1 Fracturing" of Legal Malpractice Claims Nisha P. Byers Jackie S. Cooper Cooper & Scully, P.C. March 7, 2012
2 Clients Claims Against Lawyers Legal malpractice/negligence Breach of fiduciary duty Fraud Breach of contract Violations of DTPA
3 What is fracturing? "Nothing is to be gained by fracturing a cause of action arising out of bad legal advice or improper representation" Sledge v. Alsup, 759 S.W.2d 1 (Tex. App.- -El Paso 1988, no writ)
4 So Why Do Plaintiffs Fracture? Statute of limitations Negligence 2 years Breach of fiduciary duty 4 years Fraud 4 years Breach of contract 4 years
5 So Why Do Plaintiffs Fracture? Damages: Negligence actual Exemplary for gross negligence Breach of fiduciary duty actual, exemplary, fee forfeiture Fraud actual, exemplary Breach of contract actual, attorneys fees DTPA actual, mental anguish, treble
6 Negligence vs. Other Claims Negligence - whether the legal representation was adequate. What type of claim is available under the facts pled is a question of law.
7 Defending Fractured Claims Special Exceptions Motion for Summary Judgment
8 Negligence - Elements (1) a legal duty; (2) a breach of that duty; (3) actual damages that are (4) proximately caused by the breach of duty. Western Invs v. Urena, 162 S.W.3d 547, 550 (Tex. 2005)
9 Negligence - Elements When a professional negligence claim arises from representation in prior litigation, the plaintiff must show that they would have won and been entitled to judgment. Greathouse v. v McConnell, 982 S.W.2d 165, 172 (Tex.App. Houston [1 st Dist.] 1998, pet. denied.)
10 Negligence - Damages Actual Damages Recoverable - P must prove amount of damages it would have recovered if the suit or appeal had been properly litigated Collectible - Also must prove damages would have been collectible
11 Negligence Damages Attorneys Fees [T]he general rule as to recovery of attorneys fees from an adverse party in litigation does not bar a malpractice plaintiff from claiming damages in the malpractice case for fees it paid its attorneys in the underlying suit. May recover additional attorneys fees proximately caused by attorney s negligence No recovery if caused by plaintiff s negligence Cannot recover fees for pursuing legal malpractice claims Akin, Gump, v. National Dev. & Research Corp, 299 S.W.3d 106, 119 (Tex. 2009)
12 Negligence - Damages Exemplary Damages P must prove gross negligence by clear and convincing evidence Mental Anguish Not recoverable if consequence of economic loss Must show injury is more personal in nature (e.g., loss of child custody, loss of liberty) Interest Prejudgment and postjudgment Court costs
13 Negligence - Limitations A cause of action for legal malpractice accrues when the client sustains a legal injury or, in cases governed by the discovery rule, when the client discovers or should have discovered the facts establishing the elements of a cause of action. Hughes v. Mehaney & Higgins, 821 S.W.2d 154 (Tex. 1991).
14 Negligence - Jury Question
15 Negligence - General Examples Giving an erroneous legal opinion or advice; Delaying or failing to handle a matter entrusted to the attorney's care; and/or Not using ordinary care in preparing, managing, and prosecuting a case. Murphy v. Gruber, 241 S.W.3d 689, 693 (Tex.App.-Dallas 2007, pet. denied).
16 Negligence Cases Clients alleged the lawyers failed to properly advise, inform, and communicate with them about the case Sued for breach of fiduciary duty and fraud Court found client s complaint was about quality of representation - legal malpractice Barred by 2 year limitations Murphy v. Gruber, 241 S.W.3d 689, (Tex. App.--Dallas 2007, pet. denied)
17 Negligence Cases Involved workers comp retaliation claim Client agreed only to settle for $200k After 3 years, client alleged misrepresentation by lawyer of present value of settlement Court held that claim was for legal malpractice Barred by 2 year limitations Longoria v. Whitehurst, No CV, 2005 WL , at *1 (Tex.App.-Tyler 2005, pet. denied) (mem.op.)
