1 1 How to Litigate and Win an RTA Case with an Allegation of Fraud By Andrew Mckie (Barrister at Law) Clerksroom July Introduction a) Insurance fraud is on the increase. Undetected general insurance claims fraud total 2.1billion a year adding on average 50 to the annual costs individual policyholder s policy, on average, each year (Source: Insurance Fraud Bureau). b) This is a problem not only for insurance companies but for the Claimant Solicitors who represent Claimants, involved in these type of collisions, where a case has to be dropped due to an allegation of fraud or in the rare instance that a finding of fraud is made at Trial. This results in wasted costs for the Claimant s Solicitor who has sometimes expedited considerable expense to progress the matter to Trial in both the fee earner s time and disbursements that are unlikely to be recovered from the Claimant s ATE insurer or the Claimant himself. c) In my experience, it is not unusual to see a Claimant s base profit costs for an RTA case to Trial with an allegation of fraud to exceed 15,000. The question therefore is, how does one ensure that an RTA case, with an allegation of fraud, can be given the best possible opportunity to succeed at Trial? d) This article will look at both investigations that can be undertaken where an allegation of fraud has been made, as well as tactical and procedural considerations for RTA claims where an allegation of fraud has been made or intimated by the Defendant. 2. Vetting at the Front End a) How effective is your system at spotting suspected fraudulent claims at the point of taking instructions? b) Does your system comprise of simply completing the boxes on the RTA 1 form and submitting it to the Portal? c) Does your system of taking instructions from the Claimant ask any additional questions about how the accident happened?
2 2 d) Does your system of taking instructions include a full initial interview? 3. In my opinion, if a firm has a poor system of taking instructions at the front end of an RTA claim, this can let suspected fraudulent claims, that have no prospects of success slip through the net and cause the firm time and money in investigating claims that have little or no prospects of ever succeeding. 4. For example, would your system of taking initial instructions identify any fraud indicators, in the following scenarios? a) Two people carrier vehicles collide on an industrial estate late at night. It is an alleged rear end collision. Both vehicles are taxies. There are five passengers in each vehicle. Your firm is requested to represent five passengers of one of the vehicles for claims for personal injury, who all have whiplash injuries to the neck and back. There is no police attendance and no witnesses. All the passengers who request representation have significant accident claims histories they are reluctant to tell you about during the initial interview. Some of the passengers cannot recall the purpose of their journey, at the time of the collision. You do not represent the driver but you are aware of a significant claim for vehicle damage and credit hire by the driver. b) A driver and three passengers request you represent time after a low speed collision at the mouth of a roundabout. It is alleged that the Claimant followed an unidentified BMW into the mouth of the roundabout, which then braked, causing the Claimant to brake and the Defendant who was travelling in a HGV could not stop in time and collided with the rear of the Claimant s vehicle. The HGV driver alleges that there was no BMW and the Claimant braked for no reason causing the collision. The driver and passengers all allege they have whiplash injuries to the neck and shoulder. The driver brings a large claim for credit hire, vehicle damage and storage which comes to over 50,000. The pre accident value of his vehicle is 500. c) Eight passengers in a mini bus request you represent them in claims for personal injury. They all have neck, back and shoulder injuries of a similar nature. They allege that they were traveling home from a shopping trip in a taxi when they were hit in the rear by a Toyota taxi, whilst stationary at traffic lights. The driver of the taxi admits there was a collision but he says that it occurred at less than 1 mph as the vehicles moved in slow moving traffic. 5. All these are examples of RTA claims which have been taken on by Personal Injury firms in the portal and then discontinued many months or years into the investigation process due to poor credibility of the Claimant. In my opinion, you should not wait until the Defendant alleges or intimates fraud before the indicators are identified, applied and then hopefully excluded as initial
3 3 instructions are taken. If poor claims with little prospects of success can be identified at an early stage, it means the firm does not waste valuable time and resources, investigating claims that are unlikely to succeed. This may be achieved by the following method during the interview process:- a) Look for fraud indicators during the initial interview. I have produced a separate factsheet on these which be downloaded from If fraud indictors are identified, be prepared to ask more questions of the Claimant during the interview. b) Do you believe the Claimant? Does the Claimant make a credible witness? Remember if you do not believe the Claimant, it is unlikely that the Trial Judge will. If you have any doubts when taking instructions over the telephone, invite the Claimant in for a face to face interview, before you accept the claim on a CFA. A few extra hours work at the front end, may save many hours worth of wasted investigation time later on. c) If the Claimant is an inconsistent or unreliable witness can the Claimant provide you with any objective evidence, in the early stages, before you accept instructions on a CFA. For example:- I) Can the Claimant provide photographs of the damage to the vehicles? Is the damage consistent with what the Claimant says? II) III) IV) Can you speak to any independent witnesses to verify the Claimant s version of events? Did the police attend? Has the Claimant got a copy of the police report? Did the Claimant attend the GP/ hospital? Can they provide a copy of a prescription or discharge note from the hospital? V) Did the Claimant take any photographs of the accident locus? 6. If you have any concerns about the claim, all these are example of low cost investigations that can be undertaken at the initial interview stage, before the claim is accepted on a CFA. Remember if you have concerns about the claim, it is likely that the Defendant will raise the same concerns. A Claimant who is not prepared to provide documents or information to support a claim, at the initial interview stage, is unlikely to assist you progress a claim to Trial.
