1 economics e economics bachelor of arts minor certificate master of arts Program Description Economics is a social science that examines the functioning of markets, the determination of prices and distribution of income, and the determination of the overall level of income and rates of unemployment and inflation. In addition, Economics deals with various social problems. The Economics major at Sacramento State is designed to provide students with a liberal education with special emphasis on the economic aspects of society, on familiarization with techniques for the analysis of contemporary economic problems, and on developing the ability to think critically, to conceptualize and to possess the communication and computer skills to evaluate private and public policy issues. The Economics program is appealing to students due to the quality of its faculty, the breadth of its course offerings, and the amount of choice it offers the student in planning his or her course work. In addition to training in the traditional economics areas, the program offers such diverse courses as the California economy, state and local finance, energy, environmental and resource economics, and urban economics. Students find the Department of Economics congenial to their educational and career objectives. Career Possibilities Budget Analyst Economist Industrial Relations Specialist Research Economist Commodity Economist Development Economist Manpower Economist Natural Resource Economist Economic Forecaster Commodity Price Forecaster Market Analyst Labor Relations Arbitrator Policy Analyst Investment Analyst Energy Economist Transportation Economist International Economist Business Conditions Forecaster Economic Education Specialist A minor in Economics may be especially attractive to students majoring in Business Administration, Government, and Environmental Studies or in one of the other Social Science disciplines. The Economics minor adds both theoretical and analytical depth. In addition, it provides the historical and institutional background important to an understanding of contemporary economic issues. It offers students in other majors a broader-based undergraduate education while widening the choice of job possibilities. Employers view the minor in Economics favorably. Special Features Students in the Sacramento State Economics program benefit from a wide range of opportunities to work in the private and public sectors. The Economics Department offers internships for academic credit to students who are interested in the application of economics in the private and public sectors. This kind of practical experience enhances employment opportunities after graduation. Former Sacramento State Economics students are working at all levels of government and in many private concerns in the fields of finance, real estate, professional services, etc. Some are in the teaching profession, K-12 and community colleges, while others have continued their studies toward the Ph.D. at such institutions as Notre Dame, Washington University at St. Louis and University of California, Davis. The Sacramento State Economics faculty is diverse in areas of specialization and draws upon both its advanced academic training and practical experience. Faculty members have published articles, papers, and books, and enjoy reputations as experts in their fields. Besides providing a reputable and experienced faculty, the Economics Department offers personal advising for students in the planning and meeting of academic and career goals. Faculty Kevin Calandri, Smile Dube, Craig Gallet, Jessica Howell, Jonathan Kaplan, Stephan Kroll, David Lang, Suzanne O Keefe, Stephen Perez, Terri Sexton, Mark Siegler, Yelena Takhtamanova, Kristin Van Gaasbeck, Rossitza Wooster, Yung Yang Contact Information Stephen Perez, Department Chair Nancy Carrillo, Administrative Support Coordinator Tahoe Hall 3028 (916) / economics california state university, sacramento
2 eeconomics Undergraduate Programs Students planning ahead for graduate work in Economics should consult an advisor regarding additional and/or focused course work in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. The Department schedules courses so that the upper division requirements for the BA can be completed at night within two academic years. Night students should contact the Department for assistance in planning a twoyear program. Failure to do so may mean a delay in graduation due to scheduling problems. Requirements Bachelor of Arts Degree Units required for Major: 42 Minimum total units required for BA: 120 Courses in parentheses are prerequisites. A. Required Lower Division Courses (9 units) (3) ECON 001A Introduction to Macroeconomic Analysis (3) ECON 001B Introduction to Microeconomic Analysis (3) STAT 001 Introduction to Statistics (MATH 009 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra diagnostic test) B. Required Upper Division Courses (15 units) (3) ECON 100A Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory (ECON 001A, ECON 001B) (3) ECON 100B Intermediate Microeconomic Theory (ECON 001B) (3) ECON 101 History of Economic Thought (ECON ECON A, ECON 001B) OR Economic History of the United States (ECON 001A or ECON 104) (3) ECON 140 Quantitative Economic Analysis (ECON 001A, ECON 001B, STAT 001) (3) ECON 145 Economic Research Methods (ECON 100A, ECON 100B, ECON 140, and passing score on WPE) C. Electives (18 units) (18) Additional upper division courses in Economics, selected in consultation with a faculty advisor. Notes: Minimum grade of C required in ECON 100A, ECON 100B, ECON 101 or ECON 113, ECON 140 