1 SYSTEMS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE BUILDING TRADE: ON THE RUSSIAN PRACTICE Tatjana Fedoseeva Manager of Integrated Quality Systems, Chair, EOQ quality manager; Respublikanskaya Str 42\24, Yaroslavl, Russia150040; Tel: 8(4852) , Fax: 8(4852) , Summary In the work, an analysis of the preconditions of the development and introduction of systems of management in building is presented. A review of the major reasons for the beginning of projects on development of SQM, and corresponding scripts for their development, is given. Also, great attention is given to the formation of management technology by the basic stages of the project. The result of this is an operating control system which satisfies the requirements of MS ISO. Keywords Construction companies, ISО 9001 standard, erection of buildings and constructions, qualified personnel support, GOST R ISО 9001 Comment [AT1]: Perhaps she means descriptions of ; I just can t tell. Comment [AT2]: A complete guess, I'm afraid, but the best I can do in the circumstances. Why, today, have problems of quality management in the construction companies of Russia become so acute? There are too many reasons. First: the cancellation of the licensing of construction companies has been predicted for long enough, and a search for equivalent methods confirming the right of activity in this unsafe area is necessary. Second: there is an increasing demand for participation in tenders with a criterion of existence of system of quality management. Third: the all-russian policy is directed at popularization and spread of the practice of developing management systems according to the requirements of European standards, and acknowledgement of their conformity (certification). Within the construction companies: oversights in the field of the legislation regulating the safety requirements of works in construction, emergencies connected with infringement of the requirements of executors in the field of capital construction of buildings and constructions, traditional breach of terms of putting into operation, in particular with apartment houses, and also unfair competition in the given market, frequently neglecting legislation in the field of carrying out open competitions on Work in the field of repairs and capital construction of buildings and constructions. All this proves that, at the given stage of construction market development, there is an ambiguous situation connected with the ability to guarantee the customer the result on the set terms, of the set quality at the set price. Comment [AT3]: Perhaps she means existing system, but this seems more likely. The complexity of management of the construction companies in constantly varying conditions, the high level of requirements and mistrust of the construction companies, the
2 fierce competition these are only the external reasons for decision-making on the development and introduction of a system of quality management. The internal reasons are: the low level of professional and personal qualities of the personnel in a given branch, absence of proper management means focused on the working personnel (apart from financial means, which do not guarantee the result), fluctuations in manpower, the risk to life in works generally, and conditions, seasonal periods, the long life-cycles of works, etc. Besides, the nation-wide policy, apparently, promotes an increasing need for the construction companies managements to develop systems of quality management which unequivocally solve the overwhelming majority of both internal organizational and administrative problems, and the certification, promoting an increase in competitiveness, and confirming the ability to participate in tenders. Comment [AT4]: A complete guess, I'm afraid, but the best I can do in the circumstances. Confusion in the field of legal regulation of construction works slows down the development of a construction branch in the field of the creation of management systems in accordance with the requirements of standards. So, the terms of the cancellation of licensing were sometimes transferred because of uncertainty of questions on adopting the form replacing the process of licensing in order to prevent a spread, in the market, of dishonest companies, unable to perform works to the required degree of quality. In this case it is necessary to understand the search for a certain equivalent of the license confirming the ability of the organization to carry out, qualitatively and crucially, certain kinds of works or rendered services as a replacement. The equivalent document should serve as a reference point for those making decisions on the attraction of this or that organization to perform the works. Persistent resistance to all innovations in the field of management of the construction companies is caused by such reasons as: misunderstanding of the essence and value of a quality management system by the heads of the construction companies, by experts in the field of development of normative documents, and by experts in the field of certification of construction works, substitution of concepts of qualitative management system creation aimed at spoilage decrease, increase in the trust level of consumers and partners, stabilization of activity by adjusting the process approach, with the concept «another instance of pressure being put on company heads to generate profit on the part of branch management». Our work experience with the construction companies shows that the interest of the heads of construction companies that see the necessity of management means creation, for the purpose of quality improvement, is reduced to the level of adjusting the quality control system. The process approach in this case is considered as the approach providing operation-by-operation control with a great number of controllers. Production managers refused it many years ago. The process approach, considered as a complex of activity in which resources for transformation of inputs to outputs are used (ISО standard 9001), can be schematically presented as follows (Fig. 1):
3 Managing impacts - construction branch normative-legal documents; - licence; - administrative documentation Input date: - customers demands to technical characteristics, volume, location, terms, price Erection of building and construction Output date: -customers satisfaction with technical characteristics, volume, location, terms, price Resources: - company infrastructure, - finance, - personal, - information support, - construction equipment, - devices, - machinery Figure 1 - Schematic representation of aggregate process
4 PROCESS MODEL can be presented as follows Strategy planning Analysis and improvement Order analysis Projecting It can be outsourcing process Project analysis And construction preparation Construction work Work execution and satisfaction analysis Financial management Qualified personnel support Material-tachnicul basis Infrastructure and work environment management Figure 2 - Process model of the building organization Formatted: English (U.S.)
