NETE-4635 Computer Network Analysis and Design. Designing a Network Topology. NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 1

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1 NETE-4635 Computer Network Analysis and Design Designing a Network Topology NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 1

2 Network Topology Design Themes Hierarchy Redundancy Modularity Well-defined entries and exits Protected perimeters NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 2

3 Why Use a Hierarchical Model? Reduces workload on network devices Avoids devices having to communicate with too many other devices (reduces CPU adjacencies ) Constrains broadcast domains Enhances simplicity and understanding Facilitates changes Facilitates scaling to a larger size NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 3

4 Hierarchical Network Design Campus A Enterprise WAN Backbone Campus B Core Layer Campus C Campus C Backbone Distribution Layer Access Layer Building C-1 Building C-2 NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 4

5 Cisco s Hierarchical Design Model A core layer of high-end routers and switches that are optimized for availability and speed A distribution layer of routers and switches that implement policies and segment traffic An access layer that connects users via hubs, switches, and other devices NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 5

6 Flat Versus Hierarchy Headquarters in Medford Headquarters in Medford Grants Pass Branch Office Klamath Falls Branch Office Ashland Branch Office Grants Pass Branch Office Klamath Falls Branch Office Ashland Branch Office White City Branch Office Flat Loop Topology Hierarchical Redundant Topology NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 6

7 Mesh Designs Partial-Mesh Topology Full-Mesh Topology NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 7

8 A Partial-Mesh Hierarchical Design Headquarters (Core Layer) Regional Offices (Distribution Layer) Branch Offices (Access Layer) NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 8

9 Avoid Chains and Backdoors Core Layer Distribution Layer Access Layer Chain Backdoor NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 9

10 Cisco s SAFE Security Reference Architecture NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 10

11 Cisco Enterprise Architecture NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 11

12 Core Layer Provide 100% uptime Maximize throughput Facilitate network growth NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 12

13 Redundant Links and Mesh Topology in Core Layer NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 13

14 Distribution Layer Filtering and managing traffic flows Enforcing access control policies Isolating Core from Access Layer failures or disruptions Routing between Access Layer VLANs NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 14

15 Trunk and Redundant Links in Distribution Layer NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 15

16 Campus Topology Design Use a hierarchical, modular approach Minimize the size of bandwidth domains Minimize the size of broadcast domains Provide redundancy Mirrored servers Multiple ways for workstations to reach a router for off-net communications NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 16

17 Simple Redundant with Spanning-Tree Protocol With STP Without STP NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 17

18 Access Control in Distribution Layer With STP With ACLs Without ACLs NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 18

19 Access Layer Represents the edge of the network where end devices connect. NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 19

20 Virtual LANs (VLANs) An emulation of a standard LAN that allows data transfer to take place without the traditional physical restraints placed on a network A set of devices that belong to an administrative group Designers use VLANs to constrain broadcast traffic NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 20

21 VLANs versus Real LANs Switch A Switch B Station A1 Station A2 Station A3 Network A Station B1 Station B2 Station B3 Network B NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 21

22 VLANs Span Switches VLAN A VLAN A Station A1 Station A2 Station A3 Station A4 Station A5 Station A6 Switch A Switch B Station B1 Station B2 Station B3 VLAN B Station B4 Station B5 Station B6 VLAN B NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 22

23 WLANs and VLANs A wireless LAN (WLAN) is often implemented as a VLAN Facilitates roaming Users remain in the same VLAN and IP subnet as they roam, so there s no need to change addressing information Also makes it easier to set up filters (access control lists) to protect the wired network from wireless users NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 23

24 WLANs and VLANs NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 24

25 Easy to secure, filter, and prioritize traffic. Redundant, high-capacity links can be installed. Cost-effective than distributed servers Load balancing and failover can be provided. Number of high-capacity switches and security devices is reduced. Server Farm NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 25

26 Redundancy for Server Farms NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 26

27 Security Topologies Enterprise Network DMZ Internet Web, File, DNS, Mail Servers NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 27

28 Security Topologies Internet Firewall DMZ Enterprise Network Web, File, DNS, Mail Servers NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 28

29 Protecting Server Farms Against Attack Firewalls LAN switch security features Host-based and networkbased intrusion detection and prevention systems Load balancers Network analysis and management devices NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 29

30 Workstation-to-Router Communication Proxy ARP (not a good idea) Listen for route advertisements (not a great idea either) ICMP router solicitations (not widely used) Default gateway provided by DHCP (better idea but no redundancy) Use Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) for redundancy NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 30

31 HSRP Active Router Enterprise Internetwork Virtual Router Workstation Standby Router NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 31

32 Multihoming the Internet Connection ISP 1 ISP 1 Enterprise Option A Paris Enterprise NY Option C ISP 1 ISP 2 ISP 1 ISP 2 Enterprise Paris Enterprise NY Option B Option D NETE Computer Network Analysis and Design Slide 32

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