Nobody Writes Letters Anymore: Helping people make sense of historically significant collections

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1 Nobody Writes Letters Anymore: Helping people make sense of historically significant collections Douglas W. Oard College of Information Studies and UMIACS Laboratory for Computational Linguistics and Information Processing

2 A Real Example Clinton White House search request Tobacco Policy 32 million s ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ 80,000 National Archives hired 25 persons for 6 months ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~ 200,000

3 A Richer View of a Social Network sent to Sender Receivers mentioned sent ~~~~~~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ received mentioned to mentions Mentioned

4 Why is that Needed? Users unfamiliar with discussions Lawyers Historians Police investigators Downstream process Expanding ambiguous names at indexing time Expert finding Social network analysis

5 Identity Resolution in Date: Wed Dec 20 08:57:00 EST 2000 From: Kay Mann To: Suzanne Adams Subject: Re: GE Conference Call has be rescheduled Did Sheila want Scott to participate? Looks like the call will be too late for him. WHO?

6 Enron Collection weisman pardo glover rich jones breeden huckaby tweed Liza mcintyre chadwick birmingham kahanek foraker tasman fisher petitt Dombo Robbins chang 55 Sheila s!! Message-ID: Date: Mon, 30 Jul :40: (PDT) From: To: maynes jarnot Subject: RE: Shhhh... it's a SURPRISE! nacey kirby X-From: Sager, Elizabeth </O=ENRON/OU=NA/CN=RECIPIENTS/CN=ESAGER> ferrarini knudsen X-To: Hi Shari Hope all is well. Count me darling for the group present. See ya next week if not earlier Elizabeth Sager Original kenner Message----- graves From: Sent: Monday, lewis July 30, 2001 mclaughlin 2:24 PM To: Sager, walton Elizabeth; Murphy, venville Harlan; whitman rappazzo Cc: Subject: berggren Shhhh... it's a SURPRISE miller! Please call me (713) Thanks! kelly Shari dey macleod howard watson perlick advani hester osowski boehringer lutz glover wollam jortner neylon whanger nagel swatek hollis Rank Candidates

7 Proposed Generative Model 1. Choose person c to mention p(c) 1. Choose appropriate context X to mention c p(x c) 1. Choose a mention l p(l X, c) sheila GE conference call

8 3-Step Solution (1) Identity Modeling (2) Context Reconstruction (3) Mention Resolution Posterior Distribution

9 Outline Introduction and Approach Overview Computational Model of Identity Context Reconstruction Mention Resolution Evaluation Conclusion and Future Work

10 Easy References of Identity User Regularities Message-ID: Date: Mon, 30 Jul :40: (PDT) From: To: Subject: RE: Shhhh... it's a SURPRISE! X-From: Sager, Elizabeth </O=ENRON/OU=NA/CN=RECIPIENTS/CN=ESAGER> X-To: Hi Shari Hope all is well. Count me in for the group present. See ya next week if not earlier Liza Elizabeth Sager Original Message----- From: Sent: Monday, July 30, :24 PM To: Sager, Elizabeth; Murphy, Harlan; Cc: Subject: Shhhh... it's a SURPRISE! Standards -Client Behavior Please call me (713) Thanks! Shari Elsayed and Oard, CEAS 2006

11 Extraction From Main Headers Message-ID: Date: Fri, 1 Jun :38: (PDT) From: To: Subject: ERMS Discount Memo as of May 25, 2001 Cc: Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Bcc: X-From: Luong, Anita X-To: Beck, Sally, Earnest, Scott, Fondren, Mark, Hickerson, Gary, Hodges, Georganne, Glover, Sheila, Loibl, Kori, Ruffer, Mary Lynne, Carrington, Clara, Prejean, Frank X-cc: Abel, Chris X-bcc: X-Folder: \Beck, Sally\Beck, Sally\Inbox X-FileName: Beck, Sally.pst Address-Name Association 932 (Main Headers) Attached is the ERMS Discounting Analysis as of May 25, Please call Chris Abel at X33102 or Anita Luong at X if you have questions. sheila glover Thanks

12 Extraction From Quoted Headers Forwarded by Sheila Glover/HOU/ECT on 06/14/ :39 AM Sheung Tam on 06/14/ :39:50 AM Please respond to To: Sheila Glover cc: Subject: Re: Enron India LLC (Delaware Company) Address-Name Hi Sheila, Association For the new account funds will have to be in the account, before any trades Being put on the account. Sheung 932 (Main Headers) 14 (Quoted Headers) sheila glover

