1 04. Spring 2012 on the web Reading James Herriot s Stories as Travel Literature Associate Professor & Chariman of the Department of Fine Arts, Foreign Languages, and Humanities Book: Recalling a Story Once Told: An Intertextual Reading of the Psalter and the Pentateuch (2007) The world of James Herriot has expanded far beyond its British beginnings. The stories of this Yorkshire veterinarian and his work in the fictitious town of Darrowby, have reached around the globe. His works have been translated into dozens of languages and read in numerous countries. By 1991 over 50 million copies of his books had been sold while two films and a television series had also been produced (Brunsdale 1). This popularity is all the more impressive for an author who began writing at the age of fifty and wrote stories primarily about animals. Despite (or perhaps because of) his popularity, there has been little critical examination of Herriot s literary corpus. With a handful of exceptions, the Academy has largely turned a blind eye to his efforts. Part of the reason is likely a common misconception that Herriot s work should be considered children s literature. But before we consign Herriot s work to the children s section, we should first consider an alternative genre. This essay suggests that we reread this popular author and explore the possibility that when we encounter the stories of life in the Yorkshire dales, we are in fact, encountering an important work of travel literature. Following a brief examination of his life, this essay focuses on themes in Herriot s books that share much in common with other works of travel writing
2 Biography James Herriot is the pseudonym for James Alfred (Alf) Wight. The distinction between Alf Wight and James Herriot is difficult to draw. Wight s personal autobiography and fictionalized observations all too often converge. In his biography of his father, Jim Wight even uses James Herriot and Alf Wight almost interchangeably (Wight, 1). Wight was born on 3 October 1916 in Sunderland, England. Three weeks after his birth his family moved to Glasgow and Wight was raised in that largest city in Scotland. In high school, after listening to a presentation by the principal of the Glasgow Veterinary College, Wight was convinced that veterinary practice would be his vocation. Upon graduation from high school, Wight was accepted at the Glasgow Veterinary College (Wight, 45). Wight completed his veterinary training in 1938, during the height of the depression, and was fortunate to get a job in the practice of Donald Sinclair (the character Siegfried Farnon in his subsequent books) in the town of Thirsk, an agricultural community with a population around a few thousand. In his fictionalized telling of these stories, Wight substituted the name Darrowby for Thirsk (Wight, 94). It is located in the heart of the Yorkshire dales in northern England. Wight immediately grew to enjoy the scenic beauty and the delightful characters who he encountered in his day to day activities. In 1941 Wight married Joan Danbury (Helen Alderson) and became a partner in Sinclair s practice (Wight, 128). Two years later, while Joan was pregnant with their first child, Wight volunteered for the Royal Air Force and was called up for training. His parent s home in Glasgow had been bombed during a Luftwaffe attack and this motivated Wight to join. Wight was discharged for health reasons from the R.A.F. in 1945 (Wight, ). From 1950 to 1966 he remained working as a veterinarian in the dales except for two brief occasions when he traveled with animals overseas, once to the U.S.S.R. in 1961 and to Istanbul, Turkey in In 1966, at the age of 50, Wight began writing down his experiences as a country veterinarian and tried unsuccessfully to find a publisher for four years (Wight, 245). Finally in 1970 his first book of recollections was published under the title of If Only They Could Talk, followed two years later by It Shouldn t Happen to a Vet
3 That same year, in 1972 both books were combined and published in the United States with the title All Creatures Great and Small (ACGS). The success of All Creatures Great and Small in the United States was an enormous surprise to Wight and his publisher. Wight expected his works to carry only a mild interest among those who had some knowledge of the dales. But perhaps unconsciously, Wight succeeded in expressing a theme common to world literature. Readers were instantly taken with the idea of the young, clumsy vet who grows into an accomplished, caring professional. As Michael Rossi has demonstrated, All Creatures Great and Small is a coming of age story (Rossi 32). In ACGS, Herriot explains his initial attraction to animal work and his first encounter with the Yorkshire dales. He is a newly minted veterinary surgeon, fresh out of school, full of resolve and ready to change animal work. But as he begins his rounds, Herriot discovers that the theoretical book knowledge of his veterinary school has not always adequately prepared him