and ECON 145. MATH 026A or MATH 030, or an upper division course in math or statistics selected in consultation with an advisor may be substituted for three of the 33 upper division units in Economics. ECON 104 does not meet major requirements. No more than 3 units total of ECON 195, ECON 198, ECON 199 may be included in the 33 total required upper division units. No more than 3 units from the following set of courses may be used to meet the requirements of the Economics major: ECON 112, ECON 120, ECON 181, ECON 184, ECON 189. Students planning graduate work in Economics should consult an advisor regarding additional course work in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. ECON 141, MATH 026A, and MATH 026B are strongly recommended. Requirements Minor Units required: 21, 12 of which must be upper division Economics units. Specific course requirements are: (3) ECON 001A Introduction to Macroeconomic Analysis (3) ECON 001B Introduction to Microeconomic Analysis Notes: STAT 001 may be counted toward the minor. No more than 3 units of ECON 199 and no more than 6 units from the following courses may be used to meet the Economic Minor requirements: ECON 112, ECON 120, ECON 181, ECON 184, ECON 189 ECON 104, ECON 194, ECON 195 and ECON 198 cannot be used to meet the requirements of the Economics minor. Requirements Certificate in Economics Education The Economics Education Certificate Program is designed to give participants a solid foundation in economics that will enable them to teach the subject in primary and secondary schools. The Certificate Program is intended for (1) future or practicing teachers who desire credential authorization to teach the onesemester economics course required of all California public high school students; and (2) future or practicing teachers who wish to infuse economics into other K-12 curricula. Students majoring in Liberal Studies or Social Science or completing a teacher credential program are especially encouraged to participate. The program consists of 15 units. A grade of B or higher must be obtained in each of these courses. Participants who are not enrolled in Sacramento State may take these courses through the College of Continuing Education. For more information about the program, contact the Director of the Center for Economic Education, Professor David M. Lang, (916) A. Required Core Courses (9 units) (3) ECON 001A Introduction to Macroeconomic Analysis (3) ECON 001B Introduction to Microeconomic Analysis (3) ECON 195 Economic Internship B. Elective Course (6 units) (6) Select any two upper division economics courses, not including ECON 104 or ECON 106. Note: The ECON 195 requirement will enable the student to serve as a Teaching Assistant to a professor teaching either ECON 001A or ECON 001B. Students must receive the permission of the Director of the Center for Economic Education prior to enrolling in ECON 195 for the Certificate program and will be assigned to a professor by the Director. california state university, sacramento economics / 239
3 economics e Graduate Program The Master of Arts program in Economics is designed to assist students in developing the analytical skills and reflective capacities required to think clearly and coherently about economic matters and to apply their skill and knowledge effectively to problem areas. The program seeks to prepare students for careers in business, government, and education where applied skills are appropriate. To this end, the Department offers course work and supervised study in economic theory, quantitative analysis, and a number of other fields of interest. In line with the applied emphasis of the graduate program, the Department maintains a relationship with both the California state government and many private organizations in the Sacramento area. Recent graduates have gone on to jobs in government at all levels as well as to careers in labor unions, banks, manufacturing corporations, and other private organizations. Admission Requirements Admission as a classified graduate student in Economics requires: a minimum 3.0 GPA in the last 60 units attempted; a minimum 3.0 GPA in undergraduate Economics work; MATH 026A (Calculus I) or equivalent; recommend MATH 026B (Calculus II) or equivalent; Graduate Record Examination; two letters of recommendation from undergraduate instructors; a minimum score of 550 on the TOEFL (this requirement applies only to students earning degrees abroad whose primary language is not English); and a baccalaureate degree. Students not meeting the above requirements may be granted conditionally classified graduate status with permission of the Economics Department Graduate Committee, providing the applicant submits in writing the reasons why he/she desires graduate training and why the Committee should waive one or more of the above requirements. Students accepted on this basis may be required to complete a set of courses prior to beginning the Economics Graduate core, or to fulfill other conditions prior to approval for fully classified status. Failure to conform to this stipulation will result in the revocation of the conditionally classified status. Admission Procedures The university deadline for submitting an application is April 1st for admission in the fall semester and October 1st for admission in the spring semester. Admission based on these deadlines allows students to meet the Computer Access to Student Personal and Enrollment Records (CASPER) deadline. Applications submitted after the above-mentioned deadlines will only be reviewed in the event that room for new students exists. All