The Role of Security Monitoring & SIEM in Risk Management

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1 The Role of Security Monitoring & SIEM in Risk Management Jeff Kopec, MS, CISSP Cyber Security Architect Oakwood Healthcare Jeff Bell, CISSP, GSLC, CPHIMS, ACHE Director, IT Security & Risk Services CareTech #HIMSS15 DISCLAIMER: The views and opinions expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily represent official policy or position of HIMSS.

2 Conflict of Interest Jeff Kopec, MS AND Jeff Bell, BS Have no real or apparent conflicts of interest to report. HIMSS

3 Learning Objectives 1. Assess the readiness of healthcare providers and business associates to respond to current cybersecurity threats. 2. Evaluate the barriers to successful Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) implementation including solutions and alternatives. 3. Describe the people and process changes needed to successfully use SIEM technology to identify and respond to cybersecurity incidents. 3

4 An Introduction to the Benefits Realized for the Value of Health IT Breaches are expensive Data breaches cost healthcare organizations millions of dollars every year. Cost is ~$2M per institution over two years. Security Monitoring reduces the likelihood and severity of breaches, resulting in savings. SAVINGS SATISFACTION Patient satisfaction is affected by breaches Loss of business due to customer dissatisfaction is the largest factor in the cost of a data breach, estimated in 2013 at $188 per record. 30% of patients said they would find a new healthcare provider if their provider s office was breached. The Fourth Annual Benchmark Study on Patient Privacy & Data Security sponsored by ID Experts and conducted by the Ponemon Institute, March Cost of Data Breach Study by the Ponemon Institute, Sponsored by Symantec, May 2013 Avoidable Collateral Damage from Corporate Data Breaches, sponsored by Identity Finder and conducted by Javelin Strategy & Research, May

5 A Day in the Life of an IT Security Officer Gotham City General Hospital 5

6 Need: Robust / Effective / Risk-based Cybersecurity Programs Security standards: General rules. (a) General requirements. Covered entities and business associates must do the following: (1) Ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of all electronic protected health information the covered entity or business associate creates, receives, maintains, or transmits. (2) Protect against any reasonably anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information. (3) Protect against any reasonably anticipated uses or disclosures of such information that are not permitted or required under subpart E of this part. (4) Ensure compliance with this subpart by its workforce. 6

7 What We Have: Inadequate Cybersecurity Programs To receive FBI industry notices apply for InfraGard membership at 7

8 Verizon, Data Breach Investigation Report, 2014 Percent of Breaches where time to compromise (red) / time to discovery (blue) was days or less the bad guys seldom need days to get their job done, while the good guys rarely manage to get theirs done in a month of Sundays. attackers are getting better/faster at what they do at a higher rate than defenders are improving their trade. This doesn t scale well, people. 8

9 Cybersecurity Framework (NIST) Identify: Asset Management, Business Environment, Governance, Risk Assessment, Risk Management Strategy Protect: Access Control, Awareness and Training, Data Security, Information Protection Processes and Procedures Detect: Anomalies and Events, Security Continuous Monitoring, Detection Processes Respond: Response Planning, Communications, Analysis, Mitigation, Improvements Recover: Recovery Planning, Improvements, Communications Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity, Version 1.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, February 12,

10 Council on Cybersecurity - Critical Security Controls CSC 1: Inventory of Authorized and Unauthorized Devices CSC 2: Inventory of Authorized and Unauthorized Software CSC 3: Secure Configurations for Hardware & Software on Mobile Devices, Laptops, Workstations, and Servers CSC 4: Continuous Vulnerability Assessment and Remediation CSC 5: Malware Defenses CSC 6: Application Software Security CSC 11: Limitation and Control of Network Ports, Protocols, and Services CSC 12:Controlled Use of Administrative Privileges CSC 13: Boundary Defense CSC 14: Maintenance, Monitoring, & Analysis of Audit Logs CSC 15: Controlled Access Based on the Need to Know CSC 14-8: Deploy a SIEM (Security Incident and Event Management) or log analytic tools for log aggregation and CSC 16: Account Monitoring and Control consolidation from multiple machines and for log correlation and CSC analysis. 7:Wireless Using Access the Control SIEM tool, system CSC 17:Data administrators Protection and CSC 8: Data Recovery Capability CSC 18:Incident Response & Mgmt security personnel should devise profiles of common events from given systems so that they can CSC 19:Secure tune detection Network Engineering to focus on unusual activity, avoid false positives, more rapidly identify anomalies, and prevent overwhelming analysts with CSC 9: Security Skills Assessment and Appropriate Training to Fill Gaps CSC 10: Secure Configurations for Network insignificant Devices alerts. such as Firewalls, Routers, and Switches CSC 20: Penetration Tests and Red Team Exercises 10