4 4 7. In my opinion, where you suspect that fraud may be alleged or averred to by the Defendant, it is vital that full and detailed statements are taken at the initial interview stage while the Claimant s memory is fresh and witnesses are prepared to co-operate. The little important details about how the accident happened provided a few days after the accident, while the evidence is contemporaneous may prove the deciding factor on credibility when the claim reaches Trial three years later. The same applies to documents. They have a habit of getting lost when the Defendant decides to allege fraud 18 months after the accident happened. If you can anticipate that the Defendant may make an allegation of fraud, you can have the evidence ready to disclose when it is raised. Allegations of Fraud: RTA Pre Litigation Litigation Tactics The following guidance provides some practical tips for investigating claims where allegations of fraud have been made prior to Litigation:- 8. Part 18 Questions/ Requests to Interview the Claimant a) There is no obligation for the Claimant to answer any Part 18 questions pre litigation and I would generally advise to refuse any such requests, at this stage. You may find some Part 18 requests are of a standard or pro forma nature. As long as you have interviewed the Claimant at length, the Claimant is a credible witness and you are satisfied the claim has reasonable prospects of success, why not simply get on and issue the claim? b) I have seen many example of where Part 18 questions have been sent to the Claimant to complete, without regard to whether the questions are reasonable or not. CPR Part 18 Practice Direction 6.2 says:- A Request should be concise and strictly confined to matters which are reasonably necessary and proportionate to enable the first party to prepare his own case or to understand the case he has to meet c) That is not to say that all Part 18 requests should be disregarded at the prelitigation stage. If you have a claim that will present a significant litigation risk by issuing the claim and thus will never be issued, there is no loss to
5 5 the Claimant by responding to a pre-litigation Part 18 request, if the Defendant is unlikely to settle the claim without receipt of the response. I would always advise against allowing the Defendant to interview the Claimant. 9. Part 31 Requests for Disclosure Pre Litigation. a) In comparison to Part 18 requests, both the Claimant and Defendant can be compelled to provide disclosure before proceedings are issued. In some circumstances, it may be prudent to make a formal request for pre-action disclosure of the Defendant, if the Defendant alleges fraud or will not disclose why they are investigating the claim:- b) The Defendant s engineers report and/ or repair invoice to determine damage consistency between the vehicles. c) Photographs of the damage to the Defendant s vehicle, even if the Defendant alleges that there was no damage, to determine if there was any damage and damage consistency. d) Accident report form. e) MOT certificate for the Defendant s vehicle. f) Any independent witness questionnaires. There is no property in a witness. g) CUE (previous accidents), MIAFTR (previous total loss) or any other database searches undertaken on the Claimant. d) If the Defendant refuses disclosure, the Claimant may consider an application for pre action disclosure under CPR Whether the Court will consider order the disclosure will depend upon the facts of the case. However, the engineering evidence and photographs will be ordered in most cases, if the Defendant is in possession. Prior to issuing the application the Defendant should be given at least 14 days to disclose the documents and then a 7 day warning by letter before the application is made and costs should then be sought of the application itself. Counsel is more than happy to assist with the drafting of any such applications or advising on the merits of the same, on a CFA basis.
6 6 e) When requesting documents from the Defendant it is worth reminding the Defendant of the wording of the pre action protocol which can be found athttp://www.justice.gov.uk/courts/procedure-rules/civil/protocol/prot_pic. This is relevant to the documents which must be disclosed under the protocol where liability is disputed including:- RTA CASES SECTION A In all cases where liability is at issue (i) Documents identifying nature, extent and location of damage to defendant s vehicle where there is any dispute about point of impact. (ii) MOT certificate where relevant. (iii) Maintenance records where vehicle defect is alleged or it is alleged by defendant that there was an unforeseen defect which caused or contributed to the accident. f) Conversely the Defendant also has a power to make disclosure requests of the Claimant. When considering whether to disclose a document, I would recommend you have regard to whether the Court would consider whether the a) Claimant is in control of the document and b) whether the request is reasonable bearing in mind the issues in dispute. A disclosure request for an engineer s report or repair invoice pre litigation may be reasonable whereas disclosure of the Claimant s medical reports for the previous 10 years may not be. Counsel is always happy to advice on the merits of any application made by the Defendant or his insurer. 10. Pre Action Protocol a) If the time under the pre-action protocol has expired and the Defendant is refusing to disclose the basis of its investigations, the pre-action protocol can be a useful tool. Unfortunately, where fraud is concerned, the protocol is often disregarded by the Defendant or his insurance company. However, some section of the protocol may be of some assistance such as, if the Claimant wishes to issue proceedings :- 3.7
7 7 The defendant( s insurers) will have a maximum of three months from the date of acknowledgment of the claim to investigate. No later than the end of that period the defendant (insurer) shall reply, stating whether liability is denied and, if so, giving reasons for their denial of liability including any alternative version of events relied upon 3.10 If the defendant denies liability, he should enclose with the letter of reply, documents in his possession which are material to the issues between the parties, and which would be likely to be ordered to be disclosed by the court, either on an application for pre-action disclosure, or on disclosure during proceedings Attached at Annex B are specimen, but non-exhaustive, lists of documents likely to be material in different types of claim. Where the claimant s investigation of the case is well advanced, the letter of claim could indicate which classes of documents are considered relevant for early disclosure. Alternatively these could be identified at a later stage Where the defendant admits primary liability, but alleges contributory negligence by the claimant, the defendant should give reasons supporting those allegations and disclose those documents from Annex B which are relevant to the issues in dispute. The claimant should respond to the allegations of contributory negligence before proceedings are issued. 11. Pre Action Admissions a) If the Defendant admits liability, either in the Portal or in writing, if the case falls out of the portal, do not readily be prepared to let the Defendant resile from the admission without any evidence in support. CPR 14.1A says that a pre- action admission may only be withdrawn in writing before proceedings are issued, if the Claimant agrees. b) If a significant period of time has passed, between the admission and the request to withdraw the admission one should consider the guidance
