Kingdom of Bahrain. Bahrain Monetary Agency. Consumer Information Interest Rates Issue 2. Economic Research Directorate

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1 Kingdom of Bahrain Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate Consumer Information Interest Rates Issue 2 September 2005

2 Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate Contents What are Interest Rates? 1 When is an Interest Rate Used? 1 How are Interest Rates on Loans Set? 2 Calculating the Cost of Borrowing 2 Getting the Best Loan Deal 4 Interest Rates on Deposits 5 Types of Deposit Accounts 5 Getting the Best Deposit Deal 6 Glossary 7 Disclaimer: This booklet has been prepared solely to facilitate greater public understanding of banking & financial services in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The contents of this booklet do not constitute legal or investment advice and persons in doubt about any matter are encouraged to seek independent professional advice. The BMA shall not be responsible for any loss or other detriment suffered as a result of acting on the information herein.

3 Consumer Information Interest Rates This booklet explains how interest rates are calculated and the types of interest rates a consumer may encounter when dealing with financial service providers in Bahrain. Knowing about interest rates is important to consumers since it tells them how much it costs to borrow money and how much they can earn by depositing their money with a bank. Interest rates only apply to loans and deposits from conventional financial institutions. Islamic financial institutions do not charge or pay interest, but have other fees and payments not found in conventional institutions. This booklet looks only at interest rates in conventional banks. There is a Glossary at the back of the booklet explaining some of the commonly used terms. What are Interest Rates? An interest rate is a predetermined or negotiated payment made or received for the temporary use of money. A financial institution will charge interest when it lends money to a consumer and a consumer will receive interest when he or she deposits money with a financial institution. It is useful to think of interest as the rental charge on money. When is an Interest Rate Used? Financial institutions charge interest on all borrowing facilities. The borrowing facilities a consumer may utilise include: Personal loans Business loans Overdrafts Car loans Mortgages Credit cards Interest is also paid to the consumer when he/she deposits money with an institution. Interest rates are paid on most 1

4 Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate current/chequing accounts, time deposit accounts (CDs) and savings accounts. How are Interest Rates on Loans Set? A financial institution determines the interest rates it charges on its loans by evaluating its cost of funding (the interest it has to pay to borrow money from various sources), its operating expenses and a profit margin. Financial institutions fund their loans from a variety of sources, including consumer and corporate deposits and interbank borrowings. Since interest rates can vary significantly between financial institutions, consumers should compare the interest rates offered by lenders. Calculating the Cost of Borrowing The advertised rate of interest on loans does not usually give a good indication of the true cost of a loan, since fees and different ways of calculating the interest charges can result in different costs to the consumer. Annual Percentage Rate (APR) Financial institutions should tell potential borrowers what the annual percentage rate (APR) is on a loan. The APR is calculated the same way by each institution (although the advertised rates may be calculated in different ways). Therefore, the APR can be used in comparing interest rates between institutions. If a loan has a high APR, your cost of borrowing will be high. Fixed vs. Floating Rates Banks generally charge either fixed or variable interest rates on their loans. A fixed rate loan has an interest rate that does not vary during the term of the loan. The interest rate on a variable rate loan can vary depending on the movement of a reference rate (such as the prime rate). In Bahrain, most personal loans are offered at a fixed interest rate 2

5 Consumer Information Interest Rates while most overdraft facilities have variable rates that can change on a monthly basis. Fees and Charges To take out a loan, banks usually charge various administrative fees. Fees are usually charged for documentation, administration and similar services. Other fees and charges may also be applied. For some facilities, banks may offer other services to be purchased at the time the loan is made. Also, some loans may be insured against unemployment or the death of the borrower. There are also fees and charges that the borrower may have to pay during the life of the loan. These could include late payment charges and early repayment penalties. Borrowers should be clear on what fees and charges are associated with the loan. Secured vs. Unsecured Loans An important factor to consider when taking out a loan is whether the loan is secured or unsecured. Examples of secured loans are personal loans (secured on wages), car loans (secured on the car) and mortgage loans (secured on the property). Examples of unsecured loans are credit card balances and overdrafts. Having a secured loan is usually cheaper than an unsecured loan. Repayment Methods Most personal loans in Bahrain are amortised. The amortisation payment (installment) includes repayment of part of the principal and the month s interest for the loan. The payment is a fixed amount and is due the same time each month. Therefore, when the term of the loan is over, the loan is paid off. When using a facility that offers a line of credit, such as overdrafts, it is possible to agree with the institution to have interest paid off first and then the principal. Depending on an individual s 3

