Innovation in New Zealand: 2011

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1 Innovation in New Zealand: 2011

2 Crown copyright This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand licence. You are free to copy, distribute, and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to Statistics NZ and abide by the other licence terms. Please note you may not use any departmental or governmental emblem, logo, or coat of arms in any way that infringes any provision of the Flags, Emblems, and Names Protection Act Use the wording 'Statistics New Zealand' in your attribution, not the Statistics NZ logo. Liability While all care and diligence has been used in processing, analysing, and extracting data and information in this publication, Statistics New Zealand gives no warranty it is error free and will not be liable for any loss or damage suffered by the use directly, or indirectly, of the information in this publication. Citation Statistics New Zealand (2011). Innovation in New Zealand: Wellington: Statistics New Zealand ISSN (online) Published in June 2012 Updated on 19 July 2013 Statistics New Zealand Tatauranga Aotearoa Wellington, New Zealand Contact Statistics New Zealand Information Centre: Phone toll-free Phone international

3 Information about the data Rounding procedures Figures may be rounded to the nearest thousand or some other convenient unit. This rounding may result in a total disagreeing slightly with the sum of the individual items, as shown in tables. Where figures are rounded, the unit is either expressed in words below the table headings, or shown in figures (eg (000) for thousands). All counts in this report are randomly rounded to base 3 to protect the confidentiality of respondents. For this reason, not all figures will sum to a stated total. Changes of base Where consecutive figures were compiled on different bases and are not strictly comparable, a footnote describes the difference. Treatment of sub-industries We advise readers to treat data for sub-industries (indented industries in the tables) with caution they have higher sample errors than the errors mentioned in table Disaggregating sub-industries results in some loss of data quality, because the sample design is based on 1 digit-anzsic 06 industries. Source Statistics New Zealand compiled all data, except where otherwise stated. Both administrative and survey data are used in this report. More detail For more information about the data, see the Information about the survey' section. Acknowledgement Statistics New Zealand appreciates the cooperation of the businesses and individuals who participated in the Business Operations Survey, which enabled these results to be produced.

4 Contents List of tables and figures Summary of innovation results... 1 Purpose... 1 Summary of the key results from Rate of innovation remains stable... 4 Overall innovation rate similar to Innovation rate increases with business size... 5 Service industries innovate more New Zealand's innovation rate similar to Australia's... 8 New Zealand and Australia innovation rates similar... 8 International definitions of innovation vary Innovation characteristics are diverse and complex Innovation evenly spread across different types Most businesses develop their own innovations Innovative industries not the biggest contributors to national income Almost half of businesses innovate again in R&D and growth activities are key to innovation Research and development is a main component of innovation expenditure Innovators tend to perform more growth activities Performance of innovators and non-innovators is mixed Complex relationship between competition, performance, and innovation Comparisons with previous year are mixed Innovators are more profitable Most product development expenditure is on R&D $1.7 billion is spent on product development and related activities Product development expenditure per employee Most product development expenditure is on R&D Business size affects product development spending level Size affects product development expenditure Product development expenditure can be high or low intensity Different perspectives on barriers to innovation Cost is key barrier to innovation Picture of barriers varies for different industries Innovators have different perception of barriers... 25

5 11 Ideas for innovation come from many sources Most ideas and information come from existing staff Important sources vary for different industries Access to new markets drives cooperation Most cooperation is with New Zealand suppliers Sharing costs and access to new markets are key drivers of cooperation Marketing or distribution is most-common cooperative activity Strong links between innovation and international engagement Innovators more internationally engaged Mixed picture for types of international engagement Similar barriers to international engagement Information about the survey Background to the Business Operations Survey Consistency with other time periods Target population Sample design Measurement errors Response rate Non-response and imputation Other data sources Income and expenditure data Gross domestic product data Research and development data Innovation data Definitions References Appendix: Detailed Excel tables... 47

