1 BGP Best Practices for ISPs Prefix List, AS PATH filters, Bogon Filters, Anycast, Mailing Lists, INOC DBA. Gaurab Raj Upadhaya Packet Clearing House
2 What are Best Practices Established or known good ways of doing things. Being a good Internet citizen. Trying TO restrict damage to your network and FROM you network A lot of RFCs devoted on different BCP, but here we ll just cover a few topics here
3 BGP Security
4 Protocols are vulnerable Routing protocols, like BGP, OSPF can be attacked and weakness exploited False Information Man-in-middle situation Denial of service Routing Conditions
5 Prefix Lists BGP Security Issues Why, How and Where Prefix Lists Customers Peers Upstream Protocol Authentication MD5 BGP BCP Bogons
6 Why Prefix Filter?
7 We are new ISP, learning how to do BGP.. we can make mistakes AS101 We do filters AS1 We are AS1, we don't do prefix-filters AS2 AS1 AS65535 We are happy with our provider We are not happy with our provider AS65534
8 Let's see how we can do BGP, we'll announce our prefixes all in /24s, and may be a /8 AS101 Woo!! no effect AS1 We are AS1, we don't do prefix-filters, so we will send the garbage through to peers and customers AS2 AS1 AS Which /8, I see no problems Ouch! something wrong?, my traffic not going to this /8 AS65534
9 It's REAL, does happen In 1997, this happened with AS which was the most visible of all. Frequent Messages on IXes mailing list about hitting max prefix limits. Garbage in Garbage out.
10 So, what should we do? Don't send Junk Filter your own advertisement Filter your customers Don't Accept Junk Filter your customers Filter your peers Help Others mitigate impact - Net Police Help others and they'll help you
11 Prefix Filter - How
12 BGP Prefix Filtering Two ways to implement prefix filtering: Prefix list - easy to use, not highly scalable AS-PATH - widely used, highly scalable Distribute list is now considered obsolete Two filtering techniques: Explicit Permit (permit then deny any) Explicit Deny (deny then permit any)
13 BGP Route Filtering Prefix-List example ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /12 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /24 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 deny /3 le 32 ip prefix-list rfc1918 permit /0 le 32
14 BGP Filtering Applying the previous prefix-list to peers router bgp no synchronization neighbor remote-as neighbor prefix-list rfc1918 in neighbor prefix-list rfc1918 out neighbor remote-as neighbor prefix-list rfc1918 in neighbor prefix-list rfc1918 out no auto-summary!
15 Using AS-PATH filters
16 Using AS-PATH filters Filter routes based on AS path Applied same way as prefix-list filters AS-PATH syntax is different, can use regular expressions Example Configuration: router bgp network mask neighbor remote-as neighbor filter-list 1 out neighbor filter-list 200 in! ip as-path access-list 1 permit ^65564$ ip as-path access-list 200 permit ^65200$
17 Regular Expressions Most router OS uses Unix regular expressions. Match one character * Match any number of preceding expression + Match at least one of preceding expression ^ Beginning of line $ End of line _ Beginning, end, white-space, brace Or ( ) brackets to contain expression
18 Regular Expressions examples Examples.* match anything.+ match at least one character ^$ match routes local to this AS _3856$ originated by AS3856 ^3856_ received from AS3856 _3856_ via AS3856 _3856_42_ via AS3856 and AS42 _(3856_)+ multiple AS3856 in sequence (used to match AS-PATH prepends)
19 Regular Expressions examples Complex Examples ^[0-9]+$ Match AS_PATH length of one ^[0-9]+_[0-9]+$ Match AS_PATH length of two ^[0-9]*_[0-9]+$ Match AS_PATH length of one or two ^[0-9]*_[0-9]*$ Match AS_PATH length of one or two (will also match zero) ^[0-9]+_[0-9]+_[0-9]+$ Match AS_PATH length of three _( )_ Match anything which has gone through AS42 or AS3856 _2914(_.+_)42$ Match anything of origin AS42 and passed through AS2914