6 Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate creditworthiness, extensions to lines of credit and different repayment methods are negotiable. Term of the Loan The term of the loan refers to the time period over which you have the money. If it is an amortising loan, it is the time until the loan is paid off. For an amortising loan, the longer the term the lower the monthly payments (since you spread the repayment of the loan over a longer period). However, increasing the term of the loan also increases the total cost of a loan since you will be making payments for longer. Therefore, when taking out a loan, the consumer should focus on the total cost of the loan, as well as the monthly payments. Getting the Best Loan Deal Not all loans are the same. You need to compare loans from different banks to know which one will cost you less. When taking out a loan, check for: What is the interest rate on an APR basis? What is the repayment method? How is it amortised? What is the loan is secured against? How is the interest rate applied and calculated (fixed or variable)? What is the term of the loan? What are the monthly payments and what is the total cost of the loan? Can the amortisation period or the line of credit be extended without a change in the interest rate? Are there other fees that may affect the cost of your loan, for example, late payment penalties? Exactly when is each payment due and when will late fees begin to build up? Are there any early repayment penalties? When you pay 4

7 Consumer Information Interest Rates off your loan early, you may be charged with a fee to compensate the bank for its lost interest revenue. You should ask about the bank s policy on early repayment. Interest Rates on Deposits The type of deposit account to open depends on how you plan to use the account. If you will need to gain access to your money on a frequent basis, use a chequing or savings account. If you do not need to use your money for a longer period, a time deposit account may be best for you. Interest rates will vary depending on the type of deposit account opened by a consumer. This is because each type of account will have its own terms and conditions. Generally, the longer you can guarantee your funds are deposited in the bank s account, the higher the interest rate will be. For deposits, the amount deposited earns interest immediately, but the interest is paid into the account after a predetermined period of time. Each interest earning time period will vary from bank to bank and the type of deposit account. The deposit plus interest can then earn interest. When a deposit and previously earned interest earns interest, the interest earned is compounded. Some banks also charge fees for various banking services on deposit accounts; such as writing cheques, or using ATMs. The customer should ask if there are service fees, and how high they are. Types of Deposit Accounts Chequing/Current Accounts - You use cheques to withdraw money from the account that holds your deposits. Some chequing accounts pay interest and some do not. Also, overdraft facilities are available for some chequing accounts. You should inquire about the fees on chequing accounts as they vary from bank to bank. Savings Account - You may withdraw from a savings 5

8 Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate account; however, cheques are not usually issued with this type of account. The interest rates on this account are usually higher than a chequing account. Usually, there is no minimum balance requirement for a savings account. Some banks charge fees if deposit balances reach a low amount, so inquire about this possibility. Time Deposits and Certificates of Deposit (CDs) - You are not allowed to withdraw from this type of account before the maturity date. There will be penalties if it becomes necessary to withdraw money early. It has a guaranteed rate of interest for a certain period of time agreed between you and the financial institution. The interest rates on longer term CDs are higher than on a savings account or other deposit accounts. Money Market Deposit Accounts - This account allows you to write cheques and is an interest bearing account. It pays a higher rate of interest than a chequing or savings account, but requires a minimum balance to start earning interest. Getting the Best Deposit Deal Compare the features on each deposit account such as interest and penalty rates. Do not hesitate to inquire about anything that you need clarification on. What is the interest rate? How frequently is it adjusted? Does the interest paid depend on a minimum balance, and how is it calculated? How often is interest compounded? When do you start earning interest? Inquire about fees and penalties and any other features. 6