18 Negligence Cases Client sued lawyer related to handling and documentation of a sale Lawyer admitted in related lawsuit that he had a conflict he represented buyer and seller in that transaction Court found that only claim available to clients was negligence Barred by 2 year limitations Isaacs v. Schleier, 356 S.W.3d 548 (Tex.App. Texarkana, rehearing overruled Jan. 24, 2012)
19 Negligence Cases Client hired lawyer to pursue EEOC claim Lawyer missed the deadline to file Client sued and won judgments for negligence and breach of contract On appeal, court ruled contract claim was fractured and barred by the 2 year limitations Cooper v. Harris, 329 S.W.3d 898 (Tex.App. Houston [14 th Dist.], review denied Sep. 30, 2011)
20 Negligence Reprehensible Acts Not Fraud or DTPA An attorney representing a client in a custody battle against client s first wife is sleeping with client s current (second) wife. Bad outcome on custody case. Court said failure to disclose the affair to client was not fraud or DTPA Claim was for negligence because complaint was quality of lawyer s representation Kahlig v. Boyd, 980 S.W.2d 685 (Tex.App.- San Antonio 1998, pet. denied)
21 When Might a Plaintiff Have a Separate Claim? When the facts of a case support claims against a lawyer for something other than professional negligence, the claims may be allowed. - Murphy v. Gruber, 241 S.W.3d 689, 695 (Tex.App.--Dallas 2007, pet.denied) The plaintiff must present a claim that goes beyond what traditionally has been characterized as legal malpractice. - Duerr v. Brown, 262 S.W.3d 63, 70 (Tex.App. Houston [14 th Dist.] 2008, no pet.)
22 Breach of Fiduciary Duty - Elements (1) fiduciary relationship (2) the defendant breached its fiduciary duty to the plaintiff; and (3) the defendant s breach resulted in: (1) injury to the plaintiff or (2) benefit to the defendant Johnston v. Kruse, 261 S.W.3d 895, 902 (Tex. App. Dallas 2008, no pet.)
23 Breach of Fiduciary Duty - Facts Breach of fiduciary duty by an attorney most often involves the attorney's failure to disclose conflicts of interest, failure to deliver funds belonging to the client, placing personal interests over the client's interests, improper use of client confidences, taking advantage of the client's trust, engaging in self-dealing, and making misrepresentations. Gibson v. Ellis, 126 S.W.3d 324, 330 (Tex. App.--Dallas 2004, no pet.).
24 Breach of Fiduciary Duty Damages Fee Forfeiture Jury decides fact issues Court decides if and how much Only available only if a plaintiff has proven a clear and serious breach of a duty, determined by the Court Damages are not necessary to prevail Burrow v. Arce, 997 S.W.2d 229, 246 (Tex. 1999).
25 Breach of Fiduciary Duty Fractured Legal Malpractice Claim Representation involved will contest Plaintiff alleged breach of fiduciary duty Attorney did not properly prepare for trial Attorney misled clients into believing case had been properly prepared for trial Attorney abandoned client at trial Court found these allegations constitute no more than a claim for legal malpractice Goffney v. Rabson, 56 S.W.3d 186 (Tex. App. Houston [14 th Dist] 2001, pet. denied)
26 Breach of Fiduciary Duty Fractured Legal Malpractice Claim Alleged lawyer was not prepared for trial, did not tell client expert witness was not prepared Asserted DTPA violations, breach of fiduciary duty, breach of contract and legal malpractice Only claim available was for legal malpractice Aiken v. Hancock, 115 S.W.3d 26, 28 (Tex.App.--San Antonio 2003, pet. denied)
27 Breach of Fiduciary Duty It Depends on the Facts Misrepresented the quality of work the attorneys would perform Promised but did not deliver heavy involvement in the appeal Misrepresented that they would or did carefully review the record Although the claims fell into the category of misrepresentations, they are so closely related to issue of work quality as to be claims for professional negligence In re Frazin, BJH-13, 2008 WL (Bankr. N.D. Tex. Sept. 23, 2008)
28 Not Disclosing Alcoholism? Not Breach of Fiduciary Duty An independent breach-of-fiduciary-duty claim for failure to disclose Terry s [the attorney s] alcohol and substance abuse addictions or any other antecedent condition bearing on the Terry Defendants' competence would merely fracture a professional negligence claim, permitting separate submissions (and liability) regarding whether the Terry Defendants breached the standard of care and the reasons why they breached it. Beck v. Terry, 284 S.W.3d 416, 432 (Tex. App.--Austin 2009, no pet.)
29 Breach of Fiduciary Duty-Allowed Medical malpractice claim against a doctor Jury verdict against client (reversed on appeal) Doctor sued insurer and lawyer for refusal to settle underlying claim against her No liability for negligence because of reversal Stated breach of fiduciary duty claims Archer v. Medical Protective Co. of Fort Wayne, 197 S.W.3d 422 (Tex. App. Amarillo 2006, pet denied.)
30 Breach of Fiduciary Duty-Allowed Lawyer sued client for unpaid attorneys fees Counterclaim for failure to advise regarding conflicts and to withdraw Gives rise to breach of fiduciary claim Directed verdict on fee forfeiture claim was error, jury to decide fact issues Deutsch v. Hoover, Bax & Slovacek, L.L.P., 97 S.W.3d 179 (Tex. App. Houston [14 th Dist.] 2002, no pet.)
