1 Skin & Wound Care Prevention & Treatment By Candy Houk, RN Skin & Wound Program Manager
2 OBJECTIVES Classify Stage 1 and 2 pressure ulcers Recognize suspected Stage 3, 4, DTI, and unstageable pressure ulcers and need to obtain confirmation of staging before documentation of these ulcers. Recognize and implement the Wound Assessment/Dressing Documentation and Braden Score/Skin Protection Measure forms. Verbalize when to perform skin assessments and where to document findings.
3 Skin Facts -Skin is the largest organ in the body. -From birth to maturity skin undergoes about a 7-fold expansion. -Average adult has about 2 square meters of skin. -Skin weighs about 6 pounds. -The skin receives about 1/3 of the body s circulating blood volume. -Skin is capable of self generation. -Can withstand limited mechanical & chemical assaults.
8 About Pressure Ulcers. IHI s 5 Million Lives Campaign Goal is Zero Most litigated ulcer Costly to treat Carry a higher mortality & morbidity Patients can die from pressure ulcers. Infection is the most common complication They hurt! Patient & family education Prevention Prevention Prevention
9 The Finances of Pressure Ulcers Effective Wed. Oct 1 st, the cost of treating hospital acquired pressure ulcers will not be reimbursed by MediCare. Cost for a full thickness pressure ulcer can be as much as $70,000. Less serious PUs can cost $2,000 $30,000. The average hospital incurs direct costs of $400,000 - $700,000 annually to treat pressure ulcers. Reduction in the occurence of pressure ulcers is a QVMC Strategic Goal for 2009
10 What is a Pressure Ulcer? Localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction. The extent of injury or damage is determined by the intensity of the pressure, the duration of the pressure, and the tissue tolerence (ability to withstand the pressure).
11 Definitions Pressure - Pressure compresses underlying tissue and small blood vessels against the surface beneath. Pressure is exerted vertically. Tissues become ischemic and die. Friction/Shear - Friction is the resistance created when one surface moves horizontally across another surface to create the tissue injury. (e.g. dragging a patient across bed linen). Shear occurs when one layer of tissue slides horizontally over another, deforming and disrupting blood flow (e.g. when the head of the bed is raised > 30 degrees & patient slides down in bed). Both require pressure exerted by the body against an external surface.
13 Other Pressure Ulcer Locations Any skin surface subjected to excess pressure examples include skin surfaces under: Oxygen tubing Drainage tubing Casts Cervical collars Other medical devices Teds stockings
14 Pressure Ulcer Staging Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Unstageable Deep Tissue Injury (considered suspected injury)
15 Staging of Pressure Ulcers Only pressure ulcers are staged. Other ulcer types are not staged: diabetic, venous, etc. RNs may stage pressure ulcers that are Stage 1 or 2. Any pressure ulcer suspected to be more serious than Stage 2 requires a Wound Nurse consult. Accurate staging requires visualization & identification of the tissues in the wound bed. As the ulcer heals, it cannot be reverse staged because the original tissue does not regenerate, ie., a Stage 4 ulcer does not become a Stage 2. One would document healing Stage 4 ulcer.
16 Stage I Pressure Ulcer Intact skin Non-blanchable redness of a localized area Usually over a bony prominence. Darkly pigmented skin: May not have visible blanching Its color may differ from the surrounding area.
17 Stage 1 Pressure Ulcer
18 Stage I Ulcer A reddened area is seen on the left heel. The skin surface is unbroken. No blistering of the skin is observed. Skin color remains unchanged after pressure is removed
19 Non-Blanchable Erythema The ulcer appears as: defined area of redness does not blanch Becomes pale under applied light pressure. NOTE: The area may be painful, firm, soft, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue.
20 Blanchable Erythema Reddened area that turns pale under applied light pressure. Blanchable erythema is NOT a Stage I pressure ulcer.
21 Stage I Ulcer Skin color over the affected site is deeper in color than the surrounding skin. The skin surface is unbroken. The alteration in skin color persists after pressure is removed.
22 Stage II Pressure Ulcer Partial thickness loss of dermis Presents as: Shallow open ulcer Red-pink wound bed Without slough Intact or ruptured/open serum-filled blister.
23 Stage 2 Pressure Ulcer
24 This pressure ulcer is shallow with loss of dermis. Stage II Ulcer
25 Stage II Ulcer This pressure ulcer is approximately 2 cm in length and 3 cm in width. The epidermis has been lost in several areas. Tissue surrounding the areas of epidermal loss are erythemic.