11 Security: People, Processes, Technologies CUTTING EDGE TECHNOLOGIES Data Loss Prevention, Database Activity Monitoring, Threat Intelligence, Network Behavior Analysis, etc. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES App Control (Whitelisting), SIEM, NGFW / NGIPS, HIPS, User Monitoring, Vulnerability Scan, Forensic Tools, NAC FOUNDATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES Firewall, Security Gateway (Web, ), Network Segmentation, Endpoint Protection, Mobile Device Mgmt, IPS, Log Consolidation, Patch Mgmt, Encryption ESSENTIAL PROCESSES Change Mgmt, Vulnerability Mgmt, Configuration Mgmt, Access Mgmtt, Incident Response, Security Monitoring, Asset Mgmt, Awareness Training, DR/BCP, Governance, Risk Mgmt, Audit Security Policies Skilled Staff Security Framework 11

12 Benefits of Security Monitoring More rapid detection of security incidents More rapid incident response Ensure data is available for incident response Reduce impact from security incidents Meet regulatory requirements Demonstrate Due Care / Due Diligence Reporting / Metrics / Transparency Operational benefits By preparing for cyberthreats before an attack, organizations can potentially limit both data loss and the reactive, postincident expenses The longer a breach stays undetected, the further it spreads and the more it costs organizations Be Ready for a Breach with Intelligent Response, James Tarala, SANS, November

13 SIEM Functionality POLLING QUESTION Definition: Security Information and Event Management Describe your use of SIEM technology: Log collection, storage a. SIEM not installed Raw data Parsed / normalized data b. Not used effectively Data enrichment Data correlation / anomaly detection Alerts Console displays Query tools to support investigation / analysis c. Use third-party to monitor d. Have an effective process e. I don t know 13

14 SIEM Functionality Log Collection / Storage Security incidents almost always leave Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) in logs. The trick is to find them! Logs are critical to protect, detect and respond to security incidents. Logs should be collected in a central location and monitored continuously. 14

15 SIEM Functionality Log Collection / Storage Difficulties with analyzing logs No one may look at the logs Log analysis takes specialized skills and tools Logs may be stored only on local devices Log retention may be too short Logs may contain Too much information Too little information 15

16 SIEM Functionality Log Collection / Storage Examples of events that can generate log messages: System changes (New account, elevation of priv.) Authentication and authorization (successful & failed) Security alerts (malware detection, IDS detection, anomalous behavior such as new traffic flow) User activity access to devices, files, records System shutdown, startup Logging and Log Management, Dr. Anton Chuvakin et. al. 2013, PP

17 SIEM Functionality Log Collection / Storage Raw data SIEM receives raw data Raw data format varies by log source Raw data is not useful for analytics Parsed / normalized data SIEM parses data & transforms it to a normalized data structure Normalized data is stored in a database 17

18 SIEM Functionality POLLING QUESTION Log Collection / Storage What is your data retention of security logs? What retention period is appropriate? a. Less than 3 months Retained logs for as long as it might be useful 1 Based on business requirements PCI requires at least one year log retention, with a min. of three months immediately available b months c. 1 2 years NIST recommends 3-12 months for high impact systems 2 d. 2+ years e. We do not manage Tiered storage can be used 1 Logging and Log Management, Dr. Anton Chuvakin et. al. 2013, PP Guide to Computer Security Log Management, SP , NIST,

19 SIEM Functionality Data Enrichment Log data can be made more useful by enriching it Examples: Add host name from DHCP server Add a risk level by identifying hosts that are vulnerable to a detected exploit Threat intelligence: IOC or black lists of malicious URLs or IP addresses Data on users and assets from Active Directory or other sources 19

20 SIEM Functionality Data Correlation Correlation: Relationship between multiple events. Correlate a threat with a vulnerability Failed login attempts followed by successful login Logins by multiple users on the same endpoint 20

21 SIEM Functionality Anomaly Detection Anomalies: Establish baselines. What varies from the baseline is an anomaly. Privileged account logs in from new IP address New process not running on any other device New device on the network (unauthorized device) Unusually large data extract 21

22 SIEM Functionality Alerts, Queries and Console Display Real-time Alerts: Based on correlation rules. Alerts to the SIEM console and external systems such as or an ITSM. Console displays: Many types of real-time data including risk-rated alerts. Queries / Drill Down: Used to analyze an alert. Clicking an IP address or device name may display other events related to that IP address. This can greatly expedite incident investigation. 22

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25 Real World Example Anthem Breach February 4, 2015 Anthem breach, about 80 million affected. What has been reported: Discovered by a DBA who noticed a query running under the DBA s ID Signs the breach was committed by a Chinese cyber espionage group known as Deep Panda ScanBox Framework

26 Real World Example Anthem Breach February 4, 2015 Anthem breach, about 80 million affected. What has been reported: Trojan named Derbusi IP address: [.]112 URL: We11point[.]com Backdoor program masquerading as Citrix VPN software digitally signed by a certificate issued to DTOPTOOLZ Co. a calling card of Deep Panda