31 Breach of Fiduciary Duty Jury Question
32 Breach of Contract & Fraud Breach of Contract A valid, enforceable contract exists The Plaintiff performed, tendered performance, or was excused from performing their own obligations under the contract The Defendant breached the contract The Defendant s breach caused the plaintiff injury Fraud A material, false, and knowing or reckless misrepresentation of facts; or failure to disclose material facts in face of duty to do so and knowledge other party ignorant of or unable to discover the facts Intent that other party act or refrain from acting The Plaintiff relied on the misrepresentation or non-disclosure, and it caused the Plaintiff injury
33 Billing Related Cases Claim related to billing practices Stated claim for fraud Subject to 4 year statute of limitations Sullivan v. Bickel & Brewer, 943 S.W.2d 477 (Tex. App. Dallas 1995, writ denied).
34 Billing Related Cases Alleged that shortly before settlement of a personal injury case, attorney changed the fee deal Found actions related to fees were subject to longer limitations under fraud and breach of contract Jampole v. Matthews, 857 S.W.2d 57 (Tex. App. Houston [1 st Dist.] 1993, writ denied)
35 Deceptive Trade Practices Act Focus is whether attorney engaged in a false, misleading or deceptive act or practice. Express misrepresentation of material fact Failure to Disclose known information Unconscionable action Breach of express warranty Selling or illegally promoting annuity contracts Basis of suit may not be attorney s advice, judgment or opinion
36 Deceptive Trade Practices Act Clients sued attorney who failed to timely file medical malpractice action within statute of limitations Court found some evidence that attorney affirmatively misrepresented to clients that medical malpractice action was timely filed Texas Supreme Court reversed directed verdict in favor of attorney on DTPA claims May recover damages for mental anguish Latham v. Castillo, 972 S.W.2d 66 (Tex. 1998)
37 Why Else Do Plaintiffs Fracture? Bolster Settlement Value To Survive Summary Judgment To Avoid Needing Experts Leverage
38 The Purpose of the Rule? The rule also serves to prevent legal malpractice plaintiffs from opportunistically transforming a claim that sounds only in negligence into other claims to avail themselves of longer limitations periods, less onerous proof requirements, or other tactical advantages. Beck v. Terry, 284 S.W.3d 416, 427 (Tex. App.--Austin 2009, no pet.) (quoting Deutsch v. Hoover, 97 S.W. 3d 179, 189 (Tex. App. Houston [14 th Dist.] 2002, no pet.)
39 Contact Information Nisha P. Byers Jackie S. Cooper
PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY Debrán L. O Neil D. Lance Currie Alex More The Survey period touched on a wide variety of professional liability issues, changing how these claims are prosecuted and resolved. In
COMPENDIUM OF TEXAS CONSTRUCTION LAW CONSTRUCTION DEFECT LITIGATION, MECHANICS & MATERIALMEN S LIENS & PERSONAL INJURY LITIGATION ARISING OUT OF CONSTRUCTION I. INTRODUCTION Construction defect litigation
REVERSE, RENDER, and REMAND; and Opinion Filed August 20, 2013. In The Court of Appeals Fifth District of Texas at Dallas No. 05-10-01614-CV W. DAVID HOLLIDAY, Appellant V. GREG WEAVER AND WENDY WEAVER,
THE RIGHT TO INDEPENDENT COUNSEL Julie A. Shehane Cooper & Scully, P.C. 900 Jackson Street, Suite 100 Telephone: 214-712 712-9546 Telecopy: 214-712 712-9540 Email: Julie.Shehane@cooperscully.com 2015 This
2007 Page Keeton Civil Litigation Conference October 25-26, 2007 Austin, Texas An Update on Recent Developments in the Law of Damages Thomas H. Cook, Jr. With special thanks to Shannon M. O Malley, Esq.,
ATTORNEYS FEES IN TRUST AND ESTATE LITIGATION CHARLES M. HORNBERGER Hornberger Sheehan Fuller & Beiter Incorporated The Quarry Heights Building 7373 Broadway, Suite 300 San Antonio, Texas 78209 (210) 271-1700
I. WHAT IS BAD FAITH? A. Basic Definition THE BASICS OF BAD FAITH First Party Insurance Refusal to pay a claim without a reasonable basis or even if insurer has a reasonable basis for denial, failing to
Medical Professionals and the DTPA By Joseph R. Ecke* Introduction Caps on noneconomic damages have frustrated medical malpractice lawyers who lament that their cases require several expert witnesses and
Case 3:02-cv-02186-B Document 348 Filed 07/16/08 Page 1 of 11 PageID 4981 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION NAVIGANT CONSULTING, INC., Plaintiff, V. CIVIL ACTION NO.
