1 SUPERVISOR'S MANUAL FOR DRUG & ALCOHOL TESTING Gulf South Resources, Inc 410 E. Laurel Foley, AL
2 For supervisors, the omnibus act involves special attention. It is the supervisors responsibility to determine whether reasonable suspicion of drug or alcohol use exists with an employee, and whether a test(s) should be administered. This is a very sensitive matter. Reasonable Suspicion Testing The act states: "An employer has reason to believe that a driver's behavior or appearance may indicate alcohol or drug use." The supervisor must be trained at least one hour on how to detect such misuse and how to document such incidence. Observations must be objectionable as possible. They should be: 1. Clear 2. Specific 3. Descriptive (appearance, behavior, speech, movement of driver, body odor) Alcohol Misuse - Observations must be made before, during or after a safety sensitive function. Drug Misuse - Observations must be made anytime the driver is at work. The appropriate test should be administered based on your observations. If you cannot determine whether drugs or alcohol has been misused, test for both.
3 Alcohol Testing Alcohol testing must be done immediately because it leaves the body quicker than drugs. It is vital that testing is done within two hours of your observations. If this is not possible, you must document the reason. Testing cannot be conducted after eight hours of your observations. This should also be documented. A third party must conduct the alcohol test if you are the observer. If an employee is observed to be under the influence of alcohol they must be removed from the safety sensitive function. The employee is not allowed to return to duty until 24 hours after the initial observation or the concentration of alcohol is.02 or below. An alcohol test must be administered for an employer to take actions against the employee. For a reasonable suspicion test for drugs, a statement must be signed, stating the reasons for suspicion. It must be done before the results are released.
4 Document Document Document The basic thing to remember is to stick to observable facts. If another employee reports a driver, do not rely on his or her word. You must observe it for yourself. For alcohol misuse, you can usually observe: -Loss of coordination -Odor of alcohol -Slurred speech -Inability to hold attention DRUG USE Drug use or abuse is different than alcohol use because drug use is illegal at all times. Drug use is more difficult to pinpoint because it does not have any smell or odor. Once again, it is important to document all behaviors. Usually in drug use you will see absenteeism tardiness and/or decrease in job performance. "Bizarre behavior" is also observed. Make sure in documentation to give examples of those behaviors.
5 Such behavioral cues could be: -bloodshot eyes -blank stare -constricted or dilated pupils -slurred speech -uncontrollable talking -muscle tremors -poor coordination -confused behavior -inappropriate responses -combative or violent behavior -short attention span -irritable or anxious behavior -sniffles or runny nose -perspiration -dry mouth Included in this package is a sheet of specific drugs and their symptoms. It is important that you recognize these behaviors, but never specifically state what you believe the individual is on. It is never a bad idea to have a second supervisor observe the individual s behavior.
6 Sometimes alcohol or drug use has the same symptoms as a medical emergency. Special care must be taken to differentiate the two. -Ask how the employee how they feel and ask him/her to explain what is happening -Once again, if you are not sure whether drugs or alcohol has been used, do both test. -Explain that a short health assessment should be done to rule out any possible problems. -To be safe; have someone drive the employee to the test site. Remember: This is a large responsibility for supervisors. It is important that issues be kept in perspective. You are not helping anyone by trying to shield your employees from the reality of their situation. Don't "enable" a troubled employee to continue using alcohol and drugs by: -Ignoring the problem -Lying or covering up for a worker in any way -Doing the worker's job -Lending money or offering financial assistance to support substance abuse And never attempt to counsel troubled employees.