9 Consumer Information Interest Rates Glossary Annual Percentage Rate (APR) is the interest rate expressed as a yearly percentage, calculated according to a preset formula. All banks calculate the APR in the same way. Lenders should disclose the APR to borrowers. Amortisation is the process of paying off debt over a set time period by installments. The payments will include the principal sum and the interest. It may also include fees, if the bank has included them in the facility. Creditworthiness is the eligibility of a consumer to borrow money from a financial institution. This is generally dependent on a consumer s credit rating, which depends on, for example, how much debt the customer has, his/her income and past history of repaying loans on time. Compound Interest is interest paid on interest earned in earlier periods. How frequently the interest is compounded is part of the borrowing agreement. For example, a bank may compound an interest rate on a loan on a monthly basis, a quarterly basis, six month basis or annually. Current/Chequing Accounts are accounts where withdrawals are immediately available and cheques can be issued as a form of payment that is directly withdrawn from the account. Discounted Rate is where the lender (bank) specifies a discount off the variable rate for a given period of time. During this period the rate payable will vary whenever the lender changes its variable rate and the discount will be taken off the new rate. When the discount period ends, the rate usually goes back to the lender s variable rate. The borrower usually agrees to stay with the lender for a certain period of time or face a penalty. Fixed Interest Rates are interest rates that do not change over the term of the loan. Interbank Borrowings are money that is borrowed between banks. Late Payment Charges are charges imposed on late payments on existing loans. If payments are late, both a finance charge (the interest on the outstanding balance) and a late-payment charge will be due. Some lenders may also impose an additional penalty if you have more than one late payment within several months. 7

10 Bahrain Monetary Agency Economic Research Directorate Line of Credit is a loan that customers can draw on when needed and repay as funds become available. Lines of credit are usually only available to most creditworthy customers. Overdraft is an agreed amount by which an account can be overdrawn. This facility usually carries an annual fee and is provided to consumers who have chequing accounts. Personal Loans/Corporate Loans are loans to individuals and loans to companies. Principal Sum is the sum borrowed or deposited by a consumer. Prime Rates are interest rates that are charged by banks to their most creditworthy corporate customers. Usually this rate is a lower interest rate than is available to private borrowers. Published Reference Rate (or Underlying Interest Rate) is a publicly quoted interest rate that is used by financial institutions as a reference to calculate their variable interest rates. It can be either an average of several interest rates or one well-known interest rate (such as the prime rate). Savings Accounts are interest-bearing accounts where deposits and withdrawals can be made on demand, but chequing privileges are not normally available. Secured Loans are loans that are backed by an asset owned by the customer. Usually, if the borrower fails to repay their loan, the bank has the authority to sell the security (asset) in order to repay the loan. Unsecured Loans are loans granted to the borrower based on trust. Lenders will tend to provide unsecured loans to their most creditworthy customers. Time Deposit Account (Certificate of Deposit) is a deposit account where an institution and a consumer deposit funds that are locked in for a specific period of time. Usually there are penalties associated with premature withdrawal from these accounts. Variable (Adjustable) Interest Rates are interest rates that increase and decrease based on the change of a published reference rate. For example, a credit card might have a variable rate that is a certain spread over the prime rate. 8

11 م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية المهتويات ١ ١ ١ ٢ ٢ ٤ ٥ ٥ ٦ ٧ ا س عار الفاءدة ما هو س عر الفاءدة متى تس تخدم ا س عار الفاءدة كيفية احتس اب ا س عار الفاءدة على القروض حس اب تكاليف الاقتراض الهص ول على ا فض ل العروض بالنس بة للقروض ا س عار الفاءدة على الوداءع ا نواع حس ابات الا يداع الهص ول على ا فض ل العروض بالنس بة للوداءع دليل المص طلهات ملاحظة: تم ا ص دار هذا الكتيب بهدف التوعية العامة بالخدمات المص رفية والمالية التي يوفرها القطاع المص رفي والمالي في مملكة البهرين ولا يهدف ا لى توفير ا ية مش ورة قانونية ا و اس تشمارية. كما ا ن م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين لا تتهمل ا ي مس ي ولية ناتجة عن اتخاذ قرار اس تشماري اس تنادا ا لى المعلومات المنش ورة.

