1 Information Systems Business processes Management Information Systems Information Systems Leadership Leadership Knowledge Management Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructures 3. Karlsruher Symposium für in Theorie und Praxis Prof. Dr. Dept. of Management Information Systems, Information Systems Leadership Martin-Luther Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg
2 Overview From Knowledge Work to Knowledge Infrastructures Knowledge Work Knowledge Management Instruments Knowledge Infrastructures Modeling for Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructures Approaches to (Extended) Business Process Modeling Knowledge Stance Modeling Perspectives Projects
3 Relevance of Knowledge Work Origin: knowledge worker Drucker 1979 Knowledge workers replace industrial workers as the largest group p of the work force. Consequently, businesses should no longer be seen from an industrial, but from a knowledge perspective. Sveiby 1987 and 1997, 26ff 60% of US organizations think that between 60% and 100% of their employees are so-called knowledge workers. Delphi 1997 In 2002, about 75% of workers were employed in the service sector r in the United States or about 65% in Germany respectively U.S. Department of Labor; Work is increasingly or exclusively based on information.
4 Knowledge work solves weakly structured problems with a high degree of variety and exceptions, is creative work and requires creation, acquisition, application and distribution of knowledge, uses intellectual abilities and specialized knowledge rather than physical abilities, requires a high level of education, training and experiences resulting in skills and expertise, is often organized decentrally using new organizational metaphors, bases inputs and outputs primarily on data and information, has strong communication needs and is highly mobile and distributed, and thus requires a strong yet flexible support by information and communication technologies.
5 KM Instrument Definition ICT-supported KM instrument: a bundle of organizational, human resources and ICT measures that is used systematically in a KM initiative in order to achieve knowledge-related goals. person-oriented oriented instruments knowledge in heads of people content/product-oriented oriented instruments knowledge as object organization-oriented oriented instruments knowledge as process, knowledge in social systems
6 Classification of KM Instruments knowledge development/ application maps communities/ knowledge networks knowledge process reengineering knowledge source map competence management personal experience management organization (knowledge in social systems) person (knowledge bound to individuals) product (knowledge as object) knowledge structure map lessons learned good/best practices semantic content management
7 Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructure (EKI) Multiple terms used vaguely knowledge (management) system, knowledge portal, warehouse organizational memory system KM tools, software, combination of tools applied with KM in mind KM platforms, suites enterprise knowledge infrastructure What separates EKI from more traditional information systems? Intranet infrastructures, document and content management systems, artificial intelligence tools, business intelligence tools, Groupware or collaboration tools, e-learning systems.
8 EKI Characteristics and Architecture Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructures knowledge worker I access services authentication; transformation for diverse applications and appliances II personalization services person-, process-, project- or role-oriented knowledge portals discovery search, visualization, navigation III knowledge services publication structuring, contextualization collaboration competence mgmt., community spaces learning authoring, course mgmt., tutoring IV integration services taxonomy, ontology; user, function, process integration V infrastructure services storage, access, messaging, security services extract, transformation, loading, inspection services Intranet/Extranet: messages, contents of CMS,E-learning platforms DMS documents, files from office information systems data from RDBMS, TPS, data warehouses personal information management data content from Internet, WWW, newsgroups data from external online data bases VI data and knowledge sources
9 Peer-to to-peer Architectures characteristics mutual client-server-functionality direct exchange between peers autonomy architectures assisted P2P pure P2P super peer P2P benefits direct communication without unwanted filters autonomous selection of tools and ontologies flexible configuration of teams/networks acceptance by local storage and decentral access privileges community I externalization community II internalization, application feedback submission distribution acquisition search community III Barkai 2001, 4ff, Benger 2003, 167f, Dustdar et al. 2003:170ff, Schoder/Fischbach 2002, 587
10 Architecture of Peer-to to-peer KMS
11 Modeling for Enterprise Knowledge Infrastructures Business process modeling methods such as ARIS (Scheer( 2001), ADONIS (Junginger( et al. 2000), IEM - Integrated Enterprise Modeling (Spur et al. 1996), MEMO - multi- perspective enterprise modeling (Frank 1994), PROMET (Österle( 1995) have been extended in order to cover aspects of knowledge work or knowledge management Examples: Knowledge-MEMO, ARIS KM, extensions to modeling of workflows, Business Knowledge Management/PROMET I-NET, PROMOTE, GPO-WM, KMDL
12 Comparison of Methods elements and perspectives different support for perspectives: person, process, product, productivity infrastructure knowledge as object, flow, process, practice, (social) system modeling at type/instance level expression: number of modeling elements degree of formalization goals and relations primary modeling goals: design of software / process / networks / HRM modeling at/for build time/run time of knowledge infrastructures relation to KM instruments operationalization: : detailing for knowledge infrastructures support procedure model tool support
13 Elements of Activity Theory Thesis: Knowledge is not an object, a passive unit. The processes s of knowledge and activity take place in so-called activity systems. tools activity motive agent / subject object outcome action goal operation conditions rules community division of labor after: Engeström 1993, 68
14 Process Modeling and Activity Modeling Compared routine structured problems, exploitation / application of knowledge crea tive unstructured problems, exploration / creation of knowledge level of motives value cha ins activities level of goals refine routinize processes actions level of conditions refine tasks routinize operations
15 Concept of Knowledge Stance process-oriented perspective activity-oriented perspective level of motives value chains activities level of goals function processes occasion function person process / activity knowledge stance topic tool mode action action action knowledgeoriented actions level of conditions tasks operations
16 Definition Knowledge Stance A knowledge stance is a recurring situation in knowledge work defined by occasion offers the opportunity or the need for knowledge-related actions. examples are the possibility to externalize knowledge, the opportunity to learn about new topics, an with ideas from a colleague. context comprises all dimensions adequate to describe the actual process-oriented oriented as well as the activity-oriented work context of the knowledge worker. examples for relevant dimensions are artifacts, other subjects, desired outcomes, roles, rules, members of the user s s community. mode can be described by the four informing practices monitoring, translating, expressing and networking. actions are offered depending on occasion, context and mode. Categories are derived from information quality tasks.
