Energy Monitoring and Management Technology based on IEEE g Smart Utility Networks and Mobile Devices

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1 Monitoring and Management Technology based on IEEE g Smart Utility Networks and Mobile Devices Hyunjeong Lee, Wan-Ki Park, Il-Woo Lee IT Research Section IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, ETRI 218 Gajeong-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, KOREA {hjlee294, wkpark, Abstract : This paper describes an energy monitoring and management technology using IEEE g Smart Utility Network and mobile devices for energy conservation. To transfer the power and energy data, Smart Utility Network is used between a smart plug and an energy management system. The system collects and manages energy consumption data, and a mobile device displays the power and energy data and provides user interfaces to control electric devices. A user can easily monitor, manage, and control energy consumption and achieve energy cost saving using the proposed scheme. Keywords-component; energy; ; monitor; manage; smart; green I. INTRODUCTION Smart and green technologies are the main research issues to save energy and reduce carbon emission. Therefore, a lot of studies for these technologies are being carried out, including, Smart Grid, energy saving, and zero carbon technologies [1]. Residence and commercial buildings are also the main areas for energy saving, because they consume over 22% of national energy [2]. To realize these technologies, monitoring and statistics of energy consumption is the basis for reducing energy leakage and planning energy utilization [3]. Excessive energy consumption in the whole world has caused numerous global problems and requires energy saving and management technologies. In building area, optimized energy management technology is needed to monitor and manage the large number of electric devices [1]. An energy monitoring and management system (EMS), based on Smart Utility Networks () and mobile devices, has been proposed to manage and reduce energy consumption in a smart space. A smart plug (SP) is used to measure energy data and control devices based on [4]. has been becoming a desirable solution to deliver energy and control data between an SP and an energy management server (EMS) [5], [6]. A mobile device has been used to monitor and control energy consumption as a graphic user interface (GUI). The structure of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, Smart Grid and technologies are described as related work. monitoring and management services based on and mobile devices are illustrated in Section 3. Implementation results are described in Section 4. At last, conclusions will be presented in Section 5. II. RELATED WORK A. Smart Grid (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 17

2 The convergence of electricity and information technology has been emerging to provide high quality and reliable electrical energy service [7]. In accordance with these trends, the Smart Grid technologies are being developed and deployed that include a physical power system and an information system that link a variety of equipment and means together to form a customer service platform. It also obtains various profitable effects by giving smart to the existing power grid. One of the purposes for energy efficiency of many companies and nations is the creation of a smart energy distribution grid [8]. Smart grid technology can provide new functions including self-healing, high reliability, energy management, and real-time pricing. Many technologies related to power and energy topics are converged for Smart Grid such as electrical engineering, information technology, communication, control and automation. Using the technology, governments can save costs of imported raw materials used in the production of energy, and energy suppliers minimize the cost of the reserved power, and customers save energy costs by monitoring the real-time energy use, controlling the devices, and managing the energy leakage. B. Smart Utility Networks IEEE g Task Group, also known as the Task Group, has been proposed the standard for outdoor low data rate, wireless, smart metering utility networks, to promote Smart Grid environment [3]. Existing metering of water, electricity, and gas is performed manually or semi-manually. Therefore, utility service providers require more intelligent metering systems to improve service efficiency and cost savings. Radio frequency (RF)-based mesh networks are a good candidate to achieve a high efficiency with a low cost and therefore have huge market potential in the field of metering systems. ZigBee [10] is one of the solutions for RFbased mesh networking used, but it has some week points, including limited communication range, low data rates, instability of mesh routing, and shadow zone problems. To overcome these problems, the [11-13] has been developed, which can communicate up to a range of 1 km and provide a maximum data rate of 1,600 Kbps [3]. Since it provides reliable mesh routing, an adequate solution for RF-based mesh networking is expected. It also can be applicable for many kinds of areas including PC peripherals, personal healthcare, home control, and so on. In this paper, is used between an SP and an EMS to transfer energy consumption data. III. ENERGY MANAGEMENT SERVICE BASED ON AND MOBILE DEVICE A. Technical Issues There are some technical issues to consider for providing energy monitoring and management services. The issues for energy monitoring and management services are illustrated in Figure 1 [5], which includes three layers. First, and sensor layer (SSL) detects instantaneous and accumulated power usage using SPs, which are installed for each electric device. Also, sensors collect and send sensing data, such as occupancy and temperature, to the energy monitoring and management services server. The information, such as name, type and instantaneous power usage, for each device is saved in the profiles and used to control the energy saving services. Then, energy monitoring and management layer (EMM) translates the raw energy data to the context information, and decides what the contexts of energy consumption are and which services are required. For example, EMM recognizes the energy leakage context using the information of the occupancy, and energy consumption. Finally, energy saving (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 18

