this study is much higher than that of those surveyed on the same phorophyte by Nylander [5] (5 species), Flagey [12] (11 species), Faurel et al. [17, 19, 20, 22] (16, 6, 5 and 5 species, respectively), Torrento and Egea [36, 37] (1 and 1 species), Van Haluwyn et al. [29] (32 species) and Alonso and Egea [35] (18 species). It is important to mention that, of the 135 species surveyed, only 67 were found by any of the abovementioned lichenologists; the remaining 68 species were found on cork oak through this study. Our findings were also compared with those of lichenologists who studied the epiphytic lichens of Quercus suber in Kroumirie, Tunisia, which borders our study region. Our inventory is larger than the Tunisian inventory. Thirty species of corticolous lichens are cited by Pitard and Bouly de Lesdain [75] and El Mokni et al. [76, 77, 78] and the other 105 species of lichen surveyed were not found on cork oaks in Tunisia. Lichen surveys in Morocco consist merely of lists of species. The location of the stations is often imprecise, and there is no ecological or sociological information about the stands. For example, only fifty or so species of epiphytic lichens found on cork oak have been reported [79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84]. The largest family of lichens is Parmeliaceae, with 24 species, followed by Physciaceae with 22 species. This corroborates the findings of Zedda [53] and Sipman [64], who explains in his study of lichens on oaks in neotropical mountain areas, that mountainous regions with heavy rainfall and moderate temperatures like our site are favoured by these two families of lichens, in particular the genera Parmotrema and Physcia. Also, the lichen landscapes on Quercus suber contain a large number of foliose lichens in the genus Parmelia of the family Parmeliaceae. Fos et al. [56], Van Haluwyn et al. [29] and El Mokni et al. [78] made the same observation, indicating that most of the species in the genus require very specific climatic conditions, in particular abundant moisture and plenty of sunshine. This confirms our findings at most of our stations. With respect to the family of Collemataceae, an indicator of abundant moisture [50], the genera Collema and Leptogium are far more common at the stations in Lake Mellah. This can be explained by the abundant moisture in this wetland and its proximity to the sea. Also, it should be noted that station 1 at this site is located away from shoreline dwellings, and is therefore not affected by grazing, a situation that enabled the abovementioned gelatinous lichens to thrive. This finding is consistent with those of Zedda [53] and Paz-Bermudez et al. [58] which indicate that lichens bearing cyanobacteria are found only in well-preserved forests. To corroborate, Anaptychia cilaris only appears on old phorophytes at this station. This proves that the station has not been disturbed, since this species of lichen is highly sensitive to any environmental disturbance [85]. All morphological types are represented on the phorophyte studied. Crustose lichens dominate the flora surveyed, representing 51.1%, followed by foliose lichens, representing 27.4%. Boqueras and Gómez-Bolea [41] in their study of epiphytic lichens on Quercus suber in Catalonia (Spain), Zedda [53] in his study of epiphytic lichens on Quercus in Sardinia (Italy), and Oran and Öztürk [65] in their study of the diversity of epiphytic lichens on Quercus cerris and Quercus frainetto in Marmara (Turkey), have the same result. The substrate also has an impact on the establishment and distribution of lichens. Our study takes into account the circumference of the phorophyte. Our findings show that circumference plays an important role in the number of lichen taxa, as well as in coverage. The greater the phorophyte s circumference, the greater the lichen coverage. Phorophytes with a circumference of more than 1 m demonstrate unique epiphytic richness, comprising every morphological type mentioned above. Nascimbene et al. [86] demonstrated the effect of the phorophyte s age and circumference on the diversity of lichens. They also report that the size of the trees, which is relatively easy to measure, is an appropriate structural indicator, while lichen coverage could be another appropriate biological indicator. Also, Johansson et al. [87] mentions that older trees should be richer in lichens and accommodate a more heterogeneous collection of species than immature and mature trees. This is consistent with Scheidegger and Clerc [88], who emphasized the importance of old trees for the preservation of epiphytic lichens on the Swiss Red List. For example, the rarity and potentially threatened status of many epiphytic lichens could be could be attributed to an insufficient number of very old trees in the forests. The side of the phorophyte s trunk was taken into consideration as a second substrate-related factor. In our variance analysis, we found that the side of the tree has an influence on lichen coverage. This could be caused by differences in exposure to light and moisture of the lichens in each area of vegetation. These findings are consistent with those of Crespo et al. [89], who indicates in their study that the distribution of lichen communities changes with the amount of light and shade, as well as those of Hernandez Gallego et al. [90], who