6 List of tables and figures Tables by chapter 2 Rate of innovation remains stable Innovation in New Zealand, last two financial years at August 2009 and New Zealand's innovation rate similar to Australia's New Zealand and Australian innovation rates New Zealand and Australian innovation characteristics Different perspectives on barriers to innovation Barriers to innovation, last financial year at August Strong links between innovation and international engagement Innovation and international engagement, last two financial years at August Information about the survey Business Operations Survey module structure Sample errors for Business Operations Survey Business Operations Survey 2011 sample errors by size and industry Figures by chapter 2 Rate of innovation remains stable Innovation rate, by business size Innovation rate by industry, last financial year at August Innovation characteristics are diverse and complex Innovation activity, last two financial years at August 2007, 2009, and Almost half of businesses innovate again in Innovation activity across time, last two financial years at August 2009 and R&D and growth activities are key to innovation Research and development and innovation activity, by business size Research and development expenditure comparison, R&D and Business Operations surveys Innovation and other activities, for innovators and non-innovators Performance of innovators and non-innovators is mixed Comparison of performance with competitors, for innovators and noninnovators Comparison of performance with previous year, last financial year at August

7 8 Most product development expenditure is on R&D Average product development expenditure per business, by industry Business size affects product development spending level Businesses, employees, and product development expenditure, by business size Different perspectives on barriers to innovation Barriers to innovation, last two financial years at August Ideas for innovation come from many sources Sources of information, last financial year at August 2009 and Access to new markets drives cooperation Cooperative arrangements, for innovating businesses Reasons for cooperative arrangements, last two financial years at August Strong links between innovation and international engagement Overseas purchases, last financial year at August 2007 and

8 1 Summary of innovation results Purpose Innovation in New Zealand: 2011 gives a statistical picture of business innovation and performance in New Zealand. Results from the 2011 Business Operations Survey tell us about the types of innovation occurring in businesses, reasons for the innovation, factors that hamper innovation, and about cooperation in innovation between businesses. This information is useful for policy makers, researchers, business advocates, or anyone interested in the subject of innovation. It provides an in-depth look into innovation in New Zealand through data analysis and by explaining some key results. This first chapter summarises key results from the survey. Defining innovation and its importance Innovation is defined as the introduction of any new or significantly improved goods, services, processes, or marketing methods. Innovation is important to New Zealand as it encourages growth, knowledge transfer, and entrepreneurship. To understand the way innovation occurs in New Zealand businesses, we need to measure not only the rate of innovation, but also the characteristics and activities surrounding this innovation. Business Operations Survey: 2011 The statistics presented in this report result from the Business Operations Survey (BOS) 2011, which was conducted in August Most tables in this release cover the last two financial years, unless otherwise stated. The survey included an innovation module (sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Innovation), a business performance module, and an international engagement module. The modular design enables analysis of the effect of businesses practices on their performance. Previously released information is presented in new ways to gain a better understanding of the effect of innovation on businesses. New statistics in this report compare business 'innovators' and 'non-innovators' across a range of practices, activities, and characteristics. This report also draws on the results of previous innovation modules, back to We have also used data from other Statistics New Zealand sources and international statistical agencies. The comparisons in this report focus on changes since innovation information was last gathered in Comparisons between innovation and international engagement focus on 2007 and 2011 data, where both were collected in BOS. Summary of the key results from 2011 Rate of innovation remains stable Almost half (46 percent) of all businesses reported innovation activity in 2011 the same as in percent of businesses reported they had implemented new or significantly improved goods and services, processes, or marketing methods. The industries with the highest innovation rates were education and training, and arts and recreation services, both at 62 percent. 1

9 New Zealand's innovation rate similar to Australia's New Zealand's innovation rate in 2011 was similar to Australia's in Innovation rate characteristics are diverse and complex In 2011, each of the four types of innovation product, process, marketing, and organisational was reported by around one-quarter of businesses. Almost 60 percent of innovating businesses developed their own product innovations. Almost half of businesses innovate again 44 percent of businesses that innovated in 2011 also innovated in R&D and growth activities are key to innovation Innovators are more likely to perform growth activities such as exporting, investing in expansion, or R&D. In 2011, 9 percent of businesses carried out R&D, a component of innovation. Performance of innovators and non-innovators is mixed In 2011, there was no link between innovators and non-innovators for performance measure perceptions such as productivity. Innovators aggregate profitability was twice that of non-innovators. Most product development expenditure is on R&D 52 percent of expenditure on product development was spent on R&D Businesses spent $1.7 billion on product development activities in 2011 (0.3 percent of their total expenditure*). The mining industry had the highest average spend on product development and related activities per business, at $233,000. Business size affects product development spending level Smaller businesses spent a higher proportion of their total expenditure on product development. Businesses with a low proportion of product development expenditure spent more on marketing than businesses with a high proportion. Different perspectives on barriers to innovation 21 percent of businesses reported the cost of developing or introducing innovations hampered their innovation to a high degree. Access to intellectual property rights was the factor that least hampered innovation 82 percent of businesses reported this as a factor. Ideas for innovation come from many sources 70 percent of innovating businesses used existing staff as a source for ideas or information for innovation. Three out of four businesses used a mixture of internal and external sources. 2