26 Stage II Ulcer Skin over the coccyx is reddened. Several intact serum blisters are located within the reddened area of skin.
27 Stage III Pressure Ulcer Full thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible, but bone, tendon, or muscle are not exposed Slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss. May include undermining and tunneling.
28 Stage 3 Pressure Ulcer
29 Stage III Ulcer The circled pressure ulcer is approximately 11 cm in length and 3 cm in width. Subcutaneous fat is visible in the wound bed. No tendon, bone or muscle is visualized. Slough is present at the left proximal wound edge. The slough does not obscure the depth of tissue loss.
30 Stage IV Pressure Ulcer Full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present on some parts of the wound bed. Often includes undermining and tunneling.
31 Stage 4 Pressure Ulcer
32 Stage IV Ulcer Pressure ulcer over the sacrum has exposed muscle tissue. Slough is present on parts of the wound bed. Undermining of the wound edge also is noted.
33 Stage IV Ulcer Extensive loss of muscle tissue is noted in this very large pressure ulcer. The base of the wound is visible.
34 Unstageable Pressure Ulcer Full thickness tissue loss The base of the ulcer is covered by slough in the wound bed: yellow, tan, gray, green or brown and/or eschar; tan, brown or black
35 Unstageable Pressure Ulcer
36 Unstageable Ulcer The sacralcoccyxgeal ulcer measures 6.5 cm in width and 8 cm in length. Eschar completely covers the wound base.
37 Deep Tissue Injury Purple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear. The area around the DTI may be painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler. The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue.
38 Suspected Deep Tissue Injury
39 Proposed Etiology of DTI Pressure to the skin and soft tissue and ischemia Muscle injury associated with a decrease in nutrient supply Vasopresser use Injury or damage to the fascia from shearing injury or torsion of the perforating vessels
40 Deep Tissue Injury (DTI) Further Description Difficult to detect in individuals with dark skin tones. Evolution may include a thin blister over a dark wound bed. The wound may further evolve and become covered by thin eschar.
41 Documentation All patients have their skin assessed daily. All wounds, including pressure ulcers, are measured on admission and at least weekly on Wound Wednesday and documented on the Wound Assessment/Dressing Documentation form, including any dressing changes, one wound per form. Preventive measures: turning every 2 hours, cleansing skin, incontinence care, floating heels, moisture barrier applications are documented on the Braden Score & Skin Protection Measures form. Any pressure ulcers present on admission must be documented on the Interdisciplinary Assessment form. The POC should be updated to reflect any wound during the course of hospitalization.
42 Patient Assessment Perform initial skin assessment upon admission and complete documentation within 24 hours. If wound is present complete Wound Assessment Form Identify Pressure Ulcer If suspected to be more serious than Stage 2, obtain Wound Nurse consult. If it isn t noted on admission it is considered hospital acquired.
45 Identify Patients at High Risk (Braden Scale) Sensory perception-ability to respond meaningfully to pressure related discomfort. Frequently wet or soiled Mobility, ability to change & control body position Friction & Shear, ability to transfer self Poor nutritional status Poorly controlled diabetes
47 Pressure Ulcer Treatment Daily Skin Assessments: Keep skin clean and dry manage incontinence & moisture issues Address nutritional and fluid intake needs NEVER position patient on the pressure ulcer or wound use pillows or wedges for support and cushioning Use the Specialty Bed Decision Grid to determine if a special mattress is indicated No creases in the linen, no blue pads - use drawsheet
48 Pressure Ulcer Prevention Take action to reduce risk Frequent and regular turning and repositioning 2 hours in a single position while in bed 1 hour if in chair Maintain head at 30 degrees when side lying Float heels Use pillows between legs and ankles Educate patient and family
49 Specialty Bed Decision Grid Turning surfaces: back, left side, right side Based on Braden Scale and available turning surfaces: if the patient has 2 turning surfaces without wounds, a specialty bed is not needed unless Braden Scale is <12. (Exception: flap repairs) A specialty bed or mattress does not preclude the need to turn patient & address skin issues! These beds are an adjunct - not the solution.
51 Prevention! Prevention! Prevention! The most impactful step we can take toward achieving a higher quality of care and reducing skin management costs. Proactive skin care: -improves staff time efficiency -supply reductions -improved infection control
52 Use of InterDry Ag For treatment of intertrigocaused by moisture & friction between skin folds. Store in Med Room-do NOT take roll into the patient s room. Change every 5 days & PRN soiling Cleanse & inspect skin daily reposition Interdry At least 5 cm of the textile must be exposed to air on at least one side.
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