IMMIGRANT EDUCATION IN LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS 2010

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1 Janica Anderzén IMMIGRANT EDUCATION IN LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS 2010 Publications 2012:5 1

2 Publications 2012:5 Janica Anderzén IMMIGRANT EDUCATION IN LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS 2010

3 Finnish National Board of Education and Finnish Association of Adult Education Centres (Kol) Publications 2012:5 ISBN (pdf) Translation: Lingoneer Oy Layout: Edita Prima Oy

4 CONTENTS Foreword Introduction Report background and goals Liberal adult education and various institutional forms Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions Report progress and results summary Report execution and structure Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey Immigrant students at liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey Immigrant students by form of education Immigrant percentage of the total number of students Immigrant students by native language Immigrant participation in non-immigrant instruction offered by educational institutions Self-motivated study aimed at immigrants General observations on educational offering Self-motivated study by various institutional form Educational content Adult education centres Folk high schools Summer universities and study centres Other educational/funding forms Labour market oriented education Educational offering: general observations and observations related to various institutional forms Educational content Municipally-funded integration training for immigrants Educational offering: general observations and observations related to various institutional forms Educational content Made-to-order or personnel training Educational offering: general observations and observations related to various institutional forms Educational content Education provided with project funding Educational offering: general observations and observations related to various institutional forms Educational content Other education aimed at immigrants

5 4.5.1 Educational offering: general observations and observations related to various institutional forms Educational content Study voucher aid National language instruction (S2/R2) and general language proficiency examinations Instruction in national languages General language certifications and related preparatory S2/R2 education Preparatory S2/R2 education for general language certifications General language certification (S2/R2) examinations Co-operation, immigrant education resources and the future Co-operation with other actors Immigrant education resources Materials in use Participation in and the need for supplementary training The future of immigrant education in educational institutions Recommendations, comments Sources Appendix 1: Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions 2010 survey form Appendix 2: Liberal adult education institutions which received the survey Appendix 3: Liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey* and their respective fields

6 Foreword Immigrant participation in liberal adult education has grown in recent years. However, no previous studies on immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions have been conducted. The study is also topical due to the fact the new Act on Liberal Adult Education (1765/2009) states that a new goal of liberal adult education is to promote the realisation of multiculturalism. The study was conducted by the Finnish Association of Adult Education Centres (KoL) at the behest of the Finnish National Board of Education. The purpose of the study was to gain an overview of what kind of educational range aimed at immigrants is available at liberal adult education institutions. The study comprehended the year The study demonstrates that immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions is significant. Some immigrants are studying within the field of liberal adult education on their own, whereas others are participating in labour market oriented, municipal, made-to-order or project-funded education. The National Board of Education hopes that the study is of benefit to parties in the liberal adult education field and those responsible for the integration of immigrants. Jorma Kauppinen Director 5

7 1. Introduction 1.1 Report background and goals The number of immigrants in Finland is growing steadily, and authorities and others are working to find solutions that meet their needs, such as education. Where the education of adult immigrants is concerned, liberal adult education institutions play a key role, emphasised during the liberal adult education policy guideline period. This role is most likely to be further developed by the new Act on Integration and Reception of Asylum Seekers of September In addition to this, the Liberal Adult Education Development Programme places an emphasis on the participation of groups underrepresented in adult education, such as immigrants, in liberal adult education. At the behest of the Finnish National Board of Education, the Finnish Association of Adult Education Centres (KoL) conducted a study which charted the educational offering aimed at immigrants in liberal adult education institutions as well as immigrant participation in courses. The purpose of the study was to gain an overview of the quantity, scope and funding of the educational offering in The need for the study was based on the fact that there was previously no equivalent current and comparable data available. The study was conducted in January 2011 in the form of an online survey. The survey was sent by to liberal adult education institutions which had received state funding at the time of the study. The survey was sent to 199 adult education centres, 85 folk high schools, 21 summer universities, 11 study centres and 11 sport institutes. Of these, a total of 140 institutions (43%) responded to the survey. This report was drafted based on the feedback received, examining similarities and differences in immigrant education at liberal adult education institutions and between them. 1.2 Liberal adult education and various institutional forms In accordance with the principle of lifelong learning, the purpose of liberal adult education is to promote the multifaceted development and welfare of people as well as democracy, pluralism, sustainable development, multiculturalism and internationalism in Finnish society. Liberal adult education is not degree-oriented, nor is its content regulated by law Instead, educational goals and content are decided upon by the administrators of educational institutions and organisations: municipalities, joint municipal authorities, associations, foundations or corporations. Supporting organisations may represent various worldviews or religious convictions or base their operations on local and regional educational needs. 6