10 Access to new markets drives cooperation In 2011, 14 percent of innovating businesses had cooperative arrangements with their suppliers for the purpose of innovation. 37 percent of innovating businesses with cooperative arrangements said gaining access to new markets was a reason for their innovation. Strong link between innovation and international engagement Just over half of innovating businesses engaged internationally in 2011, compared with 27 percent of non-innovators. Innovators and non-innovators both experienced similar barriers to innovation, regardless of their international engagement. 3

11 2 Rate of innovation remains stable This chapter details innovation rates for New Zealand businesses over the two financial years ending August (Definitions of innovation, innovative activities, and the subcategories are in the 'Definitions' section.) Innovation rate for 2011 remained the same (46 percent) as 2009 The industries with the highest innovation rates were education and training; and arts and recreation Please see detailed tables 1 4 in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Innovation types and rates The innovation rate is the proportion of businesses that undertook any activity during the last two financial years that resulted in the development or introduction of new or significantly improved: goods or services (products) operational processes (process) organisational or managerial processes marketing methods. Goods or services and marketing methods are usually the most visible forms of innovation. These types of innovation can result in changes in income and sales, or even reduced costs for a business. Operational, and organisational or managerial process innovation is not always so visible to customers these innovations involve changes in the way the company operates. In other words, some innovations focus on external aspects of the business and some focus on internal aspects. The type of innovation a business carries out may depend on the industry they are in. For example, a business in the manufacturing industry is likely to innovate in the goods or services area, because it designs and creates goods. However, a business in the accommodation and food services industry is likely to undertake marketing innovation, because they rely on the customer knowing about the business and its services. Overall innovation rate similar to 2009 Almost half of all New Zealand businesses (46 percent) reported innovation activity in 2011, a similar proportion to Even though the innovation rate has remained similar, businesses are still innovating. This means new products, services, processes, or methods are available now that were not available two years ago. The variety of innovation activities (explored later in this report) broadly means that a range of new products, or different ways of producing products, are being developed by businesses. 4

12 Innovation stages The value of innovation is realised when an idea is implemented, but it also has value at other stages. This report presents information on the other valuable stages in the innovative process. The three stages are: implemented the innovation was introduced ongoing the innovative activity was still in progress or being developed abandoned the innovation was abandoned over the two-year period. Businesses can be involved in more than one stage at any point in time. Most innovating businesses had implemented innovations in the last two years, as illustrated in table Rates of innovation in each stage have been steady since Table 2.01 Innovation in New Zealand Last two financial years at August 2009 and Innovation in New Zealand, last two financial years at August 2009 and 2011 Innovators With implemented innovations only With implemented innovations and ongoing or abandoned innovation activity With ongoing or abandoned innovation activity only 5 6 Total innovators Non-innovators For more information on the businesses included, see chapter 14 'Information about the survey'. Note: All counts (not percentages) in this survey w ere randomly rounded to base 3 to protect confidentiality. Due to rounding, some figures may not sum to totals. Source: Statistics New Zealand Percentage of all businesses (1) Innovation rate increases with business size Results from the Business Operations Survey (BOS) 2011 (see figure 2.01) show the innovation rate increased with business size from 44 percent for businesses with 6 19 employees, to 62 percent for businesses with 100+ employees. Larger businesses tend to have more resource and capacity to perform innovation. 5

13 Figure Innovation rate, by business size Service industries innovate more Figure 2.02 shows the innovation rate for each industry relative to the overall innovation rate. The education and training, and arts and recreation services industries reported the highest rates of innovation (both 62 percent). The following industries also had rates above 50 percent: financial and insurance services (61 percent) wholesale trade (59 percent) manufacturing (55 percent). 6

14 Figure Innovation rate by industry, last financial year at August 2011 The manufacturing industry is of interest as it had the largest number of businesses taking part in the survey. Innovation rates for the sub-industries are in table 2 in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section. 7