8 8 applied by the Court as to whether the admission can be resiled or not, upon application by the Defendant. The guidance is set out by CPR 14 PD 7.2. In some cases the Defendant may have an uphill struggle to convince the Court that they should be given permission to resile, especially where a significant period of time has passed since the admission was made The Claimant s investigation of the claim may now be prejudiced in terms of witnesses and the ability to obtain evidence, which may have since disappeared. c) Emphasis is also placed by the Court on whether any new evidence has come to light. If the Defendant has been in possession of all the facts for months or even years and only seeks to with draw the admission once proceedings are issued, again the Claimant may be able to argue their investigation has been prejudiced. Finally it is important to remember, that the Defendant must be able to show a Defence with a reasonable prospect of success, if the admission is withdrawn. Part 23 confirms that any application to resile, must be supported by evidence. The Judicial reality is that where the Defendant either pleads fraud, or a series of concerns, the Defendant will normally be allowed to resile from the admission, unless it is made very late in the day i.e. just before Trial and the Defendant will be penalised in costs. However, each case must be Judged on its own merits and in my opinion, the Claimant should not simply agree to an application or request to withdraw an admission without sight of a draft Defence and evidence upon which the Defendant will be able to show a reasonable prospect of defending the claim. Counsel is always happy to advise on the merits of any such application. Post Litigation: Litigation Tactics RTA where Fraud Alleged. 12. Applications to Set Aside Judgement a) All too often the Defendant driver may not respond to the proceedings (assuming they are not also commenced against the insurer under the EU Regulations). In what circumstances should you agree to set aside Judgement, if the insurer seeks to be added as a 2 nd Defendant and/ or comes on board to act for the driver? One should have regard to the criteria set out in CPR 13.3 as to whether a) the Defendant has a realistic prospect of defending the claim b) whether the application has been made promptly.
9 9 b) In my opinion you should not consider setting aside Judgement until you have seen the draft Defence. Is the Defendant / or Defendant pleading fraud or raising a number of concerns about the claim, if so, on balance the Judgement is likely to be set aside in the interests of justice. The only caveat to this is that if the application is made very late on the day i.e. near the Trial window and the Defendant s insurer has been on notice for some time that proceedings have been issued i.e. they were given Section 152 notice or advised proceedings were to be issued, then even if the Defendant is pleading fraud, an application to set aside Judgement has significantly less prospects of success. c) The costs occasioned by any application to set aside Judgement should always be sought. If the Defendant s Defence has merit and the application is made within a reasonable period of time, it is prudent to consent if the Defendant provides the opportunity to do so, to avoid the risk of the Defendant s costs of the application. Counsel is always happy to advise on the merits of any such applications. 13. Post Issue Admissions a) If the Defendant or the Defendant s insurer admits liability in the Defence, consideration should be given to the guidance set out in CPR 14 PD 7.2 before you consent to any application to resile from an admission in the Defence. Remember at this point, the Defendant or Defendant s Insurer had the benefit of legal advice. In my opinion, it is prudent to ask for the Defendant for disclosure of any new evidence and/ or a draft Defence in support of an application before you consent to this. Again, if the Defendant s insurer seeks to resile from an admission close to the Trial window, it is always worth resisting such an application. The costs incidental to such an application should be sought. Counsel is always happy to advise on the merits of any such application. 14. Applications to Amend the Defence a) It is becoming more and more common for the Defendant or his insurer to make late applications to amend the Defence, either to plead fraud or to plead a series of concerns about the Claimant, after an initial strict proof Defence has been filed, early on in the proceedings, to protect the Defendant s position. The reason for this, in most cases, is that there has been a failure to fully investigate the claim by the Defendant s insurer pre
10 10 proceedings, in some instances having been aware of the accident for many months or even years. The Solicitors for the Defendant s insurers are then left in the position where they have a relatively short time period to investigate the claim. Pursuant to CPR 17.1 the Courts permission or consent of the Claimant will be required to amend the Defence. b) If the Defendant s Solicitor suggests that they still have on-going investigations, it is always prudent to ask them to set out in writing the nature of those investigations and when they are likely to be concluded and invite the Defendant to make any application to amend the Defence once the witness statement and disclosure has taken place, at the latest. The letter should also make it that any application to amend the Defence once disclosure and statements have been served will be resisted and costs occasioned by any amendment will be sought by the Claimant. Once disclosure and statements have been served, the Defendant s insurer should have all the information it needs to make any application to amend. c) The Courts are being less tolerant of late applications to amend the Defence, especially when they are near the Trial window, even where the Defendant s insurer seeks to amend the Defence to plead fraud. Again consideration always need to be given to consenting to a reasonable application that has prospects of success and is served within a reasonable period of time or the Defendant s insurer may be able to seek costs from the Claimant in a successful application where such consent was unreasonably withheld. Conversely, the Claimant should usually be entitled to the costs occasioned by a late amendment to the Defence. Counsel is always happy to advise on the merits of any applications made by the Defendant. 15. Part 18 Requests and Witness Statement Post Litigation a) The Claimant may be obliged to respond a reasonable Part 18 request postlitigation, upon application by the Defendant. It is correct to say that the Claimant should not be obliged to respond to blanket or pro forma requests. The purpose of a Part 18 request is to clarify the issues in dispute between the parties. It may sometimes be prudent to invite the Defendant to raise a Part 18 request upon receipt of the Claimant s statement, to avoid duplication of the issues and unnecessary costs, or to agree an early exchange of witness statements. However, on an application by the Defendant, the Court will usually be prepared to order the Claimant to