20 Where to Prefix Filter?
21 Where to Prefix Filter? "Customers "Ingress / Egress "Upstream "Ingress / Egress "Use default if single homed "Peers "Ingress and Egress at all points of peering AS65535 Filter Peers Upstream AS2 Upstream Filter only default Peers AS1 AS1 filter upstrea m Filter to / from upstream AS101 Customer s Customer s Upstream AS65534
22 What to Prefix Filter? Special Use Addresses (RFC3330) and Bogons
23 Special Use Addresses There are routes that should NOT be routed on the Internet RFC 1918 and Martian networks /8 and multicast blocks Certain RFC3330 addresses: BGP should have filters applied so that these routes are not advertised to or propagated through the Internet
24 Special Use Addresses Quick review /8 and /32 Default and broadcast /8 Host loopback /24 TEST-NET for documentation /8, /12, and /16 RFC 1918 private addresses /16 End node auto-configuration
25 Special Use Addresses ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /12 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /24 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /3 le 32 ip prefix-list deny-sua deny /0 ge 25 ip prefix-list deny-sua permit /0 le 32
26 Bogons IANA publishes the list of IP Address that have been assigned to RIRs and end-users Only these blocks of IPv4 addresses should be visible and used on the Internet. Filters should be applied on Ingress / Egress of your AS for all other address range
27 Bogons The IP Address is 32 Bits. The range is to Not all IP Address are allocated by IANA Few are not to be used on the public internet (RFC 1918) Few blocks are reserved (> 223/8 ) The IP Address that are not supposed to be seen on the Internet are known as Bogons, sometime also referred to as Martian
28 Bogons To be a good Internet citizen, ISPs should not route them Many DoS attacks originate from these unallocated address blocks, so it s also good security ISPs can get the bogons list from IANA and set up their prefix filters to route traffic When new address is assigned, generally the announcements are sent far and wide on many different mailing lists (eg. sanog, nanog, apops, afnog etc.) Same procedure is also applied for IPv6 address space
29 Router Configuration This is how you configure your Cisco routers in your networks Static Route to Null0, good idea for RFC1918 space ip route mask null0 BGP prefix-list for Unallocated blocks neighbor x.x.x.x prefix-list bogons ip prefix-list bogons seq 5 deny /0 le 32 ip prefix-list bogons seq 10 deny /0 le 32
30 Router Configuration The problem with the static configuration is many fold The Bogons list keeps on changing People move into new jobs, new people start managing the network New engineers may have no clue on why those configurations are in there The network is working, so let s leave it there triumphs over further digging
31 Bogon Route Server Project Thus, the Bogon Route Server Project Provides bogons over a ebgp Multihop session. There are four Bogons Route Server. Connecting to at least two is recommended. You can run a BGP session with the Bogon route server You receive the bogons list through BGP, then you can either Either set the next-hop for the bogons to a static IP address and help in research work Or set the next-hop for the bogons to a static IP address that is statically routed to Null0
32 Configuring Routers for Bogon RS Full Details are available at router bgp <your asn> neighbor x.x.x.x remote-as neighbor x.x.x.x ebgp-multihop 255 neighbor x.x.x.x description <your description> neighbor x.x.x.x prefix-list cymru-out out neighbor x.x.x.x route-map CYMRUBOGONS in neighbor x.x.x.x password <your password> neighbor x.x.x.x maximum-prefix 100 threshold 90! ip bgp-community new-format! ip route null0! ip community-list 10 permit 65333:888! route-map CYMRUBOGONS permit 10 description Filter bogons learned from cymru.com bogon route-servers match community 10
33 How do I set up the peering? To peer with the Bogon Route Server, contact When requesting a peering session, you should include the following information in your Your AS number The IP address(es) you want to use for peering If your equipment support MD5 passwords for BGP sessions? Your PGP/GPG public key, if you have one (not mandatory) The session is set up through ebgp multihop with a private ASN. It currently has 95 prefixes. Your router must at least support these requirements.