15 3 New Zealand's innovation rate similar to Australia's This chapter gives comparisons between New Zealand and Australia, on innovation rates and for international comparisons. In 2011, New Zealand's innovation rate was 46 percent while Australia's was 39 percent. Differences in methodology and population mean New Zealand's innovation may actually be lower than Australia's. Comparing innovation rates across other countries is difficult. Most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries collect innovation data in accordance with the Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (2005). However, due to differences in coverage and reporting, direct international comparisons are not always possible. Please see detailed tables 5 7 in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. New Zealand and Australia innovation rates similar Australia and New Zealand use similar classifications and approaches to data collection to measure innovation, so we can make some comparisons between the countries. These comparisons are useful since Australia is a major trading partner of New Zealand, and we operate in common markets for goods and employment. Australia's rates of innovation and innovation activities were similar to those for New Zealand in Table 3.01 shows that 46 percent of New Zealand businesses reported innovation activity, compared with 39 percent in Australia. The New Zealand figure only includes businesses with six or more employees, while the Australian figure also includes businesses with 0 5 employees. New Zealand data on size characteristics (see figure 2.01) suggest that smaller businesses have lower innovation rates. If the same pattern applies in Australia, including their smallest businesses (0 5 employees) would lower their overall innovation rate. If the Australian figure included only businesses with six or more employees, they would have a higher innovation rate than New Zealand. However, we cannot accurately calculate this from the data available. Previous comparisons in Innovation in New Zealand: 2009 showed this. 8

16 Innovation New Zealand 2011 Table 3.01 New Zealand and Australian innovation rates, New Zealand and Australian innovation rates, 2011 Comparing characteristics in innovation Table 3.02 shows innovation characteristics that New Zealand and Australia can be compared against. However, differences in population scope, methodologies, and reporting periods limit direct comparison of numbers. Table 3.02 New Zealand (1) Australia (2) Percent Goods or service innovations Operational process innovations Organisational or managerial processes Marketing methods Overall innovation rate For more information on businesses included, see chapter 14 'Information about the survey'. 2. Australian results include businesses w ith less than six employees. Source: Statistics New Zealand, Australian Bureau of Statistics New Zealand and Australian innovation characteristics, New Zealand and Australian innovation characteristics, 2011 Implemented innovations (2) Ongoing innovations (2) Abandoned innovations 20 6 (2) Cooperative arrangements (3) Rank New Zealand (1) Australia Percent of all businesses Cooperative arrangements (w ith:) suppliers 1 8 (3) customers 2 9 (3) competitors and other businesses from the same industry 4 7 (3) other businesses w ithin the business group 3 7 (3) businesses from other industries 4 0 (3) universities (4) 5 1 (3) Crow n research institutes, other research institutes, 5 2 (3) or research associations consultants.. 8 (3) other private, non-profit research institutes.. 1 (3) other government/public research institutes.. 1 (3) other commercial research institutes.. 1 (3) 1. For more information on businesses included, see chapter 14 'Information about the survey'. 2. Results are the latest available for the year ended 30 June Australian results include businesses w ith 0 5 employees and exclude the agriculture industry. Results are the latest available for the year ended 30 June New Zealand results include polytechnics and universities. Source: Statistics New Zealand, Australian Bureau of Statistics. For the following characteristics, the categories with the greatest response were similar in New Zealand and Australia: hampering factors, sources of information for innovation, collaboration partner, and methods of protecting intellectual property rights. The industries with the highest innovation rate differed slightly. In New Zealand this was 9

17 Innovation New Zealand 2011 education and training, and arts and recreation, but in Australia it was wholesale trade, which ranked fourth in New Zealand. International definitions of innovation vary Comparing New Zealand's innovation rate with countries other than Australia is difficult, as many differences exist between countries' definitions, methodology, population, and collection methods. New Zealand collects a wider range of innovation data than most other countries. Tables 5 and 6 (in Excel workbook) provide high-level comparison of New Zealand's innovation rates against some European countries. It is also difficult to compare countries across time, for the same reasons. However, information that is available shows relatively stable innovation rates across countries and time (except where definitions change). The OECD is currently investigating these issues around international comparisons, and this increased knowledge may help to better inform comparisons in the future. 10