prospective graduate students, including Sacramento State graduates, must file the following documents with the Office of Graduate Studies, River Front Center 206, (916) : an online application for admission; two sets of official transcripts from all colleges and universities attended, other than Sacramento State; Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores (verbal, quantitative, and analytical portion); and TOEFL scores, if applicable. In addition to the above documents, arrange for two letters of recommendation to be sent to the Economics Department. Any applicant not meeting the first three admission requirements as specified above should submit to the Department in writing his/her reasons for requesting a waiver of the admission requirements. Approximately six weeks after receipt of all items listed above, a decision regarding admission will be mailed to the applicant. Advancement to Candidacy Each student must file an application for Advancement to Candidacy as soon as the graduate student has: successfully completed ECON 141, ECON 200A, ECON 200B, and ECON 200C with a minimum grade of B ; been recommended for advancement by the Graduate Committee; and passed the Writing Proficiency Examination (WPE) or secured approval for a WPE waiver. Advancement to Candidacy forms are available in the Office of Graduate Studies. The student fills out the form after planning a degree program in consultation with the Economics Department Graduate Coordinator. The completed form is then returned to the Office of Graduate Studies for approval. Requirements Master of Arts Degree Units required for MA: 30 units Minimum 3.0 GPA ECON 195, ECON 198, ECON 199, and ECON 204 cannot be used as part of the 30 units toward the master s degree. All students are required to complete the core course sequence outlined below with a minimum grade of B in each course. After completing the core courses, the student then either selects a thesis (Option A) or project (Option B) plan to finish the degree requirements. The core courses, as well as the two plans, are outlined below. A. Core Courses (18 units) (3) ECON 141 Introduction to Econometrics (ECON 001A, ECON 001B, ECON 140) (3) ECON 200A Advanced Macroeconomic Theory (3) ECON 200B Advanced Microeconomic Theory (3) ECON 200C Advanced Economic Theory (ECON 200A, ECON 200B) (3) ECON 241 Applied Econometric Analysis (ECON 141) (3) ECON 265 Cost Benefit Analysis 240 / economics california state university, sacramento
4 eeconomics B. Other Requirements (12 units) Option A Thesis 9 units of electives 3 units of Economics 500 (Master s Thesis) Students choosing this option will be required to complete 9 units of elective courses. Of these 9 units, 6 units (i.e., 2 courses) must come from 200-level courses. Note the following: There can be no 100-level/200-level duplication of similar courses (e.g., you cannot receive credit for ECON 130 and ECON 230, ECON 135 and ECON 238, etc.) Selected courses (e.g., Math, Statistics, or Computer Science) from other departments may be allowed as substitutes with the approval of the Graduate Coordinator. ECON 295 and ECON 298 do not count as electives toward satisfying the 9 unit requirement without the approval of the Graduate Coordinator. The student will complete a thesis under the guidance of a thesis advisor and a committee consisting of three faculty members (one being the thesis advisor). During the writing of the thesis, the student will enroll in ECON 500 (Master s Thesis) for 3 units. The thesis will follow all university guidelines regarding its completion. Option B Project 12 units of electives Paper and oral examination Students choosing this option will be required to complete 12 units of elective courses. Of these 12 units, 9 units (i.e., 3 courses) must come from 200-level courses. Similar to Option A: there can be no 100-level/200-level duplication of similar courses (e.g., you cannot receive credit for ECON 130 and ECON 230, ECON 135 and ECON 238, etc.); selected courses (e.g., Math, Statistics, or Computer Science) from other departments may be allowed as substitutes with the approval of the Graduate Coordinator; and ECON 295 and ECON 298 do not count as electives toward satisfying the 9 unit requirement without the approval of the Graduate Coordinator. Among the 200-level elective courses, the student will select a major field course from which to write a paper. The student will sit for an oral examination that will address material pertinent to the paper and subject matter relevant to the major field course. The oral examination will normally occur at the end of the semester the student completes the paper. The student must be advanced to candidacy to sit for the oral examination. Lower Division Courses ECON 001A. Introduction to Macroeconomic Analysis. Introductory inquiry into the workings and interrelationships of the aggregate economic system. The primary focus is on total production and its distribution, employment and price levels, and the forces influencing them. Other considerations are the roles of government, the monetary sector, and related areas. 3 units. (CAN ECON 002) ECON 001B. Introduction to Microeconomic Analysis. Introductory microeconomic analysis of the workings of supply and demand in the determination of price, resource allocation, and distribution. Markets are analyzed as they affect economic efficiency and income distribution. 3 units. (CAN ECON 004) Upper Division Courses ECON 100A. Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory. Analysis of the determinants of the aggregate level of output, income, employment and prices. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 001B. 3 units. ECON 100B. Intermediate Microeconomic Theory. Analysis of household and firm behavior as the foundation of supply and demand. Prerequisite: ECON 101. History of Economic Thought. Analysis of the development of economic theory from the predecessors of Adam Smith through John Maynard Keynes. The contributions made to the discipline by its principal figures are compared and evaluated. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 104. Introduction to the United States Economy. One semester survey of the principles of economics, basic methods of economic analysis, and their application to public policy and current events. Note: Not open to students who have had ECON 001A or ECON 001B or those majoring in economics. 3 units. ECON 106. Applied Problems in International Economics. Analyzes the role of the U.S. in the global economy, with emphasis on contemporary issues in international trade, finance, investment, and development. Note: Not open to students majoring in Economics. Prerequisite: ECON 001A or ECON units. ECON 110. Cost Benefit Analysis. Examines the rationale for government provision of goods and services and presents costbenefit analysis as a method to evaluate public participation in a market economy. Prerequisite: ECON 112. European Economic History. Analysis and evaluation of the economic forces and institutions shaping European economic development through the present period. Attention will be paid to the relationship between changes in the economic environment and attendant cultural, political, and ideological developments in the stages of tribalism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and socialism. 3 units. ECON 113. Economic History of the United States. Consideration of the economic growth and development of the U.S. with emphasis on a theoretical analysis of the economic factors shaping the national destiny. Prerequisite: ECON 001A or ECON units. ECON 114. The California Economy. Examination of the process of the development of the State s economy as well as analysis of the various public economic issues that are of contemporary concern to Californians. Prerequisite: ECON 001A and ECON 001B, or ECON units. ECON 120. Economics and Environmental Degradation. Analyzes environmental issues as economic issues. Economics as both a cause and cure for environmental destruction. 3 units. ECON 123. Resource Economics. Analyzes the economic based problem of exhaustion in both renewable and non-renewable resources. Emphasis is given to the optimal use of these resources over time and the effects that various market and non-market factors have on their future availability. Prerequisite: ECON 001B. 3 units. ECON 130. Public Finance. Economic analysis of the public sector and its impact on the allocation of resources and the distribution of income. Emphasis given to the economics of government expenditure and taxation. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 001B; ECON 100B recommended. 3 units. ECON 132. State and Local Government Finance. Analysis of the economics of state and local government finance, with an emphasis on California s fiscal system. Prerequisite: ECON 001A and ECON 001B, or ECON units. ECON 135. Money and Banking. Examines the role of financial markets, the banking system, and the Federal Reserve System in the economy. Included are an introduction to present value and the behavior of interest rates, analysis of money creation, and evaluation of monetary policy. Prerequisite: ECON 001A. 3 units. california state university, sacramento economics / 241
5 economics e ECON 140. Quantitative Economic Analysis. Examination of the basics of conducting quantitative economic analysis. Included are basic concepts and methods of data analysis and research. Students will examine economic data using spreadsheets, will develop presentation skills, and be introduced to career opportunities. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 001B; STAT units. ECON 141. Introduction to Econometrics. Covers the basics of regression analysis, estimation, and forecasting. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 001B, ECON 140; ECON 100A or ECON 100B recommended. 3 units. ECON 142. Introduction to Mathematical Economics. Application of elementary mathematical methods and techniques to both statistical and dynamic models: applications to both micro- and macroeconomic theory. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 001B; and a semester course in calculus at the university level. 3 units. ECON 145. Economic Research Methods. Covers the basics of conducting applied economic research: the selection of topic, literature survey, choice of research method, formulation of hypothesis, testing of hypothesis using empirical analysis, and summary and conclusions. Designed to enhance the student s ability to integrate economic theory, quantitative research skills, and research. Note: Open to graduating seniors only. Prerequisite: ECON 100A, ECON 100B, ECON 140, and passing score on the WPE. 3 units. ECON 150. Labor Economics. Economic analysis of labor markets, with special reference to employment, wage determination, and the role of government. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 152. Economics of Education. Introduction to the various aspects of the economics of education. Applies the tools of economic analysis to education policy and problem solving. Topics include cost-benefit analysis of education, the signaling vs. human capital debate, race and gender issues in education, education production functions, and financing education at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels. Emphasis placed on individual and social choice in education. Prerequisite: ECON 001B or ECON units. ECON 160. Industrial Organization. Analyzes firm decisionmaking in a variety of market settings. Topics include pricing and output decisions, entry and exit issues, marketing strategies, horizontal mergers, vertical integration, technological change, and U.S. antitrust policy. Prerequisite: ECON 161. Fundamentals of Game Theory. An analysis of strategic games with sequential or simultaneous moves under complete information and uncertainty. Discussion of theory and techniques is combined with examination of specific classes of games and their application to real-world examples such as markets, voting, auctions, and international relations Prerequisite: ECON 001B, STAT units. ECON 162. Energy Economics. Analyzes the structure, conduct, and consequences of domestic and international energy markets. Particular emphasis on regulated industries including petroleum, electrical, and other power sources. The economic impact on energy markets of emerging technology is examined. Prerequisite: ECON 170. Public Economics and Regulation. Examination of government regulation of industry in the North American context: transportation, communication, energy, and other industries. Issues include deregulation, public ownership, pricing, and investment. Prerequisite: ECON 180. Urban Economics. Economic analysis and appraisal of models of urban development. Includes consideration of the rise of cities, land use, unemployment, poverty, housing, urban renewal, transportation, and the local public sector. Prerequisite: ECON 181. Economics of Racism. Economic analysis of the origins and development of racism, focusing mainly on its impact in the U.S. Differing theoretical explanations surrounding racism will be compared and evaluated. 3 units. ECON 184. Women and the Economy. Investigation of the current economic status of women in the U.S., of past and present economic discrimination experienced by women in the labor market, of the historical reasons for that discrimination and of the means and methods of ending that discrimination. 3 units. ECON 186. Sports Economics. Applies the essential economic concepts and develops them with examples and applications from the sports industry. Covers basic economic concepts: economic principles, supply and demand, perfect competition, and monopoly behavior. It also applies these concepts to a variety of topics: the public finance of sports franchises, the costs/benefits of a sports franchise to a city, labor markets and labor relations, discrimination, and amateurism and college sports. Prerequisite: ECON 001B. 3 units. ECON 189. Economics at the Movies. Analysis of the use and treatment of economic theory and history in popular American films. Emphasis is placed on the topics of game theory, industrial organization, entrepreneurship, law and economics, labor economics, the stock market, and American economic history. The entertainment industry will also be examined from an economic perspective. 3 units. ECON 190. International Trade. Analysis of the causes and results of trade among nations. Introduction to modern trade theory is combined with examination of trade instruments and policy analysis. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 192. International Finance. Critical examination of the theories and practices of financing trade among nations. International financial and monetary theories focus on how the world and financial system works, given globalization and international economic integration. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 193. Development Economics. An analysis of the factors involved in the growth of economies. The focus is on the application of development economics and growth theory to the process of economic growth in developing countries. Particular attention is given to variables that explain growth, namely, technological progress, population growth, saving, trade, human capital and education, and the role of institutions. Prerequisite: ECON 001A, ECON 194. Economics-Related Work Experience. Supervised employment in a company or agency working on economicsrelated work, arranged through the Department of Economics and the Cooperative Education Program. Requires preparation of application packet, completion of a 3-6 month full-time or parttime work assignment, and a written report. Note: Students may enroll for no more than 12 total units. 3 units may be used to meet the economics major course work requirements. Prerequisite: Open only to upper division students with appropriate course preparation. Consent of Economics Department faculty coordinator. Graded Credit/No Credit. 6 or 12 units. ECON 195. Economic Internship. Supervised economic-related work experience, research, or teaching assistance to provide an opportunity for the student to apply principles and theories learned in the classroom to the real world. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. ECON 196. Experimental Offerings in Economics. For current offerings see class schedule; for additional information contact department office. 3 units. ECON 198. Tutoring in Economics. Supervised tutorials at educational institutions including Sacramento State where and when appropriate arrangements can be made. Prior approval for tutoring must be obtained from the Economics Department. Emphasis is on the development of effectiveness in the teaching of economics. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. ECON 199. Special Problems. Individual projects or directed reading. Admission requires approval of the faculty sponsor and the Department Chair. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. 242 / economics california state university, sacramento