8 Liberal adult education comprehends general studies, studies oriented toward areas of personal interest, and social studies. Studies vary from evening instruction to full-time short-term or intensive courses. Folk high schools place an emphasis on long-term, informal studies, primarily lasting one academic year. Each year, nearly one million people participate in liberal adult education studies. Liberal adult education institutions are: XX Adult education centres, a majority of which are municipally owned adult education institutions, with the remainder being privately owned. Instruction is available in each municipality, in many cases with operations distributed throughout the municipality. The focus of education is on various fields of art, handicrafts and languages, and courses are held in the evening, on weekends, as intensive courses, multiform studies and online courses. The most common form of instruction is a group meeting 1 2 times a week. Institutions also offer open-university studies. XX Folk high schools, which are national boarding schools. A majority of the folk high schools are administered by various associations and foundations. As a rule, folk high schools provide long-term education, with study programmes usually lasting a full academic year. They also offer courses of varying lengths in the summer and on weekends. Folk high schools provide selfmotivated instruction in general studies and for certain vocations. Many folk high schools also offer comprehensive-school, general upper secondary and vocational education and training. They also offer open-university studies. XX Summer universities, which are administered by regional associations and some joint municipal authorities. These are regional education organisations providing, among others, open-university studies, vocational supplementary education, language training, labour market oriented adult education and short-term, informal education. They also offer university-level art and culture courses, seminars and events, Studia Generalia lectures and University of the Third Age studies. Vocational education is provided either as self-motivated study or personnel training arranged for by an employer. Summer universities also offer apprenticeship training. Summer university operations are distributed, using the facilities of other educational institutions throughout the year. X X Study centres, which are private adult education centres administered by educational organisations. Half of the support organisations for study centres are comprised of political parties and trade unions, while the remainder are independent NGOs. The educational offering is formed based on the ideals of the respective supporting organisations. Study groups operate in study clubs, as small group study, research study clubs and Internet clubs. Study centre courses do not lead to any degree, but rather are intended to help people develop their own competences or that of their organisa- 7

9 tion through study. Study centres are often decentralised, serving an operating area in an assistive capacity. Study centres also offer hobby-related activities and educational organisations host a variety of cultural activities. XX Sport institutes, which offer informal education for youths and adults as well as basic and supplementary vocational training. These also serve as training centres for athletes. 1.3 Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions Immigrants are a heterogeneous group, and their educational needs and goals vary. An increasing number of adult immigrants are applying to become students at liberal adult education institutions. The role that these play is emphasised particularly in municipalities that do not offer labour market oriented adult education or where the labour administration cannot meet demand. The reasons for engaging in study vary according to the immigrants backgrounds and life situations. A large number of the immigrants studying in liberal adult education institutions are not jobseekers in employment offices. On the other hand, an increase in the amount of self-motivated and parallel studies has also introduced more labour administration clients to the sphere of adult education. The Liberal Adult Education Development Programme places an emphasis on the involvement of underrepresented citizen groups, such as immigrants, in liberal adult education. Educational institutions have at their disposal various forms of education and funding, by means of which they can meet the educational needs of adult immigrants: X X Integration training for immigrants is education intended for adult immigrants who fall within the purview of the Act on Integration and Reception of Asylum Seekers. The purpose of this training is to integrate immigrants into Finnish society. The labour administration bears primary responsibility for the integration of working age immigrants. The integration of immigrants outside the labour force is taken care of at the municipal level. Integration training includes instruction in Finnish or Swedish, social studies, everyday life skills, cultural knowledge and guidance for the workplace and in choosing a profession. With enactment of the Act on Integration and Reception of Asylum Seekers in 2011, the number of immigrants entitled to integration services has increased. In addition, responsibilities are more widely shared among authorities and other actors. X X Labour market oriented adult education is instruction intended for those registered as jobseekers at employment offices funded by the labour administration. Where immigrants are concerned, this is closely linked with integration training. Immigrants may also receive financial aid for employ- 8