18 4 Innovation characteristics are diverse and complex This chapter explores innovation rates and characteristics for New Zealand businesses in more detail. Similar proportions of businesses innovated across all innovation types. 59 percent of product innovators developed their own innovations. Industries with the highest innovation rates (62 percent) only contributed 6 percent to GDP. In 2011, innovation was spread evenly across the four innovation types (goods or services, operational processes, organisational or management processes, and marketing methods). More than half of innovating businesses developed these innovations themselves. Please see detailed tables 8 10 and 24 in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Innovation evenly spread across different types The survey asked businesses about their innovation activities in each of the four innovation types product, process, organisational, and marketing. Figure 4.01 illustrates the rates for each innovation type. These rates have remained stable since data has been comparable (2007). The total innovation rate for 2011 was 46 percent, and each type of innovation had a rate close to 25 percent. This suggests there is interdependence between innovations. For example, a business with a product innovation may need to develop new processes, or organisational or marketing methods in parallel. For 35 percent of businesses, they introduced process innovations because they introduced new goods or services. Figure Innovation activity, last two financial years at August 2007, 2009, and

19 Most businesses develop their own innovations Businesses have differing levels of capability, resource, experience, or knowledge for innovation. Some choose to develop their own innovations, keeping them in-house. Others develop innovation in partnership, so they benefit from shared knowledge or resources. Businesses may choose more than one option. For product innovations, survey results showed: 59 percent of businesses developed their own innovations 25 percent developed innovations in partnership with others 19 percent obtained innovations from others and made no significant improvements 15 percent obtained innovations from others and made significant improvements. Innovative industries not the biggest contributors to national income To explore innovation more thoroughly, we can look at innovation rates in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) by industry. The latest available GDP results are for the year ended March 2011, but the contributions of each industry have remained similar for the past few years. These few results show that innovation rates vary, due to the nature of the business activities in different industries. Also, the industries with the highest innovation rates are not necessarily those that are most important to New Zealand's economy. GDP is a commonly used measure of national income. (For full details of GDP methodology, see Gross Domestic Product information releases). In 2011, the industries with the highest innovation rates (education and training, and arts and recreation), at 62 percent each, contributed only 6 percent to GDP. This low contribution is due to the small number and size of businesses in these industries. The manufacturing industry contributed the most to GDP (13 percent), and had the fifthhighest innovation rate (55 percent). In comparison, the primary agricultural sector contributed 5 percent to GDP and had an innovation rate of 26 percent. 12

20 5 Almost half of businesses innovate again in 2011 This chapter shows that while overall innovation rates remained stable from 2009 to 2011, the mix of businesses carrying out innovation has changed. Please see detailed table 11 in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. For businesses that innovated in 2011, we can compare their innovation activity in 2009 (see figure 5.01). Of the 46 percent of businesses that innovated in 2011: 44 percent also innovated in percent did not innovate in percent were not in the 2009 sample. Figure Innovation activity across time, last two financial years at August 2009 and 2011 The proportions were quite similar across the four innovation types. Of the 46 percent of businesses with innovation in 2011: 48 percent of those with product innovation also had this innovation in percent of those with process innovation also had this innovation in percent of those with organisational innovation also had this innovation in percent of those with marketing innovation also had this innovation in Statistics NZ is currently undertaking more detailed analysis on business innovation behaviours over time. 13

21 6 R&D and growth activities are key to innovation This chapter presents information about some growth activities that businesses may undertake that have links to innovation. Research and development (R&D) is one of the key components of innovation and of product development expenditure. The 2011 Business Operations Survey (BOS) collected information on R&D activity, tourism, export behaviour, investment in expansion, requests for finance, and international engagement. Nine percent of businesses performed R&D, compared with 46 percent for the more-widely defined innovation. The upward trend of R&D expenditure was confirmed. Innovating businesses were more likely to perform growth activities. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Research and development is a main component of innovation expenditure R&D is a key component of innovation and product development. This section compares the overall rate of innovation with the proportion of firms undertaking or funding R&D activities. Only a small proportion of all businesses carried out R&D (9 percent), compared with a much higher rate for the more-widely defined innovation (46 percent). However, in expenditure terms, R&D is not necessarily a small component of innovation activity (see chapter 8 'Most product expenditure is on R&D'). Results show that larger businesses have higher rates of R&D and innovation with businesses of 100+ employees being most likely to carry out R&D and/or innovate. Figure Research and development and innovation activity, by business size 14