5 However, the majority of heads of the construction companies consider the process approach should be directed only at production (processes of life cycle), and should be concentrated on operation-byoperation control. It is schematically shown in Fig. 3: Operation stage execution: control Operation stage execution: control Operation stage execution: control Figure 3 - Concept of the experts of building firms regarding the description of processes There appear more and more statements that, for construction companies, the system of quality management is not necessary, as it is impossible to create it, because of its specific activity. In construction, only a quality control system for production is necessary, and consequently a focus on the methods and means of industrial inspection. For quite a long time, at the government management level, there was a view that the standard was elaborated with orientation mainly towards perfection of industrial company management, whereas, in construction, quality is provided mainly at the level of production management. At the same time, the process of construction output erection of buildings and constructions has specific features different from the process of industrial output. Therefore, with all its advantages and universality, the standard of GOST R ISО 9001 does not so well reflect the specifics of construction in general, and in Russia in particular. The experts (and not only Russian) in the field of certification in construction are quite aware of that ( ROSSTROYA" information bulletin, 2006). Also, the unwillingness of builders to introduce a system of quality management is accompanied by a comparison of the processes of production and the processes of life cycle in the construction of buildings and constructions. The distinctive features are those such as individuality of construction production and conditions of its manufacture, existence of specific processes in the life cycle, indirect acknowledgement of quality of construction production, non-stable infrastructure of the construction companies, remoteness of construction objects, which complicates quality control; the immovability of construction production, and movability of process equipment. This, again, does not promote effective industrial inspection. The given circumstances are connected with quality control only. Thus the construction companies escape the obligation to guarantee product delivery of the set quality, on the set terms, at the set price. With such an approach to the formation of quality management systems beyond the area of their responsibility, there are questions of ensuring the competence of the construction companies personnel, provision of the material and technical basis, working environment development, management of inappropriate production, adjusting and warning actions. The given factors influence the quality of a ready construction product in no small degree. Comparison of quality management bases with the requirements on the licensee and the purposes of licensing allows us to draw the unequivocal conclusion that the certificate of conformity to the requirements of МС ISО 9001 cannot become the document replacing the licence. Compulsory certification contradicts the principles of the ISО, which a priori is of voluntary character, and is called on to show the ability to carry out the obligations undertaken, and also to serve as a tool for
6 activity improvement. Besides, the low awareness of construction branch experts in the sphere of quality management systems, the existence of a great number of certification bodies, as well as consulting organizations, and the absence of a uniform accreditation register of the given organizations, will lead to an abundance of poor-quality service offers. The proof of it is the express certification which has appeared in the Russian market. There are frequent cases of clients applying to the experts of the Academy for help in making a system of quality management, bought from a consulting firm, into a working tool. And to assist in the choice of a high-prestige certification body. The new version of ISO standard 9001:2008, as though answering companies justifications of poorquality services because of environment variability, making a guarantee of quality, terms and price impossible in such conditions, gives priority to considerations and analysis of business environment factors, and highlights questions of the risk management of a company. In our opinion, this will enable the solution of the overwhelming majority of management problems in construction within the framework of systems of quality management development. As the situation with understanding and consideration of the given tool in the construction branch can be compared to that of post-war Japan, we recommend starting information seminars at all management levels of the construction branch to popularize the principles of a quality management system in the construction branch, to start conferences and round-table talks to develop systems of quality management in construction, to consider its components as productive tools of management. At the given stage, the popularization of quality ideas in the construction industry is basically reduced to the sale of methodical materials on systems of quality management development to the enterprises of the branch. The positive moment in solving the problems of quality management systems in construction is the obligatory course Quality