10 ment-related education in cases where they are not participating in labour market oriented adult education (= support for self-motivated study). XX Self-motivated study is any form of education intended for immigrants that is not labour market oriented adult education. Self-motivated study is funded by educational authorities and provided in accordance with the state-aid system. In some cases, self-motivated study can be co-ordinated with labour market oriented adult education. This requires that the education provided promotes integration of the immigrant and access to the labour market. XX Made-to-order or personnel training is one form of funding, with which liberal adult education institutions can provide immigrant training. For example, a municipality or private company may order the training services. XX It is also possible to apply for funding for immigrant education from, for example, the European Social Fund (ESF), educational authorities or other sources of funding. The type of funding makes it possible to provide many different forms of instruction. X X A study voucher is a form of student financial aid whose goal is to facilitate the participation of certain target groups, such as immigrants, in liberal adult education. The study voucher allows the education provider to reduce or entirely eliminate tuition fees. 9

11 2. Report progress and results summary 2.1 Report execution and structure The Immigrant Education in Liberal Adult Education Institutions 2010 survey was conducted online (see Appendix 1) in early The survey was drafted in cooperation with the Finnish National Board of Education, with comments from various liberal adult education actors sought during the planning phase. The technical execution of the survey form was done using the Webropol survey application. At the beginning of January 2011, the survey was sent out to liberal adult education institutions that received statutory government contribution funding during the survey drafting and distribution period (see section 2.2 and Appendix 2). Institutions were sent a reminder at the end of January and the survey submission deadline was set at the end of February. Responses were supplemented by elaborative questions. The survey form contained both quantitative and qualitative questions, all presented in Finnish and Swedish. The form first asked for basic information on the institution (number of instruction hours, number of full-time and part-time teachers, number of students and immigrant percentage of the total student body). This was followed by sections addressing the scope and content of immigrant education offered by the institution by each form of education or funding (see section 1.3).These were divided in the survey as follows: XX self-motivated study X X education provided with other funding and study voucher aid. { labour market oriented education { municipally-funded integration training for immigrants { made-to-order and personnel training { education provided with project funding { other education aimed at immigrants { study voucher aid In the language section of the survey form, institutions were asked to explain their Finnish/Swedish as a second language instruction (hereinafter referred to as S2/R2 instruction) in detail as well as any general language proficiency examinations and related preparatory S2/R2 instruction. In the section on immigrants, respondents were asked to provide information on the languages used by the immigrants participating in education as well as their participation in other courses at the institution. Institutions were also asked to explain in which languages they communicate on their courses. In the last section of the survey, institutions were asked to list any local and/or regional partners. They were also asked to provide information on the current 10

12 capacity (materials, supplementary teacher training) of immigrant education as well as future needs. Respondents were also given the opportunity to provide any suggestions, wishes or other comments regarding immigrant education. Subsections 2.2 and 2.3 contain a brief summary of information obtained from the immigrant education and students at liberal adult education institutions survey. Otherwise, the report primarily follows the order of the survey form. In presenting the responses, various forms of institutions are compared and attention is given to differences and/or similarities in terms of, for example, the size and location of each institution. The internal differences and/or similarities of the various institutional forms are also mentioned whenever necessary. As each institution is given an opportunity to voice their views in the report, each section contains direct quotes from the survey responses. During the drafting of the report, it became evident that some of the concepts used (see above) were not completely understood by some of the institutions responding to the survey. Every effort was made to minimise the number of incorrect responses by sending elaborative questions to these institutions. In spite of this measure, some degree of redundancy may be encountered in the responses. Another matter pertaining to the generalisability of survey results involves the survey response activity of each institution (see section 2.2.). The response rate of summer universities, study centres and sports institutes remained rather low, which compromises the generalisability of responses by these institutions. As emphasised in several parts of the report, the results obtained should be examined as indicative, not as precise statistical data, particularly where the abovementioned institutional forms are concerned. 2.2 Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey The survey was sent to 199 adult education centres, 85 folk high schools, 21 summer universities, 11 study centres and 11 sports institutes that received state funding during the drafting and distribution of the survey ( oph. fi/asiakkaat/rahoitus/yh11.html#lu). The survey was taken by 96 adult education centres (48%), 34 folk high schools (40%), 5 summer universities (24%), 3 study centres (27%) and 2 sports institutes (18%). The total number of institutions responding to the survey was 140 and total response percentage was 43%. A list of institutions that received and responded to the survey can be found in Appendices 2 and 3. A wide variety of institutions from all over Finland was represented among the liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey. A great deal of variation was also found in education geared toward immigrants: in some institutions it was fully integrated into the course offering, whereas in others it was minimal or only in its preliminary stages. 11