34 Team Cymru The bogon list is maintained by the Team Cymru ( While you are at the Team Cymru website, you can also take a look at the secure Router Configuration Template You ll find loads of useful information for ISPs and Network people there
35 Prefix Filters on Customers
36 Prefix Filters on Customers Apply prefix filters on all your customers! AS101 AS1 AS2 AS1 AS65535 AS65534 Peers ISP Customer
37 Customer Prefixes Service Providers should only accept assigned or allocated prefixes from their downstream peer/customer. E.g If the RIR has assigned /19 to your customer, accept only that from it If your customer is mulihomed, then accept specific prefix assigned to them by the other ISP, if required
38 Receiving Customer Prefixes Configuration example on upstream: router bgp neighbor remote-as 201 neighbor prefix-list CUSTOMER-AS201 in! ip prefix-list CUSTOMER-AS201 permit /20 ip prefix-list CUSTOMER-AS201 deny /0 le 32
39 Prefixes to Peers
40 Prefixes to Peers Apply prefix filters, AS-PATH filters to your peers! AS101 AS1 AS2 AS1 AS65535 AS65534 Peers ISP Customer
41 Prefixes to Peers What do you announce to other networks? Your prefixes. Customer's Provider Independent (PI) prefixes More specific customers prefixes (customers who are multihoming) What do you not send to other network? RFC3330 Prefixes assume junk will leak into your ibgp. Bogons assume garbage will leak into your ibgp. Prefixes longer than /24, i.e, /25 to /32
42 Egress Filter to Peers The egress prefix list can grow to be very large: More specifics for customers. Specific blocks from other ISPs AS-PATH filters are more scalable Peer Mailing lists generally send updates about new downstream prefixes
43 Ingress Prefix Filtering from Peers
44 Prefixes from Peers Filter all routes from your peers! AS101 AS1 AS2 AS1 AS65535 AS65534 Peers ISP Customer
45 Filtering Ingress Routes Peers and Upstream provide access to the Internet routes Ingress filters with Peers The peering policy should have requirements so that filters can be built Max Prefix limit are important Ingress filters with Upstream Unless you multihome, full routes are not required, accept only default
46 Best Practices for ingress filters Don t accept RFC1918 etc prefixes Don t accept your own prefix Don t accept default (unless you need it) Don t accept prefixes longer than /24 Consider Net Police Filtering
47 Ingress example - Cisco IOS router bgp network mask neighbor remote-as 201 neighbor prefix-list in-filter in! ip prefix-list in-filter deny /0! Block default ip prefix-list in-filter deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /8 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /12 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /24 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /16 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /19 le 32! Block local prefix ip prefix-list in-filter deny /3 le 32 ip prefix-list in-filter deny /0 ge 25! Block prefixes >/24 ip prefix-list in-filter permit /0 le 32
48 Packet Filtering Principles Filter as close to the edge as possible Filter as precisely as possible Filter both source and destination where possible
49 Routing Protocol Updates MD5 Authentication
50 Route Authentication Hashed Routing Updates Router2 Verifies Signature Router1 Network Signs Route Updates Certifies Authenticity of Neighbor and Integrity of Route Updates
51 BGP Route Authentication Router1 Example router bgp 200 neighbor remote-as 201 neighbor description Link to AS-201-Peer neighbor password 7 cisco Router2 Example router bgp 201 neighbor remote-as 200 neighbor description Link to AS-200-Peer neighbor password 7 cisco
52 Additional BGP Knobs
53 BGP Maximum Prefix Tracking Allow configuration of the maximum number of prefixes a BGP router will receive from a peer Two level control Warning threshold: Log warning message Maximum: Tear down the BGP peering, can be setup renew the session after a time period Vendor Implementation varies a little bit
54 BGP Maximum-prefix - Cisco neighbor <x.x.x.x> maximum-prefix <max> [<threshold>] [warning-only] Threshold is an optional parameter between 1 to 100 percent Specify the percentage of <max> that a warning message will be generated; Default is 75% Warning-only is an optional keyword which allows log messages to be generated but peering session will not be torn down
55 Avoid Default Routes ISPs with full BGP feeds should avoid default routes. DOS/DDOS attack use spoofed addresses from the un-allocated IPV4 space. See for the latest macro allocations. Backscatter traffic from DOS/DDOS targets need to go somewhere. If there is a default, then this traffic will go to this one router and get dropped. Dropping backscatter traffic might overload the router.