11 11 answer a reasonable Part 18 request that complies with CPR 18.1 (a) and (b), where fraud is alleged. Additionally, if the Claimant wishes to achieve settlement of the case, the Defendant s insurer is unlikely to consider settlement until Part 18 requests have been answered. b) Claimants do not often raise Part 18 questions of the Defendant. It is always worth considering raising Part 18 questions of the Defendant or Defendant s insurer to clarify matters in dispute or to seek further information. This is particularly important if the Defendant s statement is poor or if LVI or slam on is alleged by the Defendant s driver. A well drafted Part 18 question can also put pressure on the Defendant to settle a case, especially if there is little or no co-operation from the insured driver. A Claimant should always be prepared to issue an application to enforce a Part 18 response if no response is provided within a reasonable time frame (usually 21 days). It is prudent to put the Defendant s Solicitor on notice 7 days before the application is made, in writing. In my opinion, the most appropriate time to raise a Part 18 request is upon receipt of the Defendant s statement and relevant disclosure. c) In my experience, one of the reasons cases are lost a Trial is the poor quality of the responses to the Part 18 request or lack of detail in the statement. For example, in some instances the fee earner has simply sent a pro-forma questionnaire to the Claimant to complete and drafted the statement on the basis of the questionnaire, statements are taken over the telephone that lack detail, if the Claimant s first language is not English, a friend of the Claimant is asked to translate and the statement does not have the any translation clause. If the statement lacks detail and the Claimant then starts to mention important details at Trial for the first time, that are not in the statement, this can lose the case for the Claimant at Trial. d) In my experience, it is important that when preparing a statement/ Part 18 responses, to invite the Claimant and the witnesses into the office to draft the statements, especially where fraud is alleged. The statement should be drafted with each witness individually and an independent translator be utilised, if required. If the Claimant cannot attend the office, it is sometimes wise to instruct an Investigator to attend to see the Claimant to take the statement, who has experience in drafting statement with allegations of fraud. Remember, the more detailed the statement the better as it this level of detail that adds credibility to the Claimant s case.
12 12 e) The quality of the witness statement and/ or Part 18 responses is the most important document in the whole case. If the document lacks detail or is poorly drafted, it can cause significant damage at Trial, as it is the Claimant who is going to be cross examined as to the failures of the document and not his Solicitor! Counsel is always happy to draft appropriate Part 18 questions to the Defendant, where required. 16. Reply to Defence/ Conference with the Claimant a) If the Defendant s insurer alleges fraud in the Defence or pleads concerns about the Claimant, it is essential, in my opinion, that a Reply to the Defence is prepared. This serves two purposes:- b) It provides a formal response to the allegations and many of the Defendant s allegations or concerns may be addressed so the claim be settled. c) It allows the Claimant to provide a robust response to the allegations and to clearly set out the Claimant s position. A well drafted Reply to the Defence can sometimes settle the claim, without the need for further detailed investigation. Counsel is always happy to consider drafting a Reply on a CFA basis. d) If the Defence pleads fraud or serves a strict proof Defence pleading significant concerns about the claim, I would always recommend an early conference with the Claimant to address the issues in the Defence to and draft a robust Reply to the Defence. An early conference with the Claimant means that if the allegations cannot be addressed and thus the claim has poor prospects of success, early instructions can be taken from the Claimant to settle the case or discontinue it on best terms before the Claimant is put at a significant costs risk and the Solicitor incurs significant costs of investigating a case with little or no hope of succeeding. e) Remember, if the credibility of the Claimant is poor after robust cross examination in conference, the Claimant is not likely to stand up to proof at Trial. Even if the Claimant does not come across well in conference, Counsel can still provide sensible and economic investigations to gather sufficient evidence to settle the claim on best terms. It is worth bearing in mind that most ATE policies will not indemnify the claim if prospects of
13 13 success are less than 50% or finding of fraud is made at Trial. Most ATE policies will require an advice from Counsel as to the prospects of success, before agreeing to indemnify the claim to Trial. f) In my opinion, if fraud is not alleged initially, the best time to have a conference with the Claimant is once disclosure and exchange of statements has taken place. The earlier the conference is arranged before Trial, the more time the Claimant will have to undertake any investigations or obtain any documents that are required to progress the matter to Trial. Counsel is always happy to consider undertaking a conference on a CFA basis, either at your office, by telephone or at Clerksroom s Chambers throughout England and Wales. 17. Part 35 Questions and Expert Evidence a) If the Defendant seeks to rely upon their own engineering evidence and/ or medical evidence, it is important in my view to always consider raising appropriate Part 35 questions of the engineer or medical expert. This is particularly important if the Defendant seeks to adduce evidence from a Forensic Engineer in an alleged staged or contrived accident to suggest that accident did not occur as alleged or at all. It is always important to consider raising questions of the Defendant s medical expert where LVI is alleged. b) To leave such evidence unchallenged could be fatal to the Claimant s case and some well drafted Part 35 questions can challenge the credibility of the Defendant s expert and in some instances can result in a favourable settlement for the Claimant, especially where the Defendant s Defence is heavily reliant on the expert s opinion. c) If the Defendant seeks to adduce a forensic report in an alleged staged accident and the Claimant relies on an automotive assessor, it may be prudent for the Claimant to also consider their own forensic report, to ensure equality of arms. Conversely, this may also apply to Defendant who obtains a report of a Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon in an LVI claim and the Claimant only has a GP report. Counsel is always happy to advise on the appropriate Part 35 questions to the Defendant s expert or relevant expert evidence.