13 All summer universities and study centres responding to the survey offered some type of immigrant education. The corresponding figure for adult education centres was 78 (81%) and folk high schools 25 (74%). Neither of the sports institutes offered any sort of immigrant education. Table 1 lists the number of immigrant education hours and courses as well as the number of students participating in education. The data is categorised according to form of education (see 1.3) and institutional form. The table shows responses concerning each form of education only from those institutions which offer immigrant education and have listed its number of hours and/or participants. Various forms of education and funding as well as immigrant language training are discussed in greater detail in sections 3, 4 and 5. Table 1. Immigrant education in liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey in 2010 and students participating according to form of education. Self-motivated study hours of instruction N students N Adult education centres 32, , Folk high schools 30, , Summer universities 1, Study centres 1, Sports institutes - - Total 65, , Labour market oriented education Adult education centres 43, , Folk high schools 4, Summer universities 1, Study centres - - Sports institutes - - Total 49, , Municipally-funded integration training for immigrants Adult education centres 5, Folk high schools Summer universities - - Study centres - - Sports institutes - - Total 5,

14 Made-to-order or personnel training Adult education centres Folk high schools Summer universities - - Study centres - - Sports institutes - - Total 1, Education provided with project funding Adult education centres 2, Folk high schools Summer universities Study centres Sports institutes - - Total 3, Other education aimed at immigrants Adult education centres Folk high schools 2, Summer universities - - Study centres - - Sports institutes - - Total 2, Combined total 128,905 16,919 Table 2. Total number of hours for immigrant education and total number of participating students in responding institutions, according to form of education hours of instruction students Adult education centres 85,451 13,995 Folk high schools 39,320 1,450 Summer universities 2, Study centres 1, Sports institutes - - Total 128,905 16,919 In 2010, a total of 128,905 hours of instruction were provided to immigrants in responding institutions. A total of 16,919 students participated in education. The figures, however, are indicative, as a portion of the respondents provided an estimate of the number of hours of instruction and students. Furthermore, some institutions only listed the number of hours of instructions or number of students. 13

15 Self-motivated study was the key form of education aimed at immigrants in liberal adult education institutions in 2010, both in terms of the number of hours of instruction and number of students. Self-motivated study accounted for approximately half of the number of hours of instruction in immigrant education. The percentage of participants was approximately 71% of all the immigrant students participating in the above-mentioned forms of education (see Figure 2). With the exception of sports institutes, all types of institutions provide self-motivated study. This form of education represented a large percentage, particularly at adult education centres: in terms of the number of hours of instruction, it accounted for approximately 78% of the immigrant education provided. 80% of students engaged in immigrant education participated in self-motivated study. Figure 1. Division of immigrant education according to various forms of education/funding at liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey in % 3 % 1 % 4 % Self-motivated study Labour market oriented education 39 % 51 % Municipally-funded integration training for immigrants Made-to-order or personnel training Education provided with project funding Other education aimed at immigrants Labour market oriented education accounted for approximately 39% of all immigrant education and approximately 15% of the participants in it. At adult education centres, labour market oriented education was absolutely and relatively the most significant form of education. It comprehended approximately 50% of their immigrant education offering in terms of the number of hours of instruction. This was also the most significant form of education listed by summer universities responding to the survey (approximately 48% of all immigrant education). Study centres and sports institutes did not provide any labour market oriented education whatsoever. 14

16 Municipally-funded integration training was offered at six adult education centres and one folk high school. The number of hours of instruction provided by the institution accounted for approximately 4% of all immigrant education and approximately 5% of all students. Likewise, there was not very much made-toorder or personnel training provided (approximately 1% of all immigrant education), and it was only offered at a few of the adult education centres and folk high school responding to the survey. With the exception of sports institutes, all institutions provided immigrant education using project funding. Course offerings provided with this type of funding comprised approximately 3% of all immigrant education; participation in this form of education accounted for approximately 6% of all students participating in the forms of education mentioned above. Other education geared toward immigrants was also offered by adult education centres and folk high schools. This form of education accounted for approximately 2% of all immigrant education. This represented approximately 1% of the participants. 2.3 Immigrant students at liberal adult education institutions responding to the survey Immigrant students by form of education According to survey data obtained, a majority of the immigrant students participated in self-motivated study aimed at immigrants (see Figure 2). This represents approximately 72% of all students engaged in immigrant education at institutions responding to the survey. The next largest group of immigrants participated in labour market oriented education (approximately 15%). The figure for other forms of education/funding ranged between 1 and 6%. However, it should be emphasised that these figures are indicative, as some of the institutions provided estimates of student numbers and others provided no numbers at all. The relative percentage of students participating in self-motivated study compared to other forms of education/funding was high, particularly in adult education centres, summer universities and study centres. Immigrant students participating in labour market oriented education were primarily attending adult education centres. (see table 1) 15