6 eeconomics Graduate Courses ECON 200A. Advanced Macroeconomic Theory. Theories of the determinants of aggregate income, employment and prices. May be taken independently of ECON 200B. 3 units. ECON 200B. Advanced Microeconomic Theory. Theories of the consumer, producer, and market structure. May be taken independently of ECON 200A. 3 units. ECON 200C. Advanced Economic Theory. Analyzes dynamic models of growth, technological change, capital, and general equilibrium. Prerequisite: ECON 200A, ECON 200B. 3 units. ECON 201. Selected Topics in the Development of Economic Theory. Critical examination of various theoretical developments from an historic standpoint. Topics vary each semester, but may include such issues as value and distribution theory, welfare theory, classical models of development and the development of modern micro and macro theory. Various general perspectives are examined in the context of the topics under investigation. 3 units. ECON 204. Business Economics. Intensive one-semester course covering both macroeconomics and microeconomics. Emphasis is on economic analysis and policy. Designed for graduate students who have not taken ECON 001A and ECON 001B or their equivalents. 3 units. ECON 230. Public Finance. An analysis of the allocation and distribution effects of government expenditures and taxation. Prerequisite: ECON 200B. 3 units. ECON 238. Monetary and Fiscal Policy. Analyzes the policies of central bank and fiscal authorities as they relate to full employment and stability of the national economy. 3 units. ECON 241. Applied Econometric Analysis. Applied econometric analysis with emphasis on the use of econometric techniques in actual economic research settings, and expressing economic theory in the form of econometric models, data collection, estimation, and interpretation of results. Students work individually or as a team on a preselected research topic by instructor. Students usually work on a current research topic, chosen from various fields of economics. Prerequisite: ECON units. ECON 251. Urban Problems, Economics and Public Policy. Historical development, economics and possible policy solutions of the most pressing problems facing central cities and urban areas in the U.S. are presented. Problems discussed include poverty, crime, urban abandonment/suburban sprawl, edge cities, deteriorating infrastructures, and fiscal stress. Cross-listed as PPA 251; only one may be counted for credit. 3 units. ECON 260. Industrial Organization and Performance. A modern analysis of industry structure, conduct, and performance. Emphasis is placed on the use of game theory to address firm behavior, including price and output decisions, entry and exit, horizontal mergers, technological change, and marketing issues. Prerequisite: Classified graduate status in Economics or instructor permission. 3 units. ECON 265. Cost Benefit Analysis. Examination of the theories, foundations, and philosophies of economic welfare. Specifically, the basic techniques of cost-benefit analysis will be presented and applied to various policy issues. 3 units. ECON 290. International Trade. Analysis of modern trade theories, their empirical relevance, and the role of multinational firms in the evolution of international trade patterns. Discussion focuses on theoretical and empirical evaluation of trade policy instruments. Various trade agreements are also discussed in the context of economic integration and globalization. Attention is also given to foreign direct investment as a vehicle of globalization and the challenges it poses to both multinational firms and host countries. Prerequisite: Classified graduate status in Economics or instructor permission. 3 units. ECON 295. Economic Internship. Supervised work experience or research on economic topics in government, financial, business, charitable or other kinds of institutions to provide an opportunity for the student to apply principles and theories learned in the classroom to the real world. Partial supervision may be supplied by persons in the institution under study. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. ECON 296. Experimental Offerings in Economics. Content is determined by the needs and interests of those enrolled. Offered whenever a sufficient number of qualified students apply. Note: May be repeated for credit when a different topic is presented. 3 units. ECON 298. Tutoring in Economics. Supervised tutorials at educational institutions including Sacramento State where and when appropriate arrangements can be made. Prior approval for tutoring must be obtained from the Economics Department. Emphasis is on the development of effectiveness in the teaching of economics. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. ECON 299. Special Problems. Individual projects or directed reading. Admission requires approval of the faculty sponsor and the Department Chair. Graded Credit/No Credit. 1-3 units. ECON 500. Master s Thesis. Completion of a thesis approved for the Master s degree. Should be taken in final semester prior to the completion of all requirements for the degree. Prerequisite: Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her thesis committee. Graded Credit/No Credit. 3 units. california state university, sacramento economics / 243
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