management in construction for the heads of construction branch companies. It allows the handling of questions connected with the introduction of systems of quality management on a professional basis. With increasing competence and awareness in the field of management systems, there is a practice of certificate recognition. So, at present it is possible to come upon a situation where a consumer (customer) is interested not so much in having the certificate, but in how productive the working system is. Consumers are concerned with the level of the certificate, the prestige of the company issued the certificate. On the basis of deep analysis of systems of quality management introduction practice in construction, we presented a course, Systems of quality management in construction and internal audit ; the programme of the course is practice-oriented and consists of several modules. Among them are: The analysis of ISО 9001:2008 standard requirements, The analysis of the working control system of a construction company on conformity to ISО 9001:2008 requirements, "Development of a process management model by a company", "Development and documenting of systems of quality management in a company", "Development of the management procedures of the construction company processes", "Methods and tools of process management", "Internal audit". Within the framework of the given course, for the students it becomes obvious that all requirements of the standard are quite proven, and their observance is necessary for steady development of the company. The understanding of this is introduced not only with regard to the processes of life cycle of production and monitoring, of analysis and of improvement, but also while studying the chapters, The responsibility of managers and Management of resources. Comment [AT5]: I m guessing here; it s possible that I should have deleted the previous closing quote mark instead. The given course allows us to remove the contradictions which have arisen as a result of disputes at all levels of branch management. During the training, experts develop projects of systems of quality management documents for their company; elaborate the process model; describe life-cycle
7 processes and administrative, supporting processes; develop the goals and procedures of process management, rules and other internal normative documentation which is especially important in the conditions of seasonal work and inconstancy of workers teams. Such work allows us to generate documentary requirements representation on the personnel in the company, the order of execution of processes, criteria for their assessment, the procedure for evaluating workers at the moment of their introduction into a position. Work on system procedures of Management of discrepancies, Warning and adjusting actions allows consideration of potential problems, classification of discrepancies, determination of means for their elimination and prevention, exclusion of occurrence of repeated deviations. The section Methods and tools for management of processes deals with consideration of the most popular tools of proven efficiency, and also with the perfection of their application in construction work management. The given methods are not connected with the destroying control which means impossibility of application in the majority of the stages of building manufacture, and is a common reason for the refusal to elaborate systems of quality management. The technology of corporate training widely used in the Academy allows the simultaneous development of some variants of this or that document. In the strategic discussions of a project team, certainly, the general director should take part. One result of the training of a team of developers and internal auditors is also the developed, working and ready-to-certify system. The technology of training used in the Academy allows, within the framework of the course, the working out of management problems within a project for the development and introduction of systems of quality management, and the avoidance of resistance to innovation. Wide experience in the field of training and consulting on the course Integrated systems of management allows the consultants, within the framework of the programme, to consider typical and non-standard mistakes which occur while the system is developing, to analyse the best practice and experience of the companies which already use this tool of management. It is worth mentioning that a negative attitude to systems of quality management in the construction branch is connected mainly with the means used by the branch management for delivering and motivating the heads of construction companies. Nevertheless, there are already some positive trends of eliminating these problems. It is only the professionalism of the training and consulting companies, as well as of the certification bodies, that will allow an increase in the level of, and motivation for, systems introduction, without damage to the prestige of this effective management instrument by not yet being high. Comment [AT6]: Inserting this verb is the only way I can see of making the sentence formally (grammatically) complete. However, it s a huge intervention, and really just a guess, so I ve made it as vague as possible. Still, it might be better not to put it in, but just leave the sentence obviously incorrect. Comment [AT7]: The original here was entirely ambiguous, and I ve had to guess which meaning was intended.