17 Figure 2. Immigrant student participation in various forms of education at liberal adult education institutions in % 2 % 6 % 1 % Self-motivated study Labour market oriented education 15 % 71 % Municipally-funded integration training for immigrants Made-to-order or personnel training Education provided with project funding Other education aimed at immigrants Immigrant percentage of the total number of students The survey asked institutions to estimate what percentage of the total student body was comprised of immigrants. Of all the institutions surveyed, 37% estimated that 1-3% of the total student body was comprised of immigrants in 2010 (see Figure 3). 26% of the institutions surveyed stated that less than 1% of their students were immigrants. Figures at the extreme ends of the spectrum show that 6% of the institutions surveyed had no immigrant students whatsoever, while at 11% of the institutions one out every ten students was an immigrant. Folk high schools had the highest variation in the percentage of immigrant students (see Table 2). Of the folk high schools surveyed, 16% (N=5) had no immigrant students whatsoever in 2010, whereas 39% (N=12) had over 10%. The latter group includes the Savonlinna Christian College (60 70% of the students in degree programmes are immigrants), Lärkkulla Folk Academy, Language and Music Programmes (60%), Evangelical Folk High School of Southern Finland (42%), Pohjola-opisto (40%) and Jamilahti Folk High School (39%). The Porvoo Adult Education Centre and Posio Adult Education Centre put the number of immigrant students in proportion to the number immigrants within their respective districts. The Porvoo Adult Education Centre explained that approximately 5% of its students were immigrants, whereas immigrants accounted for 3% of the population of Porvoo. Approximately 10 immigrants currently live in Posio. 2-3 of these are students at the Adult Education Centre. 16

18 It should be emphasised that the percentages of immigrant students are indicative and based on estimates made by the institutions. Furthermore, some institutions listed the figure based on the gross total number of students and others on the net total. In addition to this, not all institutions had a separate statistic on the number of immigrant students in attendance. Table 3. Student body percentage of immigrant students in institutions responding to the survey, according to form of education. percentage of immigrant students Adult education centres (N=89) Folk high schools (N=33) Study centres (N=3) Sports institutes (N=2) Summer universities (N=5) Total (N) Total (%) under 1% % % % over 10% No data Total Figure 3. Student body percentage of immigrant students in institutions responding to the survey, all forms of education 4 % 11 % 2 % 6 % 26 % 0 under 1% 14 % 1-3 % 4-7 % 8-10 % over 10 % No data 37 % 17

19 2.3.3 Immigrant students by native language In the immigrants section of the survey, the institutions were asked to indicate what immigrants belonging to each language group were studying in At adult education centres responding to the survey (N=72), the five most mentioned languages were Russian (N=67), Estonian (N=42), Thai (N=41), German (N=38) and English (N=37). Also at folk high schools (N=23), Russian-speaking students represented the largest language group: they studied at 19 folk high schools. Students speaking Arabic (N=16), Thai (N=14), Somali (N=13), Spanish (N=13) and Kurdish (N=13) also studied at several folk high schools. Four summer universities, all of which had Russian-speaking students, responded to the question. There were Chinese speaking students at three institutions, Italian speaking students at two, Thai speaking at two, and German speaking at two. Two of the study centres responded to the question. Both had Somali speaking students, in addition to which Russian, Estonian and Farsi were also mentioned. Sports institutes did not respond to the question. On the survey form it was also possible to list other language groups, whose representatives studied at the institutions in The responses listed several European (e.g. Greek, Czech, Croatian, Bulgarian, Danish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian), African (e.g. Yoruba, Swahili) and Asian (e.g. Burmese, Japanese, Persian, Nepali, Sinhala, Tamil, Pashtu) languages as well as the official language of Israel, Hebrew. Many institutions gave consideration to immigrants speaking different languages when providing information to them. Many institutions provided information on immigrant education in Finnish and/or Swedish as well as English and/or Russian and, in some cases, German or Estonian. Individual institutions also provided information in other languages. Many mentioned that guidance/information was available in different languages, depending on the language skills of personnel. Some explained that information was provided through authorities working with immigrants. It should be noted that not a single institution stated that they provided information on immigrant education in, for example, Thai or Somali Immigrant participation in non-immigrant instruction offered by educational institutions Institutions were asked to indicate whether immigrant students took courses not intended for immigrants. If precise data was not available, a rough estimate was sufficient. The question was answered by a total of 123 institutions, a vast majority of which (95%) indicated that immigrant students participated in non-immigrant instruction in