13 Signature & Salutation Detection From: Shane, Laurel and I met with Sara Shackleton, Legal, yesterday. Sara provided the following updates for Australia ISDA Agreements: Sara, National Australia Bank Exectued 1/3/2000 on our side, received executed We back want from to them open 3/3/2000 an account with Direct Trading Corp., There service is an ECN, similar West Pac to Instinet. Our end done, sent to them. Susan Flynn to follow-up to id where in The I process will kiddies send currently. up are the going agreement back to to school you for already your review. so now Kelly would Templeton be a good will time to Paul, drop ANZ Bank it off to We you need this to afternoon. know the exact name of the entity we want the agreement Where Please with so are call we we can with on apply questions, this? to Can the credit I do anything group to to approve assist? gettingan agreement in place. Thanks. thanks-sheila thanks, sheila Enron Broadband Services, Inc Smith, Suite EB-4573A Houston, TX (Main Headers) 14 (Quoted Headers) sheila glover

14 Nickname Detection From: Shane, Laurel and I met with Sara Shackleton, Legal, yesterday. Sara provided the following updates for Australia ISDA Agreements: Address-Nickname National Australia Bank Exectued 1/3/2000 on our side, received executed Association back from them 3/3/2000 West Pac Our end done, sent to them. Susan Flynn to follow-up to id where in process currently. ANZ Bank We need to know the exact name of the entity we want the agreement with so we can apply to the credit group to approve gettingan agreement in place. thanks, sheila nickname Enron Broadband Services, Inc Smith, Suite EB-4573A Houston, TX (Signature) 19 (Salutation) sheila 932 (Main Headers) 14 (Quoted Headers) sheila glover

15 Representational Model of Identity Representational Model sheila glover 1170 (User Name) 216 (Signature) 19 (Salutation) sheila sg 932 (Main Headers) 14 (Quoted Headers) sheila glover 19 (Signature) 77,240 non-trivial identity models Elsayed and Oard, CEAS 2006

16 Evaluation of Identity Modeling Stratified Sampling Weakest Evidence Stronger Evidence Address-Name Associations Main headers only 50 (freq = 1) 50 (freq 2) Quoted headers only 50 (freq = 1) 50 (freq 2) Both headers 50 (freq 2) Address-Nickname Associations Salutations only 50 (freq = 3) 50 (freq 4) Signatures only 50 (freq = 2) 50 (freq 3) Both 50 (freq 2)

17 Judgment Process Judged Associations Correct Very Informative Informative Incorrect Wrong "home " Correct (but Useless) june rick OK "terrie covarru" Great "phyllis"

18 Results of Identity Modeling Correct Very Informative Percent Accuracy Main Headers Quoted Headers Weakest evidence Average evidence Stronger evidence Both Address-Name Associations Overall Strong Informativeness Main Headers Quoted Headers Both Address-Name Associations Overall Percent Accuracy Strong Informativeness Salutation Signature Both Overall Address-Nickname Associations 0 Salutation Signature Both Overall Address-Nickname Associations

19 Computational Model identity observed mention name type = T t c t freq c t freq c t p ' ) ', ( ), ( ) ( = ) ( ' ), ', ( ),, ( ), ( c assoc m c t m freq c m t freq c t m p = T t c t p c t m p c m p ) ( ), ( ) ( = C c c assoc c assoc c p ' ') ( ) ( ) ( (first, last, nickname) ( Sheila, sg, Glover ) (Sheila Glover) c m t

20 Candidates Likelihood: p ( sheila c) Identity Candidates Models

21 Outline Introduction and Approach Overview Computational Model of Identity Context Reconstruction Mention Resolution Evaluation Conclusion and Future Work

22 Who is that Sheila? Date: Wed Dec 20 08:57:00 EST 2000 From: Kay Mann To: Suzanne Adams Subject: Re: GE Conference Call has be rescheduled? Did Sheila want Scott to participate? Looks like the call will be too late for him.

23 Contextual Space Topical Context Conversational Context Local Context

24 Topical Context Date: Wed Dec 20 08:57:00 EST 2000 From: Kay Mann To: Suzanne Adams Subject: Re: GE Conference Call has be rescheduled Did Sheila want Scott to participate? Looks like the call will be too late for him. Date: Fri Dec 15 05:33:00 EST 2000 From: To: vince j kaminski Cc: sheila walton Subject: Re: Grant Masson Great news. Lets get this moving along. Sheila, can you work out GE letter? Vince, I am in London Monday/Tuesday, back Weds late. I'll ask Sheila to fix this for you and if you need me callme on my cell phone.

25 Contextual Space Topical Context Social Context Conversational Context Local Context

26 Social Context Date: Wed Dec 20 08:57:00 EST 2000 From: Kay Mann To: Suzanne Adams Subject: Re: GE Conference Call has be rescheduled Did Sheila want Scott to participate? Looks like the call will be too late for him. Date: Tue, 19 Dec :07: (PST) From: To: Subject: ESA Option Execution Kay Can you initial the ESA assignment and assumption agreement or should I ask Sheila Tweedto do it? I believe she is currently en route from Portland. Thanks, Rebecca

27 Formally x k A context of an is a probability distribution over s p( e x ( e j k i Probability estimated based on type of context )) We model the Contextual Space as a linear combination of evidence from 4 contexts