22 Types of R&D spending We can break down R&D spending into types, as for innovation. Results from the R&D Survey (2010) showed that the majority (63 percent) of business R&D expenditure was on experimental development. This kind of R&D most closely resembles the work done for innovation. Thirty-one percent of R&D expenditure was on applied research, and 6 percent was spent on basic research. Other results from the 2010 R&D Survey showed 31 percent of R&D expenditure was for manufacturing purposes. This was followed by information and communication purposes (19 percent) and animal production and animal primary products (10 percent). Due to differences in sample selection, target population, and the reporting period, R&D Survey results are not directly comparable with results from BOS. However, both surveys show a similar upward trend. The figures for R&D expenditure from the R&D Survey are higher than from BOS, because the survey design represents more of the businesses likely to be carrying out R&D. In other words, the R&D Survey aims to capture a greater proportion of business from the more R&D intensive industries and business types. Figure Research and development expenditure comparison, R&D and Business Operations surveys Innovators tend to perform more growth activities Innovating businesses were much more likely to engage in growth activities than noninnovators. Growth activities include sales from tourism, export sales, investment in expansion, requests for finance, and international engagement. The biggest differences between innovators and non-innovators were in investment in expansion, and international engagement. 39 percent of innovators invested in expansion (15 percent of non-innovators). 51 percent of innovators had international engagement (27 percent of noninnovators). 15

23 Figure Innovation and other activities, for innovators and non-innovators This difference in growth activities between innovators and non-innovators was also reflected in the financial figures the survey collects. The 46 percent of businesses that innovated contributed 75 percent ($35.9 billion) of the measured export income. 16

24 7 Performance of innovators and non-innovators is mixed This chapter focuses on the difference between innovators and non-innovators across performance measures and activities, including competition and profitability. There were no clear links between perceived profitability, productivity, and competition. No clear links seen when comparing with previous year. Innovators had twice the actual profitability of non-innovators. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Complex relationship between competition, performance, and innovation The survey asked businesses how they perceived their profitability and productivity performance against their competitors in These perceptions tell us what underlies their approach to operating their business and can help to explain their choice of practices. Innovators thought more highly of their performance than non-innovators. On measures of productivity and profitability, more innovators than non-innovators perceived themselves to be higher than competitors. This was particularly evident for productivity, where 30 percent of innovators thought they were performing above their competitors, while only 19 percent of non-innovators believed they were. However, more innovators also thought their performance was lower than their competitors. For example, 11 percent of innovators thought their profitability was lower than competitors, compared with 8 percent of non-innovators. The proportion of businesses that indicated they did not know what their performance was, in comparison with their competitors, indicates that innovators are more aware of their performance than non-innovators. 17

25 Figure Comparison of performance with competitors, for innovators and non-innovators Comparisons with previous year are mixed When businesses compared themselves against the previous year's performance, a mixed picture arises. Slightly higher proportions of innovating than non-innovating businesses had increases in some performance measures. For example, 48 percent of innovators reported increased sales over the last financial year, compared with 40 percent of non-innovators. Similar proportions of innovators and non-innovators had decreases in their performance measures. Figure Comparison of performance with previous year, last financial year at August

26 Innovators are more profitable Profitability is often used as a measure of success in businesses. The Business Operations Survey does not collect financial figures to calculate profitability, but other sources of information can be used, such as the Business Activity Indicator, which reports GST sales. Innovators and non-innovators showed vast differences in profitability. At an aggregate level, innovators had a profit of $45 billion compared with $25 billion for non-innovators. This reflects previous innovation rate results, which show that innovating businesses tend to be larger than non-innovators. Innovators also tend to be larger than non-innovators in the number of employees. The profit per employee for innovators ($67,000) was larger than for non-innovators ($55,000). The profit per business for innovators was $2.8 million compared with $1.4 million for non- innovators. 19

27 8 Most product development expenditure is on R&D This chapter explores product development expenditure and the related activities of businesses. Figures in this chapter for 2011 differ significantly from those in 2009, due to a questionnaire change designed to collect more-accurate information. We use product development expenditure as a measure of the innovation expenditure of businesses. Research and development (R&D) was the area where most expenditure on product development and related activities occurred. Fifty-five percent of innovating businesses spent more than $1,000 per employee on product development expenditure. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. $1.7 billion is spent on product development and related activities Overall, New Zealand businesses spent just over $1.7 billion on product development and related activities over the last two years. This equates to 0.3 percent of businesses' total expenditure. Expenditure levels increase with business size, as larger businesses have more capacity and funding for product development. The industries that spent the most in 2011 were: manufacturing ($502 million) professional, scientific, and technical services ($452 million) retail trade ($250 million) computer systems design ($250 million). These figures depend on the number of businesses in each industry, as industries with more businesses can spend more money collectively than smaller industries with fewer businesses. Therefore, spending per business is of interest. The industries with the highest expenditure per business were: mining ($233,000) professional, scientific, and technical services ($132,000) information media and telecommunications ($101,000) financial, and insurance services ($94,000). Expenditure on product development for the sub-industries is in table 18 in the Excel workbook. 20