12 دليل المس تهلك ا س عار الفاءدة ا س عار الفاءدة يتض من هذا الكتيب معلومات ا س اس ية عن ا س عار الفاءدة وا س اليب احتس ابها والا مور التي يجب ا ن ت ءوخذ في الاعتبار عند قيام المس تهلك بالاقتراض من المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية في مملكة البهرين. ويتناول الكتيب ا س عار الفاءدة في الم ءوس س ات المالية التقليدية فقط ويش مل دليلا يش ره بعض المص طلهات الش اءعة الاس تخدام. ما هو س عر الفاءدة س عر الفاءدة هو المبلغ الذي يدفعه المس تفيد من القرض لقاء اس تخدامه الم ءوقت للمال. حيش يدفع الفاءدة للم ءوس س ة المالية عند اقتراض ه مبلغا من المال بينما يس تلم الفاءدة عند الا يداع. متى تس تخدم ا س عار الفاءدة - تقوم الم ءوس س ات المص رفية والمالية باحتس اب الفاءدة على جميع القروض والتس هيلات الاءتمانية والتي تش مل: القروض الش خص ية. قروض قطاع الا عمال. الس هب على المكش وف. قروض الس يارات. القروض العقارية. بطاقات الاءتمان. ١

13 م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية كما تقوم الموءس س ات المالية بدفع الفاءدة ا لى الزباءن على الهس ابات الجارية/الش يكات ووداءع الا جل والتوفير. كيفية احتس اب ا س عار الفاءدة على القروض تا خذ الم ءوس س ات المالية في الاعتبار عدة عوامل عند تهديد ا س عار الفاءدة على القروض منها تكلفة التمويل (الفاءدة التي تدفعها الم ءوس س ات المالية على الوداءع وعلى القروض التي تقترض ها) وتكاليف التش غيل وهامش الربه والمخاطر الاءتمانية للمقترض. ويتطلب من المس تهلك الا خذ في الاعتبار البنود الا نفة الذكر حيش تتفاوت ا س عار الفاءدة بين الم ءوس س ات المالية وعلى المس تهلك ا ن يقارن بينها عند الاقتراض. حس اب تكاليف الاقتراض لا يعد س عر الفاءدة المعلن على القروض الم ءوش ر الوحيد لتكلفة الاقتراض وعلى المقترض دراس ة الا مور الا خرى مشل الرس وم الا ض افية وا س لوب حس اب تكلفة الا قراض وذلك على النهو التالي: معدل الفاءدة الس نوي يهتس ب معدل الفاءدة الس نوي بطريقة واحدة في جميع الم ءوس س ات المالية ويمكن اس تخدامه للمقارنة بين الم ءوس س ات المالية حيش ترتفع تكلفة الاقتراض بارتفاع معدل الفاءدة الس نوي. المعدلات الشابتة والمتغيرة ٢ تحتس ب المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية المقرض ة ا س عار فاءدة ثابتة ا و متغيرة على القروض الممنوحة. حيش ا ن المعدل الشابت هو المعدل الذي لا يتغير خلال فترة القرض بينما يختلف المعدل المتغير باختلاف س عر الفاءدة.

14 دليل المس تهلك ا س عار الفاءدة تفرض المعدلات الشابتة في مملكة البهرين على معظم القروض الش خص ية بينما تفرض المعدلات المتغيرة على تس هيلات الس هب على المكش وف ش هريا. الرس وم والا جور تقوم المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية باحتس اب رس وم ا دارية مشل رس وم التوثيق والخدمات الا دارية الا خرى ولا تكون مش مولة ض من معدل الفاءدة الس نوي. يقوم المص رف بفرض بعض الرس وم الا ض افية لبعض الخدمات مشل التا مين على بعض القروض ض د البطالة ا و وفاة المقترض. كما ا ن هناك رس وم ا خرى يدفعها المقترض خلال فترة الس داد مشل رس وم المدفوعات المتا خرة وعليه فمن الض روري الا لمام بجميع هذه الرس وم والمبالغ المهتس بة على القروض. القروض بض مان ا و بغير ض مان يجب الا خذ بعين الاعتبار عند الاقتراض كون القرض مض مونا ا و غير مض مون. ومن ا نواع القروض المض مونة: القروض الش خص ية (بض مان الراتب) قروض ش راء الس يارات (بض مان المركبة) والقروض العقارية (بض مان العقار). ومن ا نواع القروض غير المض مونة: بطاقات الاءتمان والس هب على المكش وف. والجدير بالذكر ا ن تكلفة القرض المض مون ا قل من تكلفة القرض غير المض مون. طرق الس داد معظم القروض الش خص ية تس دد على ا قس اط ش هرية وتش مل هذه الا قس اط جزءا من المبلغ المقترض والفواءد الش هرية. حيش يكون هذا المبلغ ثابتا ويس دد في تاريخ مهدد متفق عليه مس بقا. عند اس تخدام التس هيلات الاءتمانية كالس هب على المكش وف فا نه من ٣