14 Part 31 Disclosure a) The Claimant has a powerful weapon to compel the Defendant to provide disclosure once proceedings have been issued. If the Defendant or his insurer has not provided all the necessary disclosure after the process of standard disclosure has taken place, the Claimant may make an application for specific disclosure under CPR and seek the costs occasioned by the application. The Defendant s Solicitor should be given at least 14 days to provide the disclosure with a written request and then provide a written warning, in writing 7 days before the application is made. b) Whether or not the disclosure is reasonable will depend upon the facts of the case. For example, if the Defendant s insurer disputes any damage or alleges that minimal damage was caused to the Claimant s vehicle, it may be reasonable to request specific disclosure of photographs of the Defendant s vehicle, repair invoice or engineers report to confirm this. The Claimant should be prepared to make an application in the event of none compliance. A well timed request for disclosure may put pressure on the Defendant s insurer to settle if the policyholder is not co-operating and documents will be required from the Defendant s driver or vehicle owner to comply with the request. c) Conversely, if the Defendant makes a reasonable disclosure request, it is advisable for the Claimant to comply in full and on time. When the Defendant s insurer pleads fraud or concerns about a Claimant s case, the Court are usually readily prepared to grant the Defendant s disclosure requests such as medical records, physiotherapy records, financial documents regarding the credit hire claim, MOT certificate, V5, insurance documents, photographs and repair invoices, are some of the more common examples. If the Claimant defaults on a disclosure order, the Court seem to be prepared to grant Unless orders for none compliance. It is advisable to have these documents on the file, before the claim is issued and make sure that the Claimant will co-operate. Counsel is always happy to draft applications for specific disclosure on a CFA basis or advise on the merits of the Defendant s application. 19. Preparing for Trial Finally below are some tips when preparing for Trial:-
15 15 a) Witness summons are an invaluable tool. If your client s witness is not cooperating or refusing to attend, summons them! Conversely, if you suspect that the Defendant s witness may not exist and they have provided a statement, serve a witness summons. b) It is always worth resending the Claimant s statement and the medical report to the Claimant to re-read before Trial. Sometimes Counsel arrive at Court and the Claimant advises us they cannot recall seeing the statement before! c) Investigators are an invaluable tool in the Claimant s armoury. A good quality investigator can speak to witnesses, provide credibility reports and assist to obtain documents. d) Some investigation companies now have access to the insurance databases to confirm if the Claimant has been involved in previous accidents or the vehicle has been a total loss. These tools have previously only been available to Defendant lawyers. These tools can be invaluable to assess the credibility of the Claimant. e) If there is any dispute over where the accident occurred a good quality locus report (with road measurements) and clear photographs will always assist Counsel and the Judge to make sense of the accident. Google maps are not always sufficient. f) If it is an alleged staged or contrived accident it is important to obtain as much evidence as possible to place the Claimant at the scene of the accident and to make sense of the Claimant s route. Evidence may be a receipt for items purchased on the way, a restaurant reservation and a Google map marked with the Claimant s route to the scene of the accident and the way home after the accident. g) Colour photographs of both vehicles will assist the Court to determine damage consistency between the vehicles. Conclusion These are just some of the ways in which Claimant representatives can assist to ensure the success of the Claimant s case. The key question to ask when assessing these claims is whether the Claimant s version of events plausible i.e. could it have happened in the way that the Claimant alleges? After that credibility of the Claimant
16 16 and his passengers will be important in terms of the consistency of what the various parties say. The Claimant s Solicitor can assist his client by ensuring the proofs of evidence are as detailed as possible, obtaining as much contemporaneous evidence as possible to support the Claimant s version of events and approaching the Claimant s case from a tactical point of view. Running these cases any other way can be costly for the Claimant and his Lawyer! Any questions? Andrew Mckie is a Barrister at Clerksoom specialising in claimant and defendant personal injury, credit hire, costs and fraud. Andrew undertakes Claimant and Defendant instructions in personal injury, alleged fraud and credit hire cases for the following types of work:- All types of interlocutory hearings including case management conferences, allocation hearings, pre-trial reviews and applications. Multi track, fast track and small claims track, trials and disposal hearings. MOJ stage 3 hearings. Infant approval hearings. All types of written advice and pleadings. To instruct Andrew, please call or go to
1 1. Introduction The Lifecycle of a Personal Injury Claim By Andrew Mckie (Barrister at Law) Clerksroom July 2012 The aim of the presentation is to look at the basic steps from the taking instructions
MOJ STAGE DEFAULTS AND PREPARATION FOR STAGE 3 HEARINGS Introduction By Andrew Mckie (Barrister at Law) Clerksroom March 2012 Telephone 0845 083 3000 or go to www.clerksroom.com The protocol for Low Value
Advice Note An overview of civil proceedings in England Introduction There is no civil code in England; English civil law comprises of essentially legislation by Parliament and decisions by the courts.