9 368 Lamia Boutabia et al, 2015 found a difference in lichen diversity between the north and south sides of a tree depending on the amount of light and the surrounding trees in the forests studied. It is well known that factors such as bark texture, water retention capacity, and bark chemistry affect the distribution of lichens on trees [91]. Similarly, the availability of moisture from the tree trunks affects the diversity and distribution of corticolous lichen communities [92]. For this reason, Quercus suber trunks that are covered with moss are colonized by certain humicolous species such as Nephroma resupinatum and Normandina pulchella, which grow in wet woodlands. These two species of lichen have been found at only one station: Ain T Bib (station 2 at Lake Tonga), which is known for its old phorophytes covered with bryophytes, lichens and sometimes even pteridophytes. Zedda [53] also recorded these species on trunks of old Quercus pubescens. Moreover, in their biogeographical study of epiphytic lichens in Calabria in Southern Italy, Incerti and Nimis [54], reports that the species Lecidella elaeochroma, Lecanora chlarotera, Pertusaria amara and Flavoparmelia caperata have a wide ecological range and are the most common on Quercus suber, while others, such as Phlyctis argena, are less frequent and indicate high humidity. This is corroborated by our study s findings. The depth of the bark crevices is an important factor in the distribution of corticolous species [93, 94]. We found that the bark texture of old Quercus suber subjects is thick and spongy, while that of younger individuals is rough and fissured. Consequently, some crustose lichens grow in cracks of the bark, and others grow on the surface; foliose and fruticulose lichens prefer to be on the surface of the bark. These findings corroborate with those of Rose [95] and Oran and Öztürk [65]. Oak bark is moderately acidic [50]. Consequently, nitrophilous lichens are rarely found on oak tree trunks [96]. Several studies have shown that agriculture and grazing add to the eutrophication of substrates, which causes an increase in the number of nitrophilous species in lichen communities [97, 98, 99, 100]. Several nitrophilous genera, including Parmelia, Parmelina, Phaeophyscia, Physcia, Physconia, Rinodina and Xanthoria, were frequently observed in the study region. This corroborates the findings of Camarda and Zedda [52], Carvalho et al. [101] and Ribeiro et al. [102]. Conclusion : From a floristics point of view, 135 taxa were identified, which is very representative of the biodiversity of corticolous lichens on Quercus suber. This floristic richness is confirmed by the number of lichen species surveyed, compared with the inventories of our predecessors in both Algeria and Tunisia. This inventory allows the value of forest biodiversity layout that is biased by a recurring shortcoming cryptogams are totally ignored as they are an important species richness. Also, it would have to multiply this kind of study on various types of phorophytes order to make comparisons between lichen groups and phanerogamic groups on a sufficiently large area, to determine a possible correlation. The interest of this study is to highlight the importance of lichen diversity in Algeria and contribute to the enrichment of "Cheek-list" of Maghreb and Mediterranean lichen species. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Upon completion of this work, we would like to thank Dr Claude Roux, retired lichenologist CNRS, Laboratory of Mediterranean Botany and Ecology, Mediterranean Institute of Ecology and Paleoecology, Faculty of Science and Technology of Saint-Jérôme, Marseille, for introducing me to the techniques for identifying lichens. We also thank Dr Luciana Zedda, co-founder and CEO of the company BIO-Diverse at Institute for Biodiversity Network of Bonn, Dr Errol Vela, Lecturer at the University of Montpellier 2 and Dr Esteve Llop, Assistant Professor at the University of Barcelona, for their help. To them we express our profound gratitude. REFERENCES [1] Nylander, W., Lichenes algérienses. Novi. Ann. Scien. Nat. Bot. Ser., 20(3): [2] Nylander, W., Etudes sur les lichens de l'algérie. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, 2: [3] Nylander, W., Prodromus lichenographie Galliae et algeriae. Actes de la Société linneenne de Bordeaux, 3 ème ser., 1: [4] Nylander, W., Enumération générale des lichens, avec l'indication sommaire de leur distribution géographique. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, 5: [5] Nylander, W., Symbolae quaedam ad lichenographiam Sahariensem. Flora (Regensburg), 61:

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