15 م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية الممكن ا ن يتم الاتفاق مع المص رف ا و الموءس س ة المالية على دفع الفواءد قبل المبلغ المقترض. يمكن الاتفاق حول زيادة حدود الاءتمان وطرق الس داد حس ب كفاءة المقترض الاءتمانية. فترة س داد القرض كلما طالت فترة س داد القرض كلما قل المبلغ المدفوع ش هريا للقروض المقس طة (حيش توزع الا قس اط على فترة ا طول). ا لا ا ن زيادة فترة س داد القرض تزيد التكلفة الا جمالية لذا يجب على المس تهلك ا ن يعرف بدقة التكلفة الا جمالية للقرض وقيمة المدفوعات الش هرية. الهص ول على ا فض ل العروض بالنس بة للقروض على المس تهلك مقارنة ا س اليب توفير وتكلفة القروض التي تمنهها الم ءوس س ات المالية لمعرفة الا نس ب منها. عند التقدم بطلب قرض على المس تهلك ا ن يكون ملما بالا مور التالية: معدل الفاءدة الس نوي. ا س لوب الس داد وطريقة تقس يط القرض. ض مان القرض. ا س لوب حس اب س عر الفاءدة (ثابت ا و متغير). فترة س داد القرض القس ط الش هري والتكلفة الا جمالية للقرض. ا مكانية تمديد فترة س داد القروض والتس هيلات الاءتمانية دون تغيير في س عر الفاءدة ا و تكلفة الاقتراض. الرس وم الا خرى التي قد ت ءوثر على تكلفة القرض كغرامات الدفع المتا خر. معرفة التاريخ المهدد لس داد الا قس اط وبداية تراكم الرس وم المتا خرة. وجود غرامات للدفع المبكر حيش انه عند الدفع المبكر للقرض يتم احتس اب رس وم ا ض افية على المقترض نظير الخس اءر التي يتكبدها المص رف حيال خس ارة عواءد الفواءد المفروض ة. ٤

16 دليل المس تهلك ا س عار الفاءدة ا س عار الفاءدة على الوداءع يعتمد نوع حس اب الا يداع المزمع فتهه على ا س لوب اس تخدامه. فا ذا ا ردت اس تخدامه بش كل متكرر عليك اس تخدام الش يكات ا و حس ابات التوفير. وعند عدم الهاجة ا لى اس تخدام ا موالك لفترة طويلة فا ن حس اب الا جل هو الا فض ل. تختلف ا س عار الفاءدة من حس اب ا يداع لا خر بس بب اختلاف البنود والش روط الخاص ة بكل منها. وكلما تم ض مان فترة ا طول لا يداع ا موالك كان س عر الفاءدة ا على. يتم احتس اب الفاءدة حال ا يداع المبلغ في المص رف وتدفع للمودع بعد فترة زمنية وتختلف الفاءدة باختلاف المص رف ا و الم ءوس س ة المالية ونوع الهس اب. تعد الفاءدة المركبة هي الفاءدة المهتس بة على المبلغ المودع بعد احتس اب الفاءدة (المبلغ الا ص لي + الفاءدة). تقوم بعض المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية باحتس اب رس وم على بعض الخدمات المص رفية المتعلقة بهس ابات الا يداع مشل رس وم تهرير الش يكات ا و اس تخدام الص راف الا لي. وعلى المودع ا ن يعرف كيفية احتس اب الرس وم الا ض افية التي تفرض ها المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية. ا نواع حس ابات الا يداع الهس ابات الجارية/ الش يكات تس تخدم الش يكات لس هب بعض الا موال المودعة لدى المص ارف ا و الم ءوس س ات المالية وتوفر بعض ها تس هيلات الس هب على المكش وف فيما تدفع بعض ها فاءدة نظير الا يداع. يجب الا لمام بالرس وم المفروض ة من قبل المص رف على الهس ابات والتي تختلف من مص رف لا خر. حس ابات التوفير يمكن للمودع ا ن يس هب مبلغا من حس اب التوفير. تعد الفاءدة المهتس بة في حس ابات التوفير ا على من الفاءدة المهتس بة في الهس ابات الجارية. ٥