3 services, including device control based on occupancy, policy and ontology based device control, are provided in the energy efficiency layer (EEL), which sends control command to the SPs to turn off the device that is not used and wastes energy. and Sensor Layer Monitoring And Management Layer Efficiency Layer Instantaneous / accumulated power data Sensing data (Occupancy, Temperature) Control Devices Occupancy Space situation Occupancy based device control Policy based device control Ontology based device control Device Profiles leakage Conservation Figure 1. Technical issues for energy monitoring and management services Users can control devices automatic or manual modes. In the automatic mode, an administrative resident defines control rules for energy efficiency services in advance, and devices can be controlled when the contexts are matched. In the other mode, devices are controlled manually by the user. Also, users can monitor and control devices using their mobile devices according to their permission level. B. System Structure The overview of the energy monitoring and management system based on and mobile device is shown in Figure 2. The smart space includes new technologies for smart and green service such as SPs, an EMS, and a mobile device, and can be defined as a home, building, school, and so on. In this paper, a smart home is defined as the space. is used between an SP and the EMS, and Wi-Fi between the EMS and a mobile device, because a mobile device doesn t include interface. The SPs measure the power and energy usage of the connected devices and sends them to the EMS periodically through. The EMS stores the power and energy data of (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 19

4 Conference Proceedings Published by : Institute of Information System and Research Center ( IISRC ) for devices in the database and manages the data in the database. Users are classified into two types: administrator and general users. The administrator creates and manages information regarding energy consumption, including profiles of users, SPs, devices, and zones in the space, using a mobile device through WiFi. The general users added or approved by the administrator, can monitor and control devices using the mobile device according to the designated rule. It is important to turn off unnecessarily used devices to save energy consumption. The EMS can detect them using occupancy sensors and notify users through the mobile device. Devices can be turned off automatically by the EMS or manually by the user, according to the predefined policy. The Mobile device provides GUI for users to manage and controls devices. In an existing smart space, ZigBee is utilized to transfer the power and energy data of electric devices [1], [2]. However, they have several limits such as short communication range, low data rate, instability of mesh routing, and shadow zone. To overcome these limits, is used to measure and transmit the energy data of devices. It can communicate up to a range of 1 km and provide a maximum data rate of 1,600 Kbps [2]. O ccupancy Temperature Service Provider Wi - Fi Internet EMS Smart Plug Mobile Device Wi - Fi Figure 2. Example of a figure caption. (figure caption) C. Architecture and Components of Smart Plug, EMS, Mobile Application The architecture and components of an SP, an EMS, and a mobile device are shown in Figure 3. The SP has a interface to communicate with the EMS [3]. The EMS has a and Wi-Fi interfaces for the SP and the mobile device, respectively. The SP collects energy consumption data for the connected device, and transfers them to the EMS using interface. The EMS then stores and manages them in the database. It also analyzes energy consumption and makes various energy statistics. Unnecessarily used devices can be detected in EMS using the instant power data and occupancy sensors and notified to users through the mobile device. The energy consumption information is sent to the mobile device from the EMS via Wi-Fi. The information of SPs is managed in the smart plug profile block, including the information of the identification, the connected device, the period of metering and keep-alive message, and the zone where SPs exist. The users can change this information for each SP. Users information and authorities are managed in the user profile block. Power and energy information for (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 20

5 each SP is analyzed in the energy information block, and stored in the database. The energy statistic is made using the energy information. Users can control devices using the commands defined in the device control block. A mobile device provides GUI for energy management service. An administrator adds a new SP and sets the information in the database of EMS using the mobile device. In each zone, power and energy data for devices are displayed, and energy statistics is shown according to the time unit including time, day, week, and month per device and per zone. Users can easily monitor the energy use of devices and remotely turn on or off them using a mobile device. EMS Smart Plug Smart Plug Profile Control Data Transfer Data Collect User Profile Database Device Control Information Wi - Fi TCP/IP Statistic Wi - Fi Mobile Device GUI Monitor Control TCP/IP Mobile Wi - Fi Figure 3. Architecture of EMS, SP, and mobile device IV. IMPLEMENTATIONS OF EMS The sequence flow of SP registration and EMS service is shown in Figure 4. A SP is installed for each device, and detects the device and the EMS, and sends the registration message to the server. The administrative user s mobile device operates as the displayer of the server, and the information of the SP and the devices are saved in the server using the mobile device. The intervals for metering data for each device can also be set in the SP registration. Metering data are sent by SPs to the EMS periodically or on demand by the server requests. Then, the server saves the energy consumption data for each device and for each zone. The users can monitor the information using their mobile devices, and manually control the devices to reduce energy costs. The messages for turning off devices are sent from mobile device to the SPs through the server, and they cut off the power to the devices. Also, the predefined rules for energy leakage can invoke device control, for example, absence context and temperature based device control. When the context is matched, operations for turning off devices are invoked. Using this mechanism, users can recognize the energy consumption for their home, and reduce the energy leakage. The implemented system consists of three components: a SP, an EMS, and a mobile device, as shown in Figure 5. The SP in Figure 5 (a) has a interface and is capable of measuring and transmitting power and energy, and controlling a device. It can be installed in an outlet or a device. The EMS in Figure 5 (b) has and Wi-Fi to communicate with a SP and a mobile device. It includes database and has capabilities to manage and analyze energy consumption. The mobile device in Figure 5 (c) provides GUI for users to monitor and control devices. Users can add and delete SPs, and change its information using the GUI. Figure 5 (d) shows the zone UI for a living room. information for the whole space and the zone is shown in upper left, and power information for each device are in the middle, and lower part shows zones in a including a living room, a kitchen, and so on. (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 21