56 RFC 2827/BCP 38 RFC 2827/BCP 38 Network Ingress Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source Address Spoofing "Thou shalt only sendth and receiveth IP packets you have rights for"
57 RFC 2827/BCP 38 Ingress Packet Filtering Packets should be sourced from valid, allocated address space, consistent with the topology and space allocation
58 Guidelines for BCP38 Networks connecting to the Internet Must use inbound and outbound packet filters to protect network Configuration example Outbound only allow my network source addresses out Inbound only allow specific ports to specific destinations in
59 NO BCP38 may mean : Devices can (wittingly or unwittingly) send traffic with spoofed and/or randomly changing source addresses out to the network Complicates traceback immensely Sending bogus traffic is not free
60 Techniques for BCP 38 Filtering Static ACLs on the edge of the network Dynamic ACLs with AAA profiles Unicast RPF strict mode IP source guard Cable source verify (DHCP)
61 Using ACLs to Enforce BCP38 Static ACLs are the traditional method of ensuring that source addresses are not spoofed: Permit all traffic whose source address equals the allocation block Deny any other packet Principles: Filter as close to the edge as possible Filter as precisely as possible Filter both source and destination where possible
62 Static ACL example - Cisco Allocation Block: /19 BCP 38 Filter = Allow Only Source Addresses from the Customer s 96.0.X.X/ /24 Internet Core / /24 access-list 121 permit ip any access-list 121 deny ip any any log! interface serial 1/1/1.3 description T1 Link to XYZ. ip access-group 121 in! /24 BCP 38 Filter Applied on Leased Line Aggregation Router
63 BCP ACL Guidelines ISPs Make sure your customers install filters on their routers give them a template they can use Customer end-sites Make sure you install strong filters on routers you use to connect to the Internet First line of defense never assume your ISP will do it
64 IPv4 Anycast Routing
65 What isn t Anycast? Not a protocol, not a different version of IP, nobody s proprietary technology. Doesn t require any special capabilities in the servers, clients, or network. Doesn t break or confuse existing infrastructure.
66 What is Anycast? Just a configuration methodology. Mentioned, although not described in detail, in numerous RFCs since time immemorial. It s been the basis for large-scale contentdistribution networks since at least It s gradually taking over the core of the DNS infrastructure, as well as much of the periphery of the world wide web.
67 How Does Anycast Work? The basic idea is extremely simple: Multiple instances of a service share the same IP address. The routing infrastructure directs any packet to the topologically nearest instance of the service. What little complexity exists is in the optional details.
68 Example Router 2 Server Instance A Client Router 1 Router 3 Router 4 Server Instance B
69 Example Router Server Instance A Client Router 1 Router Router Server Instance B
70 Example Router Server Instance A Client Router Router 3 Router Server Instance B DNS lookup for produces a single answer: IN A
71 Example Router Server Instance A Client Router Router 3 Router Server Instance B Routing Table from Router 1: Destination Mask Next-Hop Distance / / /
72 Example Router Server Instance A Client Router Router 3 Router Server Instance B Routing Table from Router 1: Destination Mask Next-Hop Distance / / /
73 Example Router Server Instance A Client Router Router 3 Router Server Instance B Routing Table from Router 1: Destination Mask Next-Hop Distance / / /
74 Example What the routers think the topology looks like: Router 2 Client Router Server Router 3 Router 4 Routing Table from Router 1: Destination Mask Next-Hop Distance / / /
75 A Security Ramification Anycast server clouds have the useful property of sinking DOS attacks at the instance nearest to the source of the attack, leaving all other instances unaffected. This is still of some utility even when DOS sources are widely distributed.