17 م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية ولا يوجد حد ا دنى لرص يد حس اب التوفير غير ا ن بعض المص ارف تفرض رس وم ا ض افية عند وص ول رص يد الوديعة ا لى حد ا دنى يقرره المص رف. حس ابات الا جل وش هادات الا يداع لا يمكن للمودع ا ن يس هب ا مواله من هذه الهس ابات قبل تاريخ الاس تهقاق ويمكن للمص رف فرض غرامات ا ذا قام المودع بس هب الا موال مس بقا. يوفر هذا النوع من الهس ابات س عر فاءدة مض مون لفترة زمنية يتم الاتفاق عليها بين المص رف والمودع. تعتبر ا س عار الفاءدة على حس ابات الا جل ا على نس بيا من ا س عار الفاءدة على حس ابات التوفير. حس ابات وداءع س وق المال يتيه لك هذا الهس اب تهرير الش يكات وهو حس اب يهقق لص احبه فاءدة. يدفع س عر فاءدة ا على من الهس ابات الجارية والتوفير ولكنه يتطلب توفر رص يد بهد ا دنى. الهص ول على ا فض ل العروض بالنس بة للوداءع عند الا يداع يجب المقارنة بين المص ارف من حيش ا س عار الفاءدة والغرامات المفروض ة. لا تتردد في الاس تفس ار عن الا مور التالية:- ما هو س عر الفاءدة متى وكيف يتم تغييره هل يعتمد دفع الفاءدة على الهد الا دنى للرص يد متى يتم احتس اب الفاءدة المركبة متى يبدا احتس اب الفاءدة للاس تفادة منها اس تفس ر عن الرس وم والغرامات. ما هي المميزات الا خرى التي يتيهها لك الهس اب ٦

18 دليل المس تهلك ا س عار الفاءدة دليل المص طلهات س عر الفاءدة الس نوي: هو نس بة الفاءدة الس نوية على القرض وتقوم المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية باحتس ابها با س لوب واحد وعلى الم ءوس س ات المالية الا علان عن ا س عار الفاءدة للمقترض ين. اس تهلاك الدين: عملية س داد الدين خلال فترة زمنية مهددة على ا قس اط. وتش مل الا قس اط المبلغ المقترض بالا ض افة ا لى الفاءدة. ويمكن ا ن تش مل بعض الرس وم الا خرى التي قد يفرض ها المص رف ا و الم ءوس س ة المالية. الكفاءة الاءتمانية: كفاءة المس تهلك لاقتراض الا موال من المص ارف والم ءوس س ات المالية. وهذا يعتمد على التص نيف الاءتماني للمس تهلك والذي يعتمد بدوره على قيمة الدين ودخله وس جل س داده للقروض في الماض ي. الفاءدة المركبة: فاءدة تهس ب على فواءد س ابقة اس تهق دفعها وا ض يفت ا لى را س المال وتكرار احتس اب الفاءدة المركبة يعتبر جزءا من اتفاقية الاقتراض. فعلى س بيل المشال يمكن للمص رف ا ن يجمع الفاءدة بش كل ش هري فص لي نص ف س نوي ا و س نوي. الهس اب الجاري/الش يكات: هو الهس اب الذي يمكن س هب الا موال منه بش كل فوري ويمكن تهرير الش يكات كطريقة ا خرى للدفع حيش تس هب الا موال من الهس اب مباش رة. معدل الخص م: عندما يقوم المص رف ا و الم ءوس س ة المالية بتهديد س عر الخص م على الفاءدة المتغيرة لفترة زمنية مهددة. وخلال هذه الفترة تتغير نس بة الفاءدة المدفوعة بتفاوت س عر الفاءدة المتغير. وحال انتهاء الفترة المخفض ة يرجع س عر الفاءدة المدفوع ا لى الس عر المتغير. س عر الفاءدة الشابت: هو س عر الفاءدة الذي لا يتغير طوال فترة س داد القرض. الاقتراض بين المص ارف: هي القروض التي يمنهها المص رف لغيره من المص ارف وغالبا ما تكون قص يرة الا جل. رس وم الس داد المتا خر: هي الرس وم التي تفرض عند التا خر في س داد القروض. عند التا خر في الس داد تدفع غرامة مالية كفاءدة على الرص يد القاءم بالا ض افة ا لى غرامة التا خر في الس داد. بعض المص ارف قد تفرض غرامات ا ض افية عند تكرر التا خر عن الس داد خلال عدة ا ش هر. الهد الاءتماني: ٧ القرض الذي يمنهه المص رف للزبون ويمكن س داده عند توفر

