2006/SOM1/ACT/WKSP/007a Recasting Governance for the XXI Century - Presentation

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1 2006/SOM1/ACT/WKSP/007a Recasting Governance for the XXI Century - Presentation Submitted by: Miguel Schloss, Managing Partner DamConsult Ltd. APEC Workshop on Anti-Corruption Measures for the Development of SMEs Ha Noi, Viet Nam February 2006

2 APEC WORKSHOP ON ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMEs February 24-25, 2006 Hanoi, Vietnam RECASTING GOVERNANCE TO COMBAT CORRUPTION AND UNLOCK COMPETITIESS Miguel Schloss Implications More costly public investments Lower government revenues Lower expenditures on operations and maintenance Lower resource surpluses Poorer economic performance Controlling Bribery and Civil Liberties CORRUPTION THE DEMAND SIDE BRIBERY Bribery (GCS97+) BRIBERY r=0.67 AGO KEN CMR IDN NGA NIC GTM PHL HND MOZ EGY TZA UGA UKR CIV JOR ARG ETH BRA KOR CRI ISL ZWE ITA BFA MWI GHA MYS MAR ZMB PER MUS TWN SWZ LSO NAM ZAF ISR FRA BEL TUN CHE NLD JPN AUT DEU NZL AUS IRL CAN GBR LUX DNK FIN SWE NOR Civil Liberties (Freedom House) Source: Kaufmann and Sachs (1998) 1

3 Bribery Bribery vs. Civil Service Professionalism HND GTM ZWE NIC ZAF r=0.86 PHL IDN JOR SLV BGR UKR CRI BRA KOR ITA MYS KAZ PER TWN ISR ISL Civil Service Professionalism JPN FRA LUX DEUCAN HKG NZL DNK NLD CHE SWE NOR GBR FIN IRL High corruption Corruption Low corruption Corruption and Regulatory Discretion Low Even more important (than regulatory interventions) in understanding bribery and corruption is the degree of regulatory discretion. MYS FRA JPN HKG AUT GBR DEU ISR IRL CHE LUX NOR AUS NLD FIN SWE CAN NZL DNK ZAF TWN BEL ARG IDN KOR NGA BRA PHL ITA Regulatory discretion (GCS97) CRI r=0.76 High Time Management Spent with Bureaucrats and Frequency of Bribery % Management Time with bureaucrats Corruption and Rule of Law 30% 20% 10% 0 CHE IRL GBR HKG Low CAN DEU ZAF AUT EST FJI JOR ZWE FRA MYS JAM MWI ZMB CRI MUS ITA KOR GNB NGA MKD LTU UKR TGO BOL MLI KEN SEN MOZ UGA GHA MAR ARM LVA ECU TZA TCD BLR GIN GEO KAZ BEN COG CIV MDA KGZ MDG Frequency of bribery (WDR 1997) Source: Kaufmann and Wei (1998) Data analysis based on survey conducted under the World Bank s World Development Report UZB CMR BGR AZE R =.77 High 11 S&P-DRI Corruption Index ZAR r=0.82 IRQ PAK AGO BOL BGD PER DZA LKA TZA CMR KEN IRN MMR PAN LBY ZMB ZWE NGA ZAF UGA EGY SYR PHL GHA BHR BRA ECU HKG CIV IDN JOR MAR BGR ROM OMN BWA ARG SAU TUN URY ARE MYS KOR KWT QAT TWN BEL AUS CRI ITA JPN NZL FRACHE AUT ISR FIN IRL GBR CAN DEU NLD SWE DNK NOR Rule of Law (ICRG, average 1990s) 2

4 Corruption Perception By Regions Corruption Control By APEC Countries OECD East Asia Middle East and North Africa South Asia Latin America and Caribbean Former Soviet Union Sub-Saharan Africa % Civil Service: Pay Meritocracy Legal-Judicial: Independence Judicial Strengthening ADR Mechanisms Multipronged Strategy for Combating Corruption Economic Policy: Deregulation Tax Simplification Corruption Financial Controls: Audit Procurement Public Oversight: Parliamentary Oversight Civil society and media Power of data /Surveys Independent agency/ngo CORRUPTION THE SUPPLY SIDE 3

5 Bribers Payers Index 2002 Bribery in Business Sectors Domestic Russia China Taiwan South Italy Hong Kong M alaysia Japan France Spain Germany Singapore UK Belgium Net herland Canada Austria Swit zerland Sweden Australia Agriculture Light manufacturing Fishery IT Forestry Civilian aerospace Banking and finance Heavy manufacturing Pharmaceuticals/medical care Transportation/storage Mining Power generation/transmission Telecoms Real estate/property Oil and gas Arms and defense Public works/construction CORRUPTION The Demand and Supply Response Multipronged Strategy for Combating Corruption OECD & Other International Conventions to Combat Corruption Other governmental initiatives Global business codes Sectoral Codes Professional codes Donor actions Stakeholders networks 4

6 Fighting Corruption Price Comparisons Fighting Corruption Public Hearings Professional Coordination Homogenous products Primary data (invoices, contracts) Information analysis (price ranges, averages) Bulletin, Publications, Dissemination Monitoring Results Meeting with Stakeholders, including media Levelling Playing Field; Technical Experts Agenda, Trade-Offs Assessment, Discussion, Minutes Explicit Resolution of Issues Fighting Corruption Integrity Pacts No-bribery commitment by bidders Commitment of government to prevent extortion and acceptance of bribes Disclosure of payments Sanctions against bidders who violate their no-bribery commitment Involvement of civil society in monitoring bid evaluation, award decision process and implementation of the contract Fighting Corruption Evaluation Strategic positioning (vulnerable areas). State-of-the-art expertise. Constituency grounding. Opening to outside bidders. Watch up-scaling implications Risks of bureaucratization Focus on systemic issues Safeguards for whistleblowers, arbitration vehicles. 5

7 Conclusions From words to deeds Actions requires ownership: demand for accountability, responsiveness, partnerships. Performance requires surveillance: checks and balances, plurality, emancipation/empowerment. Sustainable action requires incentives: motivation, alignment between public and individual wellbeing. An isolated existence is possible -- but at a inordinate cost in development and competitiveness. 6

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