28 Figure Average product development expenditure per business, by industry Product development expenditure per employee Half the businesses that invested in product development or related activities spent less than $1,000 per employee. The overall average spend per employee was $1,483 which is less than the average spend on depreciation ($18,569), and interest and donations ($39,705) per employee (Statistics New Zealand, 2011). Most product development expenditure is on R&D Data collected on product development and related expenditure covers R&D, design, marketing, and other activities such as prototyping, trials, or commercialisation. Innovating businesses spent the highest proportion (52 percent) of their total product development expenditure on R&D. Nine percent of total product development expenditure was on design. Small businesses allocated 11 percent of their product development expenditure to design, while large businesses allocated only 6 percent. The rest of the expenditure was spread across marketing, and other product development and related activities. These two categories can be difficult to obtain accurate results from, as respondents may not fully understand what expenditure fits into these categories. Change to 2011 questionnaire To improve understanding of definitions, we changed the questionnaire in Although the 2011 figures differ from the 2009 figures, they are of higher quality than previous years. Accurately measuring innovation expenditure continues to be a challenge, not only for Statistics New Zealand, but also for other OECD countries. Details of the questionnaire change in 2011 are in chapter 14, under 'Consistency with other time periods'. 21

29 9 Business size affects product development spending level This chapter explores how business size affects product development expenditure. Larger businesses are small in number, but contributed the most to product development expenditure, total expenditure, and employment. Businesses spending more than 1 percent of their expenditure on product development (high intensity) tended to be smaller businesses. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Size affects product development expenditure To give these results context in the New Zealand economy, we need to consider dimensions of scale. Only 4 percent of businesses in the survey had 100+ employees, while 74 percent had 6 19 employees. However, in terms of economic impact, a different picture emerges. The 4 percent in the largest business-size group accounted for 50 percent of all employees and 39 percent of all product development expenditure. We need to know the innovation practices of all the business-size groups to gain an accurate picture of the effect of innovation spending on New Zealand's economy. Figure Businesses, employees, and product development expenditure, by business size, 22

30 Product development expenditure can be high or low intensity Businesses that invest in product development have their expenditure categorised into high and low intensity. High-intensity businesses spent more than 1 percent of their total expenditure on product development, and low-intensity businesses spent less than 1 percent. Total expenditure was sourced from goods and services tax (GST) data. (See chapter 15, 'Other data sources', for more information.) The type of product development differed slightly between high- and low-intensity businesses. For example, 12 percent of product development expenditure by highintensity businesses was on marketing. For low-intensity businesses, 24 percent of product development expenditure was on marketing. However, this could be a characteristic of the activity, rather than of the business. High-intensity businesses tended to be smaller in terms of income, expenditure, and employee size than low-intensity businesses. Therefore, smaller businesses invest a higher proportion of their overall expenditure on product development. 23

31 10 Different perspectives on barriers to innovation Many factors can limit innovation activity, or stop businesses from innovating at all. This chapter looks at factors that businesses cited as hampering innovation in 2011, and explores the differences in these factors by business size and industry. The biggest barrier to innovation was the cost to develop or introduce innovations. Barriers differed between industries. Innovators and non-innovators perceived different barriers. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Cost is key barrier to innovation The Business Operations Survey asked businesses to rate the degree to which specific factors hampered their ability to innovate. These obstacles or barriers may have been reasons for not starting innovation activity at all, or for restricting innovation activity. Figure shows that the cost to develop or introduce innovation was the most significant factor limiting businesses' ability to innovate (21 percent reported it hampered them to a high degree and 21 percent to a medium degree), followed by lack of management resources (14 percent to a high degree and 20 percent to a medium degree). Figure Barriers to innovation, last two financial years at August