76 More things to know
77 Update your whois Information Please expect that advanced parts of the community are building filters straight - and strictly - from routing registry data (at least for the RIPE community this is fairly solid data - a benefit which is painfully missing in most other RIR's service areas). Ruediger Volk, Deutsche Telecom (VIX Mailing List, August 17, 05)
78 What else should I know? Good ISPs know about their networks, and never block ICMP as a result of some virus activity ISPs should not be involved in blocking ports over their network But they can always create a best practice document for their customers not to send internal information on the public internet Keep their abuse desk functional and have valid e- mails address for abuse Anycast can provide critical service redundancy
79 Mailing Lists Most countries have regional if not local mailing lists for operational / bogons updates SANOG is South Asia, NANOG is North America, AfNOG is Africa, APOPS is Asia Pacific, EOF is for Europe, Swinog is Swiss, NZNog is Kiwis.. list is long Security updates from vendors are sent to most of the list above plus NSP-Sec Mailing List Cisco-NSP, Juniper-NSP and other vendor specific lists CERT mailing list
80 Participate Networks are only useful when people can use it The only way you can make your network work for everyone is by talking to others, so you should participate in these forums. If you have an IX, the IX mailing list can be the ideal list for such technical discussion Remember, a rouge user anywhere on the Internet can effect you, and chances of attacks originating near your own network is always higher.
81 INOC DBA INOC-DBA: Inter-NOC Dial-by-ASN Global Voice-over-IP hotline phone system, directly interconnecting NOCs and SIRTs within carriers, ISPs, exchange points, and vendors.
82 How does it work? If you just dial an Autonomous System Number, it ll ring a predefined group of phones within that AS. (example: 42 ) If you dial an ASN and an extension number, it ll ring the phones belonging to that person. (example: 42*WEW ) Also, well-known extensions for NOC, abuse, routing, SIRT, et cetera.
84 Thank You Gaurab Raj Upadhaya Peering and Network Group Packet Clearing House With acknowledgements to Philip Fredrick Smith, Rob Thomas, Merike Kaeo and Bill Woodcock The Best Practices for ISPs tutorial can be found at / resources / tutorials / ispbcp
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Fireware How To Dynamic Routing How do I configure the Firebox to use RIP? Introduction A routing protocol is the language a router speaks with other routers to share information about the status of network
CIRA s experience in deploying IPv6 Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) Jacques Latour Director, Information Technology Ottawa, April 29, 2011 1 About CIRA The Registry that operates the Country
renesys WHITE PAPER Practical BGP Security: Architecture, Techniques and Tools Laris Benkis A practical approach to identify weaknesses and highlight strategies for the detection of internetwork failures
1 2 3 Console cables - The console cables are not interchangeable between Brocade and Cisco. Each vendor provides their console cable with each manageable unit it sells. Passwords - Neither Cisco or Brocade
2006-10-23 1 Hunting down a DDOS attack By Lars Axeland +46 70 5291530 email@example.com 2006-10-23 What we have seen so far What can an operator do to achieve core security What solution can
Where MPLS part I explains the basics of labeling packets, it s not giving any advantage over normal routing, apart from faster table lookups. But extensions to MPLS allow for more. In this article I ll
CMPT 471 Networking II Firewalls Janice Regan, 2006-2013 1 Security When is a computer secure When the data and software on the computer are available on demand only to those people who should have access
CS 457 Lecture 19 Global Internet - BGP Fall 2011 Decision Process Calculate degree of preference for each route in Adj-RIB-In as follows (apply following steps until one route is left): select route with
The BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) Link Bandwidth feature is used to advertise the bandwidth of an autonomous system exit link as an extended community. This feature is configured for links between directly
: Implementing a Border Gateway Protocol Solution for ISP Connectivity CCNP ROUTE: Implementing IP Routing ROUTE v6 1 Objectives Describe basic BGP terminology and operation, including EBGP and IBGP. Configure