Your Guide to Pursuing a Personal Injury Claim 2 Contents Introduction... 3 Important things that you must do... 3 In The Beginning... 4 Mitigating your loss... 4 Time limits... 4 Who can claim?... 4 Whose
English Civil Law and the Foreign Motorist Justice or a Lawyer s Lunch? Agenda Basic Principles The Civil Procedure The Claim - Practice Basic principles English Law is based on precedent - what courts
: A guide to making a claim 2 Our guide to making a clinical negligence claim At Kingsley Napley, our guiding principle is to provide you with a dedicated client service and we aim to make the claims process
PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS Frequently Asked Questions 1. Can I make a claim? If you have been injured because of the fault of someone else, you can claim financial compensation through the courts. The dependants
Headquarters Army Legal Assistance Catterick Barracks British Forces Post Office 39 Tel Civilian: (0049) (0)521 9254 3191 or 3196 Fax Civilian: (0049) (0)521 9254 3115 Tel Military: 94 8(81) 3191 or 3196
FIXED COSTS PART 45 PART 45 Contents of this Part I FIXED COSTS Rule 45.1 Scope of this Section Rule 45.2 Amount of fixed commencement costs in a claim for the recovery of money or goods Rule 45.2A Amount
Conditional Fee Agreement: What You Need to Know This document forms an important part of your agreement with us. Please read it carefully. Definitions of words used in this document and the accompanying
NEW PRACTICE DIRECTION ON NON-INJURY MOTOR ACCIDENT CLAIMS From 1 January 2002, all non-injury motor accident claims must comply with the Practice Direction 2 of 2001. The new Practice Direction applies
COMMITTEE ON COURT PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE REVIEW OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN RELATION TO PERSONAL INJURIES LITIGATION THE SUBMISSIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL INJURY LAWYERS FEBRUARY 2003 The executive
DO NOT PASS GO DO NOT COLLECT $200 PERSONAL INJURY PLEADINGS IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS BY: MR NADIM BASHIR NEW PARK COURT CHAMBERS LEEDS LSI 2SJ TEL: 0113 243 3277 1 1. Introduction If there was any doubt
PROTOCOLS Pre-Action Protocol for Personal Injury Claims Contents 1 Introduction 2 Notes of guidance 3 The protocol 4 Rehabilitation 5 Resolution of issues A Letter of claim B Pre-action personal injury
FEDINAS & OTHERS vs FAYAQ & OCTAGON INSURANCE (18.6.2015) DJ Shepherd, Leeds County Court. Introduction 1. One might have thought with the intense scrutiny that has been brought to bear upon the proportionality
Ministry of Justice Consultation: Whiplash Reform: Proposals on Fixed Costs For Medical Examinations / Reports and Related Issues Response from the Motor Accident Solicitors Society May 2014 Introduction
TEMPLE LITIGATION ADVANTAGE INSURANCE FOR DISBURSEMENTS AND OPPONENT S COSTS Certificate of Insurance In return for the payment of the Premium specified in the Schedule and based on any Information that
Conditional Fee Agreement (CFA) This agreement is a binding legal contract between you and your solicitor/s. Before you sign, please read everything carefully. This agreement must be read in conjunction
ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL INJURY LAWYERS Standard of competence for Portal Claims Handlers INTRODUCTION Standards of occupational competence Standards of occupational competence are widely used in many fields
LE Law Services Ltd 127 High Road Loughton Essex IG10 4LT Telephone: 020 8508 4961 Facsimile: 020 8508 6359 www.lelaw.co.uk L.E. LAW INFORMATION SHEET NO. 11 GUIDE TO PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS 1. Introduction
Dispute Resolution At A Glance Guide 2 The English Civil Procedure Rules The Woolf Reforms The English Civil Procedure Rules Contents Section: Page No. 1. Introduction 2 2. Summary 3 3. Civil Procedure
A brief guide to professional negligence claims Contents Introduction Do I have a claim? Important considerations Pre-action protocol procedure Court proceedings Contact information Introduction Claims
An Overview of the Personal Injury Claims Process Personal Injury refers to physical or psychological injury or illness that is caused by the negligence of another. A successful personal injury claim will
Legal Watch: Personal Injury 2nd July 2014 Issue: 025 Part 36 As can be seen from the case of Supergroup Plc v Justenough Software Corp Inc [Lawtel 30/06/2014] Part 36 is still the subject of varying interpretations.