7 REFERENCE LIST FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROFESSIONS, COUNSELING AND TREATMENT PROGRAMS -National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependency NCA-CALL tollfree -National Institute on Drug Abuse Hotline HELP toll-free -American Council on Alcoholism Helpline toll-free -800 Cocaine -- An Information and Referral Hotline COCAINE toll-free
8 Look For Dangers Physical Symptoms ALCOHOL A depressant (beer, wine, liquor) COCAINE A stimulant (coke, rock, crack, base) MARIJUANA (pot, dope, grass, weed, herb, hash, joint) HALLUCINOGENS (acid, LSD, PCP, MDMA, Ecstasy psilocybin, mushrooms, peyote) INHALANTS (Gas, aerosols, blue, nitrites, Rush, White out) NARCOTICS heroin (junk dope, Black tar, China White) Demerol, Dilaudid (D s), Morphine, Codeine STIMULANTS (speed, uppers, crank, Bam, black beauties, crystal, dexies, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines). DEPRESSANTS Barbiturates, Sedatives, Tranquilizers, (downers, tranks, ludes, reds, Valium, yellow jackets, alcohol) Intoxication, slurred speech, unsteady walk, relaxation, relaxed inhibitions, impaired coordination, slowed reflexes. Brief intense euphoria, elevated blood pressure & heart rate, restlessness, excitement, feeling of well being followed by depression. Altered perceptions, red eyes, dry mouth, reduced concentration and coordination, euphoria, laughing, hunger. Altered mood and perceptions, focus on detail, anxiety, panic, nausea, synaesthesia (smell colors, see sounds) Nausea, dizziness, headaches, lack of coordination and control. Euphoria, drowsiness, insensitivity to pain, nausea, vomiting, watery eyes, runny nose (see Depressants). Alertness, talkativeness, wakefulness, increased blood pressure, loss of appetite, mood elevation. Depressed breathing and heartbeat, intoxication, drowsiness, uncoordinated movements. Smell of alcohol on clothes or breath, intoxicated behavior, hangover, glazed eyes. Glass vials, glass pipe, white crystalline powder, razor blades, and syringes, needle marks. Rolling paper, pipes, dried material, odor of burnt hemp rope, roach clips. Capsules, tablets, microdots, blotter squares. Odor of substance on clothing and breath, intoxication, drowsiness, poor muscular control. Needle marks on arms, needles, syringes, spoons, pinpoint pupils, and cold moist skin. Pills and capsules, loss of sleep and appetite, irritability or anxiety, weight loss, hyperactivity. Capsules and pills, confused behavior, longer periods of sleep, slurred speech. Addiction, accidents as result of impaired ability and judgment, overdose when mixed with other depressants, heart and liver damage. Addictions, heart attack, seizures, lung damage, severe depression, paranoia (see Stimulants). Panic reaction, impaired short-term memory, and addiction. Unpredictable behavior, emotional instability, violent behavior (with PCP). Unconsciousness, suffocation, nausea and vomiting, damage to brain and central nervous system, sudden death. Addiction, lethargy, weight loss, contamination from unsterile needles (hepatitis, AIDS), accidental overdose. Fatigue leading to exhaustion, addiction, paranoia, depression, confusion, possibly hallucinations. Possible overdose, especially in combination with alcohol; muscle rigidity; addiction, withdrawal & overdose require medical treatment.
9 Remember that some medical emergencies may resemble the symptoms of alcohol or drug use. It is recommended that the following approach to reasonable suspicion testing be taken: 1. Explain that you are concerned about the behavior or physical appearance you see. Ask the person to explain what is happening. 2. Unless you are fairly certain that alcohol has been misused or that a controlled substance has been taken, require the person to undergo both alcohol and drug testing. 3. Explain that based on the alcohol and drug rule and your observations, you believe he/she should be evaluated for alcohol and/or drug use. 4. Explain to the person that a short health assessment may be done at the test site to rule out medical problems. 5. For safety reasons, do not allow a person to drive alone to the test site. Avoiding Confrontation (may want to take someone else to also observe): Telling someone that they must undergo alcohol or drug testing for reasonable suspicion can be awkward and uncomfortable. Here are some suggestions for handling difficult situations.
10 BEHAVIOR Defensive or denies you comments Resistance This could be the case if a person: a. talks non-stop b. cries c. remains silent d. is aggressive or belligerent e. is uncooperative WHAT CAN YOU DO Listen respectfully Repeat what you have observed, emphasizing the DOT rules and your company policy Point out that the situation requires action, in this case evaluation (testing) Interrupt by asking questions that require only a yes or no answer. This will help focus the event and place you in control of the situation. Listen and respond with kindness. Allow a few minutes for the driver to regain control. Make it clear that you are not blaming, rather you are following the established rules. State that you are not blaming, but following the rules. Maintain your composure by using a calm tone of voice. Avoid yelling because it sets up a win-lose situation and could escalate the aggressive behavior. Ignore inflammatory remarks. Stick to the facts, repeating them when needed. Repeat your observations and the need for evaluation in a calm, firm voice. Stick to the facts
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