6 Users can add a device to the zone with the upper right button. Figure 5 (e) shows the commands to control SPs in the upper screen and the energy statistics in the lower part. Pressing the white button in the screen, users can change the time unit for the energy statistics. A UI for device information is shown in Figure 5 (f) illustrates the information for a device, including an identification of the connected SP, a name and a type of a device, a zone name where the device exists, and the periods of metering message. This information is set using a mobile device and stored in the database of the EMS. Using the proposed system, energy consumption is reduced using the remote control of unused devices. Also, the system can be improved by using existence sensors and predefined rules to automatic control of devices. EMS Mobile Device Smart Smart Plug Plug Smart Plug Notify to a SP and an appliance Send registration of SP and an Detect an Save the information Set the intervals for Metering Predefined Context is matched (ex: Absence) Detect the mode : Automatic or Manual Manual mode Register the information of the appliance Send response to the registration Periodical Metering Information Manual mode : Notify to a user Select devices to control for the context Automatic mode Select devices to control for the context Control command for context Send result of control the appliances Control the appliances : ex) turn off Send result of control the appliances Figure 4. Sequence flow of SP registration and EMS service (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 22

7 ( a ) ( b ) ( c ) ( d ) ( e ) ( f ) ssfigure 5. Implemented results (a) SP (b) EMS (c) Mobile device (d) Zone UI (e) SP command and energy statistics UI (f) Device information UI V. CONCLUSIONS We propose an energy monitoring and management technology based on and mobile device. is used to send the energy consumption data of devices because it has many merits including communication range and data rate compared to ZigBee. An SP measures the power and energy of devices and controls them when receiving the control command from the user through EMS. An EMS analyzes and manages energy consumption of devices. A mobile device provides GUI to easily monitor and control devices. Also, the proposed scheme provides user interfaces to control unnecessarily used devices. The predefined rules for energy leakage and existence sensors can cut off the power automatically to save energy based on the proposed system. It can result in the efficient energy management and the energy cost saving using the and mobile devices. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the ICT and Broadcasting R&D program of MSIP, Republic of Korea, under grant number , Development of Technology for Integrated Management Service of Building and Community and Their Trading. REFERENCES [1] Hyunjeong Lee, Youn-Kwae Jeong, Il-Woo Lee, Sang Ho Lee, A Service Framework for Building Management Technology, 2012 International Conference on Convergence Technology, pp , China, July [2] Korea Economics Institute, Yearbook of Statistics, vol. 31, Dec [3] Jinsoo Han, Chang-Sic Choi, Wan-Ki Park, Ilwoo Lee, and Sang-Ha Kim, Smart Management System Including Renewable Based on ZigBee and PLC, Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Jan (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 23

8 [4] Changwan Kim, Seungsik Lee, and Sangsung Choi, A 900 MHz Zero-IF RF Transceiver for IEEE g OFDM Systems, ETRI Journal, vol.36, no. 3, pp , Jun [5] Dae-Man Han and Jae-Hyun Lim, Smart Management System using IEEE and ZigBee, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, no. 3, pp , Aug [6] Hyunjeong Lee, Wan-Ki Park, and Ilwoo Lee, Management Services based on Grid Technology, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology (ICACT), vol. 16, no. 1, Feb [7] Zhuang Zhao, Won Cheol Lee, Yoan Shin, and Kyung-Bin Song, An Optimal Power Scheduling Method Applied in Home Management System Based on Demand Response, ETRI Journal, vol. 35, no. 4, pp , Aug [8] H.Y. Kim, J.S. Jeong, W.S. Cha, G.S. Shin, and S.T. Kim, Technical Trends of AMI and HEMS for Smart Grid Implementation, 2013 Electronics and Telecommunications Trends, vol. 28, no. 2, pp , April [9] L. Peretto, The Role of Measurements in the Smart Grid Era, IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag., vol. 13, no. 3, June 2010, pp [10] T.-K. Nguyen et al., Low-Power Direct Conversion Transceiver for 915 MHz Band IEEE b Standard Based on 0.18m CMOS Technology, ETRI J., vol. 30, no. 1, Feb. 2008, pp [11] Kuor-Hsin Chang and Bob Mason, The IEEE g Standard for Smart Metering Utility Networks, Proceedings of the IEEE SmartGridComm 2012 Symposium, pp , Nov [12] Cisco Communities, IEEE g Smart Utility Networks () Overview, Mar [13] IEEE Std gTM-2012, Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), Mar (ISSN : ) on Volume No : 20, Issue No : 1..Page No. 24

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