32 Innovation in New Zealand Factors that businesses reported as not hampering their ability to innovate were access to intellectual property (82 percent said this was not a barrier) lack of cooperation with other businesses (73 percent) government regulation (68 percent) lack of information (63 percent). Results were similar in 2009 across most categories. Picture of barriers varies for different industries Some factors affected certain industries more than others. For example, government regulation hampered a high proportion of businesses in the education industry (23 percent), but a low proportion in the rental, hiring, and real estate services industry (2 percent); and the professional, scientific, and technical services industry (2 percent). This difference may be explained by government regulations affecting operations in some industries more than others. Other factors affected business sizes differently. For example, 15 percent of smaller businesses (6 49 employees) saw lack of management resources as hampering innovation to a high degree, compared with 9 percent of larger businesses (50+ employees). Innovators have different perception of barriers While many factors can limit a business's innovation, to get a more detailed picture of innovation we need to look at how these factors relate to each other. For 33 percent of all businesses, no factors hampered their ability to innovate. However, 50 percent of non-innovators had at least one barrier, compared with 86 percent of innovators. This suggests barriers to innovation were perceived differently. Businesses that innovated were aware of more barriers to innovation because they were involved in innovation. But businesses that did not innovate might not perceive the same factors as barriers since they were not innovating. Table Barriers to innovation Last financial year at August Barriers to innovation, last financial year at August 2011 Non-innovator Innovator All businesses No factors hampered the business At least one hampering factor All factors hampered: to a high degree to a medium degree to a low degree Mixture of hampering factors For more information on the businesses included, see chapter 14 'Information about the survey'. 2. Percentages are of businesses in each business type. Note: All counts (not percentages) in this survey w ere randomly rounded to base 3 to protect confidentiality, so actual figures may differ from those stated. Due to rounding, some figures may not sum to total. Source: Statistics New Zealand Business type (1) Percent (2) 25

33 11 Ideas for innovation come from many sources This chapter presents results about sources for the ideas or information that businesses found important for innovation in Existing staff were the most-common source of information that businesses used for innovation. Sources of information differ greatly between industries. Most businesses use a wide mixture of internal and external sources. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Most ideas and information come from existing staff The most important sources of information for innovating businesses were: existing staff (70 percent) customers (56 percent) new staff (48 percent). Sources can be either internal or external to the business. Existing staff and new staff are internal sources of knowledge that businesses may have easy access to. External sources such as universities or polytechnics provide research and technical knowledge. Less than 10 percent of businesses rated universities, polytechnics, Crown research institutes (CRIs), other research institutes, or research associations as important sources of information. Businesses can use these sources to generate funds for R&D, a major component of innovation, as well. Results from the 2010 R&D Survey showed that 77 percent of R&D funding came from within the business, 8 percent came from the New Zealand Government, and 8 percent came from overseas sources. Therefore, the majority of ideas and funds came from internal sources. Government ranked higher as a funding source for R&D, than as a source of ideas or information for innovation. Over 80 percent of businesses used more than one information source. Thirteen percent used external sources only, while 6 percent used internal sources only. The wide-ranging search for information could be due either to businesses not finding the information they want in one place, or their willingness to explore all avenues to get the most comprehensive information available. 26

34 Figure Sources of information, last financial year at August 2009 and 2011 Important sources vary for different industries The finance and insurance industry had the highest proportion (82 percent) of businesses that reported existing staff were a source of information or ideas; the 'other services' (such as repair and maintenance, personal care, or religious services) industry had the lowest proportion (60 percent). The education and training industry had the highest proportion (70 percent) of businesses reporting customers were a source of information or ideas. This industry also had 70 percent of businesses reporting new staff were a source. Universities or polytechnics were most-often used by the education and training industry (36 percent), and least-often used by the mining industry (0 percent). CRIs were used by the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry most often (28 percent), and least often by the retail trade and the construction industries (both 1 percent). The different use of CRIs relates to many CRIs having a specific industry focus. 27

35 12 Access to new markets drives cooperation Businesses can cooperate on innovation with many different kinds of partners. This chapter explores the types of cooperative arrangements businesses had for innovation in 2011 and the reasons for engaging with partners. Most cooperative arrangements were with suppliers located in New Zealand. The most-common reason for a cooperative arrangement was to access new markets. Please see detailed tables in the Excel workbook, available from the 'available files' section, alongside this chapter. Most cooperation is with New Zealand suppliers In the Business Operations Survey, a cooperative arrangement is defined as participating with another organisation or individual in activities for the purpose of innovation. Most cooperative arrangements were with partners located within New Zealand (see figure 12.01). Of innovating businesses, 14 percent had cooperative arrangements with suppliers and 12 percent had them with customers. Eight percent of innovating businesses cooperated with businesses in the same business group (subsidiaries or parent companies). Seven percent of innovators had overseas cooperative arrangements. Results for cooperation with overseas partners in 2011 were similar to those in Figure Cooperative arrangements, for innovating businesses 28

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