20 Two of the adult education centres (N=86) stated that no immigrants participated in non-immigrant instruction. Of these, the Iisalmi Adult Education Centre noted that a great deal of work had been done to activate immigrants, but for the time being they were reluctant to enrol in courses. In other adult education centres, participation ranged from individuals and a few students to active participation. In many institutions without a separate immigrant educational programme, immigrants participated in other course offerings. The courses mentioned were, in particular, physical education, languages, music, IT courses and handicrafts Three of the folk high schools (N=26) mentioned that immigrants did not participate in other course offerings. None of these offered separate instruction for immigrants, either. Three institutions explained that immigrants participating in non-immigrant course offerings primarily took short-form courses. Immigrants at the Borgå Folk Academy participated in, among others, activities at the World Café A meeting place for all students. At one of the summer universities (N=5), immigrants did not participate in its normal instruction; in others, participation was minimal. The Summer University of Northern Ostrobothnia noted that open university courses in Finnish are part of normal summer university operations. Of the two study centres responding to the question, one reported that immigrants participated in non-immigrant instruction while the other said not as a rule. Both of the sports institutes stated that immigrants participated in the given course offerings. At the Eerikkälä Sports Institute, immigrants participated especially in coach training. 19

21 3. Self-motivated study aimed at immigrants 3.1 General observations on educational offering Self-motivated study was the most popular form of education aimed at immigrants at liberal adult education institutions in 2010: 69% of the institutions surveyed (N=97) stated that they offered this type of education. With the exception of sports institutes, all forms of institutions provided self-motivated study for immigrants. 89 institutions specified the number of hours of instruction offered, which totalled 65,992. The percentage of self-motivated study thus accounted for approximately half (50%) of the total number of hours of instruction in immigrant education at institutions responding to the survey. In absolute terms, adult education centres provided the most self-motivated study (approximately 50% of the total number of hours of instruction at institutions), and in relative terms, folk high schools provided the most (approximately 2,179 hours of instruction per institution). (see table 1) Also in terms of the number of students, self-motivated study was the most significant form of education: a total of 12,119 students participated in this type of education at institutions responding to the survey (N=96). This was equivalent to approximately 72% of the total number of students engaged in immigrant education. In absolute terms, the largest number of students participated in self-motivated study at adult education centres (81%), and in relative terms, study centres saw a greater share (approximately 187 students per institution). The number of self-motivated study courses totalled over 1,100 at institutions responding to the survey (N=93). 725 such courses were offered at adult education centres (N=70), at folk high schools (N=16), 35 at summer universities (N=4) and 37 at study centres (N=3). As some of the folk high schools listed the number of courses by credits, academic year or term, the figures listed here are estimates. 20

22 Table 4. Self-motivated study by number of hours of instruction, courses and students in different forms of institutions institutions providing instruction (N) hours of instruction N courses N students N Adult education centres 70 32, , Folk high schools 20 30, , Summer universities 4 1, Study centres 3 1, Sports institutes Total 97 65, over 1, , Self-motivated study by various institutional form 73% of the adult education centres (N=70) responding to the survey offered self-motivated study. The combined number of hours of instruction was 32,924 at institutions (N=68), which submitted precise data on the instruction they provided. This figure was equivalent to approximately 39% of all immigrant education offered at adult education centres. There were 9,832 students, which was equivalent to approximately 70% of all students participating in immigrant education at adult education centres. (See Table 2). Self-motivated study was therefore the most popular form of education at adult education centres, in terms of the number of students. In absolute terms, a majority of the self-motivated study both according to the number of hours of instruction and courses was provided at adult education centres in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and other large cities. The number of immigrant students participating in this form of education was highest in these institutions, which include the Finnish Adult Education Centre of the City of Helsinki (approx. 7,350 hours of instruction/ 120 courses/ 1,700 students), Institute of Adult Education in Helsinki (5,660/ 160 / approx. 2,000), Espoo Adult Education Centre (5,491/75/1,502), Ahjola Adult Education Centre Tampere (1,163/27/396) and Vasa Arbetarinstitut (Vasa Arbis) (756/ 22/ 463). It should be noted that the percentage of immigrants of the total student body at the above-mentioned institutions was higher than average. For example, immigrants at the Institute of Adult Education in Helsinki accounted for approximately 25% of the entire student body, whereas in Vaasa the figure was approximately 10%. Likewise, self-motivated study accounted for a higher percentage of the total number of hours in the institutions in question. For example, the Institute of Adult Education in Helsinki answered that self-motivated study accounted for 21