17 Informationssysteme Examples for Actions integration activities visualize concepts, list sources, summarize, personalize, prioritize contents, highlight aspects, give an overview, elicit patterns, validation activities evaluate source, indicate level of certitude/reliability, describe rationale, compare sources, examine hidden interests/background, check consistency, contextualization activities link content, state target groups, show purpose, describe background, relate to prior information, add meta-information, state limitations, activation activities notify and alert, demonstrate steps, ask questions, use mnemonics, metaphors and storytelling, stress consequences, provide examples, offer interaction. i source: Eppler 2003, 82ff
18 navigation structure Modeling Perspectives and Concepts Informationssysteme KM strategy, competencies motive, outcome KM instrument subject context theme context occasion, mode KPR type of knowledge process target group, network/ community communication organizational structure event, condition, action goal, input, output role resource expert person product meta-data scope flow of kno wledge tool support responsibility skill/ interest structure taxonomy occurrence profile productivity infrastructure ontology content/ structure personalization function/ interaction architecture/ structure
19 Projects and Initiatives person DFG-Project Knowledge acquisition and application in professional services firmsf irms process EU-Project KnowCom - Knowledge and Co-operation operation based engineering for die and Mould making SMEs knowrisk - Management of Knowledge Risks in Business Processes product Smartprotocols - Ontologies,, smart documents and Semantic Web-technologies smart management of protocols and experiences KM instrument SIMKnowledge - Simulation of knowledge sharing depending on the use of KM instruments productivity infrastructure Infotop - Managing Knowledge Workspaces in a Peer-to to-peer Environment
20 EU-Project KnowCom Know-CoM Knowledge and Co- operation based engineering for die and Mould making SMEs)
21 management SimKnowledge ens W iss Info rmationssys tem e hä Gesc ftsproze ss e IS-F ührung CEO Manager PM1 Projektmanager Worker1 Worker2 PM2 Projektmanager Worker3 Worker4 kbase decide project acceptance PM3 Projektmanager Worker5 find project manager Social Model SG find colleague joint plans plan1 knowledge process plan2 plan3 PS Joint Plans kbase LocalPlanningControlUnit a2 SG PS a4 a3 Behaviour -based Layer kbase customers BehaviorBasedControlUnit World Model SG PS Actions Emotion: flow / frust competitors routinized / reactive actions Patterns of Behavior job market AgentBody World Interface / Body perceive() turnover a5 Plans + Utility BehavioralAgent tell() go() act() getresult() orders project progress profit salary training cost skills external knoledge km-instruments Environment Multi-agent based simulation of knowledge distribution performance figures personnel cost learn Physis: exhaustion look() company environment a1 plans Mental Model apply new knowledge learn about solution request help Cognition: skills + money Local Planning Layer get payment do project work Status: contacts CooperativePlanningControlUnit find project members Worker6 WorkerAgent Cooperative Planning Layer coordinate team members business process knowledge balance
23 Research Questions How do we model knowledge work? knowledge as product vs. process vs. knowledgeable people completeness vs. understandability and modeling costs Is it strategically relevant? KM strategy and relationship to business strategy management of knowledge risks How do we support it with enterprise knowledge infrastructures? reconcile business processes and knowledge work seamless integration of personal and organizational KM environment nt inter-organizational knowledge infrastructures - standardization How do we measure success? evaluation of productivity of knowledge work evaluation of success of enterprise knowledge infrastructures
24 Conclusion Knowledge work is multi-faceted, its systematic design promises a substantial improvement of its productivity, requires the combined application of organizational and ICT instruments in enterprise knowledge infrastructures which demands the extension of enterprise modeling by concepts such as knowledge stance.
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