ROLE OF THE AD LITEM IN PERSONAL INJURY LITIGATION Presented By The Honorable Mark Davidson Judge, 11th District Court 301 Fannin, Room 305 Houston, Texas 77002 HOUSTON BAR ASSOCIATION CIVIL COURT AD LITEM
State Bar of Texas Bankruptcy Law Section Conference San Antonio, Texas June 5 7, 2013 PRESERVING CAUSES OF ACTION Presenters: Judge Craig A. Gargotta U.S. Bankruptcy Judge San Antonio, Texas Kent Ries
Ch24-A04438 9/18/06 1:46 PM Page 257 C H A P T E R 2 4 Medical Malpractice Defenses S. Sandy Sanbar, M.D., Ph.D., J.D. GOLDEN RULES 1. The physician should be knowledgeable of the general defense theories
05-11-01256-CV ACCEPTED 225EFJ016654602 FIFTH COURT OF APPEALS DALLAS, TEXAS 11 December 28 P7:33 Lisa Matz Mrs. Hooper Requests Oral CLERK Argument In the Court of Appeals for the Fifth District of Texas
NOT ACTUAL PROTECTION: ACTUAL INNOCENCE STANDARD FOR CRIMINAL DEFENSE ATTORNEYS IN CALIFORNIA DOES NOT ELIMINATE ACTUAL LAWSUITS AND ACTUAL PAYMENTS By Celeste King, JD and Barrett Breitung, JD* In 1998
NO. 05-11-01478-CV ACCEPTED 225EFJ016725622 FIFTH COURT OF APPEALS DALLAS, TEXAS 12 February 13 P9:27 Lisa Matz CLERK IN THE COURT OF APPEALS FIFTH DISTRICT OF TEXAS AT DALLAS BANK OF TEXAS, N.A. v. Appellant,
Leaving a Law Firm: A Guide to the Ethical Obligations in Law Firm Departure Introduction Key Ethical Obligations When Changing Law Firms Duties to Clients Fiduciary Duties of Loyalty as Members of a Law
The Texas Deceptive Trade Practices Act 2005 STILL ALIVE AND WELL Richard M. Alderman* I. INTRODUCTION Prior to 1973, Texas consumer law could be summed up in two words, caveat emptor. 1 In 1973, however,
Small Claims Handbook A Guide for Non-Lawyers Guide for Filing, Answering, Proving and Defending a Small Claims Court Case October 2007 Written by Alan Bucholtz This guide is intended to provide information
PERILS AND PITFALLS IN THE TEXAS CIVIL PRACTICE & REMEDIES CODE: HOW YOU CAN AVOID (OR EXPLOIT) THEM TO YOUR ADVANTAGE PAULA KNIPPA* SLACK & DAVIS LLP 2705 BEE CAVE ROAD, SUITE 220 AUSTIN, TEXAS *I would
INSURANCE FRAUD AND CLAIMS INVESTIGATION Insurance Law in Texas Lorman Education Services May 25, 1999 Austin, Texas Catherine L. Hanna Hanna & Plaut, L.L.P. Attorneys at Law 106 E. Sixth Street, Suite
UNSETTLED QUESTIONS OF TEXAS LAW CLAIM FOR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES AGAINST AN INSURED EMPLOYER FOR A WORK- RELATED DEATH H. VICTOR THOMAS* AND REAGAN W. SIMPSON** I. INTRODUCTION... 788 II. OVERVIEW OF THE CLAIM...
This booklet was published with the generous support of Steven Laird Law Offices of Steven C. Laird Fort Worth, Texas Marc Lenahan Lenahan Law, PLLC Dallas, Texas Tahira Merritt Law Office of Tahira Khan
NEW YORK Sheila Boston Antonio Elefano KAYE SCHOLER LLP 425 Park Avenue New York, NY 10022-3598 United States Telephone: (212) 836-8000 Facsimile: (212) 836-8689 email@example.com www.kayescholer.com
Litigation Traps R ISK MANAGEMENT HANDOUTS OF L AWYERS MUTUAL LAWYERS MUTUAL LIABILITY INSURANCE COMPANY OF NORTH CAROLINA 5020 Weston Parkway, Suite 200, Cary, North Carolina 27513 Post Office Box 1929,
DELVING INTO THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS QUESTIONS AND ANALYSIS THAT IMPACT Seventh Annual Construction Symposium City Place Conference Center Dallas, TX January 27, 2012 Tara L. Sohlman Cooper & Scully,