23 17% of the institution s total hours of instruction, the Espoo Adult Education Centre answered 9%, and the Finnish Adult Education Centre of the City of Helsinki answered 7%. 59% of the folk high schools (N=20) responding to the survey offered self-motivated study. In this form of institution, self-motivated study accounts for a significant percentage of all the immigrant education offered - approximately 78%. A total of 30,508 hours of instruction and courses were offered at institutions which provided precise data on the survey form. Also in terms of the number of students, self-motivated study was the most significant form of education. 1,166 immigrant students participated in it, which accounts for approximately 80% of the immigrant students at folk high schools responding to the survey. Nine folk high schools that responded to the question concerning hours of instruction provided over 1,000 hours of self-motivated study a year, with four of these institutions providing over 3,000 hours a year. The large number of hours of instruction at folk high schools can be explained by the fact that many institutions offer one or more immigrant course programmes or otherwise offer an extensive amount of instruction aimed at immigrants. These include Savonlinna Christian College, South Ostrobothnia Folk High School, Kymenlaakso Adult Education Centre and Folk High School, Kanneljärvi Folk High School, Jaakkima Christian Folk High School, North Karelia College Niittylahti, Central Ostrobothnia Culture Institute, Jyväskylä Christian Institute, Church Training College, Joutseno Folk High School, Pohjola-opisto and Jamilahti Folk High School. Four summer universities responding to the survey stated that they offered selfmotivated study, i.e. it was the most popular form of immigrant education in these institutions. A total of 1,123 hours of instruction and 35 courses were offered, and 561 students participated in them. There was some variation in the course offering between summer universities: Courses offered at the Summer University of North Ostrobothnia (453/18/336) and Summer University of Tampere (580 hours of instruction/ 13 courses / 200 students) accounted for the largest percentage of self-motivated study in immigrant education and participating students at summer universities responding to the survey. Self-motivated study accounted for 3.9% of the overall course offering in the above-mentioned institutions. At the Summer University of North Ostrobothnia and Summer University of Tampere, 2.5% of all instruction was self-motivated study. All study centres responding to the survey (N=3) offered self-motivated study to immigrants. A total of 1,437 hours of instruction and 37 courses were offered, and 560 students participated in them. A majority of self-motivated study was provided by the KSL Civic Association for Adult Learning Study Centre (722/14/176) and OK Study Centre (675/20/357). Compared to the overall course offering at these study centres, self-motivated study accounted for 1.6% of the number of hours of instruction at the KSL Study Centre and 0.8% at the OK Study Centre. 22

24 3.3 Educational content The most popular form of self-motivated study at liberal adult education institutions was the course offering in national languages: a majority of the institutions responding to the survey provided instruction in Finnish and/or Swedish. National language courses varied in level and a wide range of instruction methods were used in them. Many institutions combined cultural and social studies with the language courses. In addition to languages, various physical education, handicrafts, cooking and IT courses were also very popular Adult education centres Nearly all adult education centres offering self-motivated study provided instruction in Finnish and/or Swedish. Although nearly all of these offered beginner courses in one or both of the national languages, many adult education centres also offered various advanced and/or intensive courses. Many institutions offered conversation courses in addition to the conventional grammar-based courses. Adult Education Centre Järvilakeus explained that they used an electronic study platform to support language instruction. Many adult education centres included cultural and social studies in language instruction. The purpose of this was to familiarise immigrants with Finnish culture and society as well as provide skills for the management of daily situations and matters, as the Puulan seutuopisto explained in its response. These types of courses included, for example, visits to government agencies or the library as well as instruction in other practical skills important to functioning in Finnish society. The various needs of immigrant students were taken into consideration in the course offerings. The Järvi-Pohjanmaa Adult Education Centre, among others, offered language courses for immigrants based on their personal backgrounds and requirements. The target groups were immigrants unable to speak Finnish with no reading or writing skills in their native language, those unable to speak Finnish with reading and writing skills in their own language, and those with some skills in Finnish. The Espoo Adult Education Centre provided Slowly proceeding courses in Finnish and Finnish for full-time mothers. The Seinäjoki Adult Education Centre provided courses at a more advanced level, Basic skills and knowledge in nursing, and Adult Education Centre Järvilakeus offered a Finnish for foreigners intensive course, which was aimed specifically at working immigrants. In two institutions, Finnish instruction was targeted specifically at Russianspeaking students. Taking the various needs and requirements of immigrants into consideration is expressed well in a comment made by a teacher at the Kauhajoki Adult Education Centre: Language is a communication tool. Each and every student has the opportunity to learn Finnish as they see fit. The basis for this is the student s needs and finding motivation. The goal of the course is to be understood 23