28 Contextual Space ( s) Topical Context Social Context Conversational Context Local Context

29 Contextual Space (Mentions) Sheila Tweed social social Sheila Walton topical Sheila conversational Sheila social sg topical sheila topical

30 Outline Introduction and Approach Overview Computational Model of Identity Context Reconstruction Mention Resolution Evaluation Conclusion and Future Work

31 Mention Resolution Date: Wed Dec 20 08:57:00 EST 2000 From: Kay Mann To: Suzanne Adams Subject: Re: GE Conference Call has be rescheduled Did Sheila want Scott to participate? Looks like the call will be too late for him. 2? Likelihood: p ( sheila c) 3 1 Candidates Goal: estimate p(c m, X(m)) and rank accordingly

32 Context-Free Resolution (Step 0) Context-Free Resolution Sheila X

33 Contextual Resolution (Step 1) Sheila Tweed social social Context-Free Resolution Sheila Walton Sheila topical Contextual Resolution (Step 1) Sheila topical social sheila sg

34 Contextual Resolution (Step 2) Sheila Tweed social social Context-Free Resolution Sheila Walton Sheila topical Contextual Resolution (Step 1) Sheila topical social sheila Contextual Resolution (Step 2) sg

35 Resolution Using Packing MapReduce Threads s Identity Models Context Expansion Conv. Expansion Local Expansion Topical Expansion Social Expansion Dictionary Mention Recognition and Context-Free Resolution Preprocessing Conv. Graph Local Graph Topical Graph Social Graph P 0 = Context-Free Resolution Mention Resolution Conv. Resolution P n-1 Local Resolution P n-1 Topical Resolution Merging Context Resolutions P n-1 Social Resolution P n-1 Bottlenecks P (candidate mention) P n

36 (a) Standard Inverted Indexing (a) Map (b) Shuffle (c) Reduce doc doc doc doc tokenize tokenize tokenize tokenize Shuffling group values by: terms combine combine combine posting list posting list posting list

37 (b) Pairwise Similarity (a) Map (b) Shuffle (c) Reduce posting list posting list posting list posting list multiply multiply multiply multiply Shuffling group values by: pairs sum sum sum similarity similarity similarity reduce map

38 Mention Resolution Sheila social conversational social social topical topical Sheila Tweed sheila sg Sheila Walton Sheila map map map map map map map map reduce reduce shuffle shuffle topical map map neighbors neighbors neighbors neighbors neighbors

39 Outline Introduction and Approach Overview Computational Model of Identity Context Reconstruction Mention Resolution Evaluation Conclusion

40 Experimental Evaluation Repeatable and affordable Training and testing split Test Collection Documents s Queries mentions in specific s Answers true referents of those mentions (by humans) Evaluation Measure: Mean Reciprocal Rank (MRR) MRR Rank of True Referent

41 Existing Test Collections N-subset M-Sager all s M-Shapiro Candidates Collection s Queries Identities Med Range M-Sager 1, M-Shapiro N-Subset 54, ,

42 Existing Test Collections all s N-Extended M-Sager N-subset M-Shapiro Candidates Collection s Queries Identities Med Range M-Sager 1, M-Shapiro N-Subset 54, , N-Extended 248, , ,512 Training Collection

43 Comparison w/previous Work all s N-Extended M-Sager N-subset M-Shapiro Candidates MRR Collection s Queries Identities Med Range Mine Lit. M-Sager 1, M-Shapiro N-Subset 54, , (0.934) ~ N-Extended 248, , , Training Collection

44 Developing a New Test Collection 3 annotators ~63 hours 584 queries name recognition difficulty confidence time spent comments resolution search

45 Distribution Based on Resolution Non-Enron- Resolvable 80 (14%) Unresolvable 114 (20%) Enron- Resolvable 390 (66%)

46 Inter-Annotator Agreement 84% Overall Agreement 100% 90% 80% 90% (87/97) 79% (23/30) Agreement 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 62% (44/71) 0% Enron- Resolvable Non-Enron- Resolvable Unresolvable

47 New Test Collection N-Extended M-Sager N-subset M-Shapiro Candidates MRR Collection s Queries Identities Med Range Mine Lit. M-Sager 1, M-Shapiro N-Subset 54, , N-Extended 248, , , E-All 248, , , E-Enron 248, , , E-NonEnron 248, , ,

48 Testing on New Collection % 0.82 p<0.001 Best Individual Context Best Combination of 2 Best Combination of 3 All Contetxts 0.75 Overall: 74% one- best MRR Social Local + Social Local + Topical + Social E-Enron All Social Local + Topical Local + Topical + Social E-NonEnron % All p<0.001

49 Iterative Experiments MRR E-NonEnron Iteration Social Topical MRR E-Enron Iteration Social Topical

50 Efficiency Recognized References Open source MapReduce implementation 200 processing nodes Time Spent (minutes) End-to-end runs: ~2-3 hours

51 Identity-Content Interplay Social Context Identity Resolution Content Resolution Topical Context

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