professional negligence: Conditional Fee Agreements (CFAs) Explained For CFAs not involving personal injury or clinical negligence, entered into from 1 April 2013. There is no avoiding the fact that court
www.cityandguilds.com August 2008 Version 1.1 Level 2 Award/Certificate/Diploma in Legal Studies Personal injury procedures Y/501/5543 Assignment version: Sample This guide contains assessor and candidate
Accidents at Work Everything you need to know Falling from ladders, slipping on a wet floor, lifting a heavy item, cutting yourself on a machine. Even in the 21st Century the workplace is still dangerous
Extending the RTA Portal to Disease claims May 2013 1. Introduction In July 2013 the existing RTA PI protocol will be extended to EL and PL claims. In addition, the value of claims captured by the protocol
Expert evidence A guide for expert witnesses and their clients (Second edition) Addendum, June 2009 1. Introduction 1.1 The second edition of this Guide was published in October 2003, in order to set out
ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL INJURY LAWYERS SCOTLAND Standard of competence for Litigators INTRODUCTION Standards of occupational competence Standards of occupational competence are widely used in many fields
- The Defendant Costs Specialists Costs Law Update Lamont v Burton The Court of Appeal s decision last week in Lamont v Burton  EWCA Civ 429 is likely to have serious costs implications for defendants
Tel: 020 8492 2290 I N C O R P O R A T I N G D O N A L D G A L B R A I T H & C O Guide to compensation claims against the police This guide is designed to provide a general overview to bringing compensation
Guidance for the instruction of experts in civil claims Introduction 1. The purpose of this guidance is to assist litigants, those instructing experts and experts to understand best practice in complying
Conditional Fee Agreements: best practice no win - no fee - limiting the cost of claims to taxpayers contents 1 outline of problem page 1 outline of problem 3 2 worst practice 4 3 best practice 6 4 the
PRE-ACTION PROTOCOL FOR LOW VALUE PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS FROM 31 JULY 2013 Title Number I INTRODUCTION Definitions Para 1.1 Preamble Para 2.1 Aims Para 3.1 Scope Para 4.1 II GENERAL
Proposed Practice Direction On Non-Injury Motor Accident Litigation Introduction... 1 Compliance With Pre-Action Protocol... 1 Case Management... 2 Costs... 2 Dear Friends, Anthony Wee attended a meeting
Conditional Fee Arrangements, After the Event Insurance and beyond! CFAs, ATEs, DBAs Let s de-mystify the acronyms! 1. Conditional Fee Arrangements 1.1. What is a Conditional Fee Arrangement A conditional
Date sent / / Claim notification form (Form RTA1) Low value personal injury claims in road traffic accidents( 1,000-10,000) Before filling in this form you are encouraged to seek independent legal advice.
Open, Calderbank and Part 36 offers considerations and tactics PJ Kirby QC 1. Introduction 1.1 In detailed assessment proceedings there will, as in all disputes, be advantages in settling the matter in
LEGAL GUIDE TO RECOVERING A TRADE DEBT Howat Avraam Solicitors A: 154 160 FLEET STREET, LONDON, EC4A 2DQ T: 020 7884 9400 E: Matthew.Howat@hasolicitors.co.uk Unpaid invoicing is a fact of life for most
APPENDIX C Annex B 1. Application Pre-action Protocol for Non-Injury Motor Accident Cases 1.1 The object of this protocol is to describe reasonable conduct for non-injury motor accident claims. In exercising
Conditional Fee Agreement: What You Need to Know This document forms an important part of your agreement with us. Please read it carefully. Definitions of words used in this document and the accompanying
PERSONAL INJURY COMPENSATION CLAIM GUIDE PERSONAL INJURY COMPENSATION CLAIM GUIDE This booklet has been produced by D.J. Synnott Solicitors to give our clients an understanding of the personal injury compensation
Motor Legal Expenses provides:- 24/7 Legal Advice Insurance for legal costs for certain types of disputes HELPLINE SERVICES Legal Helpline MOTOR LEGAL EXPENSES Use the 24 hour advisory service for telephone
Quick Guide 12: Bringing a Small Claim in the County Court What is the County Court? County courts deal exclusively with the settlement of private disputes. They do not hear criminal prosecutions but can
Constables Central Committee How to take a small claim to the County Court. POLICE FEDERATION OF ENGLAND AND WALES CONSTABLES CENTRAL COMMITTEE 19 Langley Road Surbiton Surrey KT6 6LP INTRODUCTION Small
Expert. Clear. Professional. PROFESSIONAL NEGLIGENCE CLAIMS STREAMLINE SERVICE SMALL CLAIMS AND STREAMLINE SERVICES Bringing a claim in professional negligence can be expensive. We want to make sure we
Protocol for the Instruction of Experts to give Evidence in Civil Claims June 2005 amended October 2009 CONTENTS Page No. 1. Introduction... 3 2. Aims of Protocol... 3 3. Application 4 Limitation. 4 4.
CHAPTER 43 ACTIONS OF DAMAGES FOR, OR ARISING FROM, PERSONAL INJURIES Application and interpretation of this Chapter 43.1.-(1) Subject to paragraph (4) and rule 43.1A (actions based on clinical negligence).
Claims Reporting Procedure This document includes:- An introduction to the claims reporting process Your Belmont contacts The life of your claim A review of the Ministry of Justice Reforms Introduction
IOSH Midland North District 26 th February 2015 The Civil Case Housekeeping Fire Safety please follow signs exit via stairwell and front door. Assembly point on car park. Toilets located on each landing.