25 and understand others. Learning a language is never easy, and Finnish is certainly no exception. My job as a teacher is to make it easy for eager students to learn how to speak Finnish. Language is vital for anyone looking to find a place for themselves in a community. As a teacher, the best reward is seeing my students make progress in their language skills, which will open a whole world of opportunities in their lives. Immigrant students were also offered a wide range of courses other than one of the national languages. The course offering included courses in English, IT studies, physical education, music, cooking and handicrafts. Some of the courses were given in English: for example, the Espoo Adult Education Centre offered business and Finnish cooking courses in English and the Tampereen työväenopisto had two English-speaking theatre groups. Kianta-Opisto, in the municipality of Suomussalmi, offered activities specifically intended for Russian immigrants that included instruction in Finnish and English as well as a Russian Song Circle; Preserving one s own cultural heritage through Russian songs and performances under the supervision of a Russian teacher. Some of the institutions mentioned that the courses intended for immigrants were also open to Finns. The Ruovesi Adult Education Centre, among others, offered a Foreign flavours and cultures course, which involved cooking together with clients of the reception centre and local residents. Cultural encounters were also promoted by the Riihimäki Adult Education Centre s multicultural folk theatre as well as the Taivalkoski Adult Education Centre s International Day ( a day for immigrants and Finns to share in recreational, performance and all manner of activities ) and Cafe International ( conversation over a cup of coffee on matters that interest immigrants, introductions and presentations of the various municipal agencies, Kela, banks, employment offices, etc. ). Many adult education centres offered a wide variety of courses for immigrants and varying content was creatively combined. For example, the Aurala Adult Education Centre combined handicrafts with Finnish language and culture in its course offering. The Riihimäki Adult Education Centre offered course called Talking about art in plain and simple Finnish for immigrants, which examined various works of art in depth and discussed them. The following course descriptions also demonstrate the diversity of the course offerings. The first is taken from a response given by the Kirkkonummi Adult Education Centre and the second from the Malax-Korsnäs medborgarinstitut: A) 4 slowly proceeding 25 h/week, 8 week/course day course for immigrants, in co-operation with the employment office, integration training, the Siuntio Reception Centre and rehabilitative training: Language and culture studies, handicrafts, health and fitness, and a week-long activity at the rehabilitative training facility; B) Intensive afternoon course for youths and others, 4h/week/8 weeks: conventional intensive school-form 24

26 course; C) Children s book bag, in co-operation with the department of education and parish: course intended for stay-at-home mothers, child care provided during the course; D) Centre evening courses: conventional Finnish as a second language courses. Swedish for immigrants (4 courses). We will be learning words and expressions and practice speaking Swedish so that we can cope with everyday situations. We will adapt the pace and content to the existing skills and wishes of the participants. The course materials we will be using include Svenska i Finland and Mitt mål I. Matlagning för invandrare (2 courses). We will familiarise ourselves with Finnish cooking and learn how to use berries in cooking and baking. We will be making homecooking style foods and dishes with fish prepared in a variety of ways. Ostrobothnian Cultural Encounters (1 course) several generations ago or since 2010? What is at stake when we all have to get along with each other? How should we receive people from other cultures? How are we different, what do we have in common and how can we meet? Meeting point for people from Finland and all over the world. Lectures and discussions on receiving refugees, integration, education, language, religion and cultural diversity. A detailed programme of lecturers and invited guests from different cultures is available upon request and will also be handed out on the first evening Folk high schools As with adult education centres, most folk high schools provided instruction in Finnish and/or Swedish, often also combining it with cultural and social studies. Instruction at institutions with separate immigrant programmes included general education studies, instruction in arts and crafts and, in some cases, also other courses. The Jyväskylä Christian Institute, among others, listed the following subjects in its course offering: Finnish, English, Swedish, mathematics, natural sciences, information technology, history and social studies, health education, study skills, student guidance, life management, Finnish education system, cultural studies, business and entrepreneurship, and workplace orientation. The Central Ostrobothnia Culture Institute describes its Finland and the workplace study programme for immigrants as follows: The folk high school programme Finland and the workplace is 40 credits in scope. There are 25 hours of instruction a week. Courses focus on Finnish, Finnish culture and social studies. The programme also includes 2 credits of IT studies, 2 credits of physical fitness and health education. The programme also includes an on-the-job learning course. The programme is intended for immigrants with Finnish citizenship, who are at least 16 years of age and already possess some skills in Finnish. 25

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