19 م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية الس يولة. وهذا النوع من القروض يمنه للزباءن ذوي المص داقية الاءتمانية العالية. الس هب على المكش وف: الس ماه لش خص بس هب مبلغ ا على من المبلغ المودع في حس ابه. هذا التس هيل يمنه لا ص هاب الهس ابات الجارية/الش يكات وعادة ما يتطلب دفع رس وم س نوية. القروض الش خص ية/قروض قطاع الا عمال: هي القروض التي تمنه للا فراد والش ركات. المبلغ الا س اس ي: هو مجموع المبالغ المودعة ا و المقترض ة من قبل المس تهلك. الس عر الا س اس ي: مقدار الفاءدة الذي تس توفيه المص ارف من الش ركات والم ءوس س ات الكبيرة التي تتمتع بس معة مالية و اءتمانية ممتازة. يكون هذا الس عر عادة ا قل من الس عر المفروض على بقية المقترض ين. س عر المرجع المعلن: هو س عر الفاءدة المعلن والذي تس تخدمه جميع الم ءوس س ات المالية كمرجع لهس اب س عر فاءدتها المتغير. من الممكن ا ن يكون متوس ط ا س عار فاءدة معروفة ا و س عر فاءدة معتمد (الس عر الا س اس ي). حس ابات التوفير: هو حس اب يدفع المص رف فيه فاءدة على رص يد المبلغ المودع ويمكن الس هب منه تهت الطلب. ولا يمكن تهرير الش يكات للس هب من هذا الهس اب في العادة. القروض المض مونة: هو قرض يعطى فيه المقترض للداءن ش يي ا ذا قيمة كض مان (مشل العقار ا و المركبة) با نه س يس دد مبلغ القرض عند اس تهقاقه. وعند عدم مقدرة المقترض على س داد دينه يهق للمص رف بيع الض مان واس تلام قيمة القرض. القروض غير المض مونة: قرض لا يقدم المدين فيه ا ي ملك ا و ش يء ذا قيمة لض مان تس ديده ا نما يعتمد فيه على الشقة. و تمنه هذه القروض للزباءن ذوي المص داقية الاءتمانية الجيدة. حس اب الا جل (ش هادات الا يداع): حس اب في مص رف يهقق لص احبه فاءدة ولا يمكن الس هب منه ا لا با ش عار المص رف بذلك الس هب لمدة معينة تختلف باختلاف المص رف. تقوم المص ارف بفرض غرامات على الس هوبات قبل موعد الاس تهقاق. س عر الفاءدة المتغير (قابل للتعديل): هو معدل الفاءدة الذي يرتفع وينخفض حس ب تغير س عر المرجع المعلن. ٨

20 مملكة البهرين م ءوس س ة نقد البهرين ا دارة البهوش الاقتص ادية دليل المس تهلك ا س عار الفاءدة الا ص دار الشاني س بتمبر ٢٠٠٥

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