27 Real World Example Anthem Breach In retrospect, how might this breach have been prevented or detected? DBA credentials were compromised and used. Possible anomalies related to the credentials First time the ID logged in from that IP address Multiple simultaneous logins 27

28 Real World Example Anthem Breach In retrospect, how might this breach have been prevented or detected? Access to a look-alike domain name: we11point[.]com. Possibly used in a phishing campaign to obtain credentials. Some security firms identify we11point[.]com as malicious. Threat intelligence may have caught it in the web or security gateway or in the SIEM. 28

29 Real World Example Anthem Breach In retrospect, how might this breach have been prevented or detected? The malware masquerading as Citrix VPN software could have been detected by: Advanced endpoint protection tools First time this software has ever been seen on the network (unique hash value) 29

30 Real World Example Anthem Breach In retrospect, how might this breach have been prevented or detected? Unusual network traffic flow (Anomaly) Exfiltration traffic: Large outbound transfer to an IP with a bad reputation or in a location where you don t do business Command and Control traffic VPN connection from outside the country 30

31 SIEM Architecture Collectors Logging of raw data Parsing / normalizing of data Storage of normalized data Analytics engine Platform to support query, drill-down for investigation / analysis 31

32 SIEM Overview, CareTech Solutions 32

33 Some Firewall logs fed in 2010 SIEM Overview, CareTech Solutions 33

34 SIEM Implementation Plan Do we really need a SIEM? Are we really ready? Understand organization s assets (critical vs. non-critical) The map of our network Are the logs you want being captured? Involve data-owners early on and provide access to improve data-owner cooperation 34

35 We Bought it Now What? Perimeter System Integration Focus on familiar systems Network Authentication / Authorization logs (Active Directory) Remote Access system, Firewalls Anti-virus integration Internal Systems Tell me again why I should give you my logs? Raw, unmodified log data please Routers, Switches Critical System logs (e.g. Interface Engine) 35

36 Which Logs? Do we know what we re looking for? Do we understand all the functionality? Have a plan to collect data Ensure logs can be incorporated Too many logs leads to hardware, processing and storage issues 36

37 Oakwood SIEM Problems & Solutions Failure to gather business requirements Lack of understanding of SIEM functionality SIEM improperly architected & deployed Ran slow, not enough storage Insufficient resources to monitor & respond to events Identify & work with key stakeholders upfront. Determine what s important to the organization. Training is a must!!! Consultant with SIEM expertise helped tune SIEM & train staff. Partner with Network & Storage teams early in the process. Managed Service Provider contracted to monitor, train & create new rules. 37

38 Staffing Staffing To review potential incidents and events captured To respond to the identified incidents and events is critical ideally an incident response team Death by logs Failure to review and respond Many Organizations Recently Breached 38

39 Staffing Options Outsource: Managed Services Pros: Knowledge of product Expedite deployment and deliver quick wins Perception: We spent money on consulting; I better provide what they re asking for. Cons: Staff must still must be dedicated They don t know your network 39

40 Staffing Options In-house Pros: Less expensive upfront A better understanding of why sometimes Cons: Learning curve can cause delays Resource availability 40

41 SIEM Staffing - Key Tasks & Resources Planning Security team or Project Manager to identify business requirements and key stakeholders Architecture & Log Integration Partnership with key stakeholders to appropriately integrate logs and interpret Monitoring for Incidents & Events Security Operations Center (SOC) or Managed Services Provider Responding to Incidents & Events Security Incident Response Team 41

42 Conclusions & Recommendations Security incidents and breaches will occur in each of our organizations. Be Prepared! SIEM technology, skilled resources and effective processes are needed to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. Process and skilled analysts trump technology. Determine the scope and objectives for your SIEM in order to rightly size the technology and staff. The SIEM will get more and more useful and will become the go-to source for security monitoring 42

43 An Introduction to the Benefits Realized for the Value of Health IT Breaches are expensive Data breaches cost healthcare organizations millions of dollars every year. Cost is ~$2M per institution over two years. Security Monitoring reduces the likelihood and severity of breaches, resulting in savings. SAVINGS SATISFACTION Patient satisfaction is affected by breaches Loss of business due to customer dissatisfaction is the largest factor in the cost of a data breach, estimated in 2013 at $188 per record. 30% of patients said they would find a new healthcare provider if their provider s office was breached. The Fourth Annual Benchmark Study on Patient Privacy & Data Security sponsored by ID Experts and conducted by the Ponemon Institute, March Cost of Data Breach Study by the Ponemon Institute, Sponsored by Symantec, May 2013 Avoidable Collateral Damage from Corporate Data Breaches, sponsored by Identity Finder and conducted by Javelin Strategy & Research, May

44 Questions? Jeff Kopec, MS, CISSP Cyber Security Architect Oakwood Healthcare Jeff Bell, CISSP, GSLC, CPHIMS, ACHE Director, IT Security & Risk #HIMSS15 CareTech Solutions Polling Questions Results:

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