MODEL DIRECTIONS FOR CLINICAL NEGLIGENCE CASES (2012) - before Master Roberts and Master Cook Introductory note. These are the Model Directions for use in the first Case Management Conference in clinical
MOTOR INSURER S BUREAU OF IRELAND COMPENSATION OF UNINSURED ROAD ACCIDENT VICTIMS Agreement dated 29th January 2009 between the Minister for Transport and the Motor Insurers Bureau of Ireland (MIBI) AGREEMENT
http://websvr/textimagecreator (Text image creator to change heading) Pre action protocol for low value personal injury claims in road traffic accidents Contents SECTION I - INTRODUCTION Definitions Paragraph
Guide to litigation costs and funding Contents Introduction Legal Aid Before the Event Insurance (BTE) Third Party Funding Paying for the claim yourself Alternative Billing Models (ABM) After the Event
South Australia Supreme Court Civil Supplementary Rules 2014 SCHEDULE 3 APPROVED FORMS Schedule 3 Approved Forms relate to Supreme Court Civil Supplementary Rules 2014, dated 2nd September 2014, that came
highways express Helping you manage your Highways claims Introduction Highway authorities are facing increasing pressure to provide high quality highway services while maintaining tight control of costs
Note to Candidates and Tutors: LEVEL 3 -UNIT 9 CIVIL LITIGATION SUGGESTED ANSWERS - JUNE 2010 The purpose of the suggested answers is to provide students and tutors with guidance as to the key points students
LAMB CHAMBERS SHORT FORM CFA for use BETWEEN SOLICITORS AND COUNSEL on or after 1 October 2013 in personal injuries and clinical negligence claims (This agreement is not suitable for claims for diffuse
Personal Injury Litigation after APRIL 2013 - Cambridge Medico-legal society ANDREW RITCHIE QC 9 Gough Square LONDON 1 Before 2003 In PI cases in claimant work: Solicitors were paid by the hour The courts
DEFENDANT LITIGATION SERVICE Welcome to our Defendant Insurance Claims Handling Service What is Defendant Insurance Claims Handling? It s the handling of Liability claims made to insurers from first notification
Will, trust and estate disputes Contents Types of claim Is the Will valid? Inheritance Act Claims Have you not been left sufficient financial provision following the death of a friend or relative? Promissory
GAUNTLET MOTOR CLAIM FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS INDEX FIRST STEPS 1. When an accident happens involving one of my vehicles what should I do? 2. When should I contact Gauntlet? 3. Are photographs important?
This leaflet is designed to provide you with a brief outline of the practice and procedure of the High Court and the District Court on taxation of costs in civil proceedings. You should read Order 62 of
LEGAL SCHEME REGULATIONS These Regulations came into force on 1 July 2014. 1 Introduction 1.1 These Regulations govern the Union s legal Scheme. The Rules of the Union set out your other rights and entitlements.
PROTOCOLS Pre-Action Protocol for Personal Injury Claims Contents 1 Introduction 2 Notes of guidance 3 The protocol 4 Rehabilitation 5 Resolution of issues A Letter of claim B Pre-action personal injury
Information sheet Pre-Action Protocol for Low Value Personal Injury (Employers Liability and Public Liability) Claims You have received this information sheet as it is likely that your claim will proceed
RULE 39 OFFER TO SETTLE Definitions (1) In this rule: Where available "defendant" includes "respondent"; "double costs" means double the fees allowed under Rule 60(2) and includes the disbursements allowed
MAKING A PERSONAL INJURIES CLAIM* GETTING STARTED DO I HAVE A CASE? The first step is to contact one of our experienced personal injuries solicitors and arrange a no obligation consultation. At the initial
MIB Uninsured Agreement THIS AGREEMENT is made on the 3rd July 2015 between the SECRETARY OF STATE ( the Secretary of State ) and the MOTOR INSURERS BUREAU ( MIB ), whose registered office is for the time
Road Traffic Accident Claims A brief guide to the claims process Table on contents: Introduction... 2 If your claim falls out of the new regime... 2 Parties to a claim... 2 The claims process... 3 Time
WHY YOU SHOULDN T DISCLOSE ALL MEDICAL RECORDS IN PERSONAL INJURY LITIGATION By Justin Valentine 6 th April 2014 This publication is intended to provide general guidance only. It is not intended to constitute
W E L C O M E P A C K making a road traffic accident claim T H A N K Y O U A N D W E L C O M E Thank you for instructing Colemans-ctts solicitors. We have been helping people claim compensation for over
Law & Practice : The UK Perspective Vilnius, 22 nd October 2010 Van Ameyde UK Richard Temp Operations Manager BACKGROUND SOME FACTS & FIGURES Established in England in 1973 VA UK comprises of two UK sites
Introduction Whilst there is no prohibition against a party making an offer to settle in any way it chooses, there can be damages, costs, interest and tactical advantages in making a formal offer to settle
E P EWART PRICE SOLICITORS ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS - NOTES FOR CLAIMING FOR PERSONAL INJURY AND OTHER UNINSURED LOSSES If you have been involved in a Road Traffic Accident as a driver or passenger we hope
The 2013 Ministry of Justice Reforms: A Practical Guide for Clients Garwyn Group 1 What are the reforms? The Ministry of Justice Reforms are an interlocking package of measures designed to accelerate the
CASE TRACK LIMITS AND THE CLAIMS PROCESS FOR PERSONAL INJURY CLAIMS A consultation paper produced by the Department for Constitutional Affairs RESPONSE BY THE LAW SOCIETY OF ENGLAND AND WALES July 2007