for the daily encounters that he has in Yorkshire. All Creatures Great and Small covers the variety of experiences that beset young Herriot in his first few years, from 1938 to early As All Creatures Great and Small progresses, Herriot moves through an initial period of self-doubt to some measure of confidence in his own abilities. By the end of the book he has developed as a veterinarian, but more importantly as a person. This change is brought about in him by his environment, and by people. Herriot is particularly impressed by the farmers of the dales themselves. Rossi suggests that the change in Herriot results from the people, places, and situations he encounters. Herriot speaks of being affected by them and shares first impressions and conclusions about them. (Rossi 33). Herriot begins his job after arriving in the 1930 s, a key turning point for the traditional life in these farming communities. It was a time when some of the older traditions are changing, veterinarians are shifting from traditional animals like horses and cows to small animal care. As Herriot later wrote Probably the most dramatic occurrence in the history of veterinary practice was the disappearance of the draught horse. It is an almost incredible fact that this glory and mainstay of the profes
4 sion just melted quietly away within a few years. And I was one of those who were there to see it happen. When I first came to Darrowby the tractor had already begun to take over, but tradition dies hard in the agricultural world and there were still a lot of horses around. Armed with my firing iron and box of blister I plunged determinedly into what had always been the surging mainstream of veterinary life. And now, in less than three years the stream had dwindled, not exactly to a trickle but certainly to the stage where the final dry-up was in sight. (ATBB, 160) In addition to the disappearance of the draft horse, new drugs and treatment methods were just beginning to come on the scene to displace traditional methods of animal care. ACGS proceeds at an episodic pace. With few exceptions, the characters encountered only exist in that individual chapter. Most chapters are self contained units, completing an encounter within the context of one chapter. The effect is for the reader to accompany young Herriot on his visits, making the rounds with him in his antiquated car along the back roads of the dales. There are four important exceptions that not only play an important role in this book, but in the succeeding books as well. The four main characters are James Herriot, Siegfried Farnon, Tristan Farnon, and Helen Alderson. The stories are all told from the first person perspective, and the reader s sympathies lie with young Herriot. The country veterinarian presents himself as an empathetic, caring individual who treats both people and animals with respect and compassion. His flaws are few, and relatively harmless. Mostly he is inexperienced and somewhat clumsy. He has the ability, which hindsight so often provides, of seeing the humor in various awkward situations. Herriot changes throughout the book as he matures and gains much greater confidence in himself and in his profession. Siegfried and Tristan Farnon are brothers who work with Herriot. Siegfried is Herriot s employer and has worked as a veterinary for years. Siegfried is more of a comrade in arms than a boss. He hires Herriot at a time when unemployment was high and he con
5 sistently pays him more than market value. Siegfried demonstrates compassion for and support for Herriot on the young veterinarian s very first case. Herriot orders the destruction of a valuable, but diseased, horse and the manager of the farm is outraged. Herriot puts the horse down and a postmortem confirms his diagnosis. Siegfried possesses a complex, though kind, personality. He excels at behaving inconsistently, though he does not himself see that inconsistency. His obliviousness to his own actions delights the reader, who is all too familiar with the reality of his behavior. We are introduced to a new element of Siegfried s behavior when his brother Tristan arrives in chapter six of ACGS. Tristan is Siegfried s younger brother and is attending, but not yet passing, veterinary school. Tristan also brings out the most boisterous behavior of his brother. Tristan is clever, but lazy a combination that drives his brother Siegfried into fits of madness. In fact, Tristan s cleverness is expressed most explicitly through his laziness. Most of the narratives that take place at the center of the veterinary practice, called Skeldale House, involve these three interacting with one another. The fourth major character is Helen Alderson. She is the attractive daughter of a local farmer and the object of affection for Herriot. Her decision to wear slacks in a day when it was still unconventional suggests her independent nature. Much of James and Helen s courtship is comprised of foolish actions expressed by Herriot followed by a great deal of grace demonstrated by Helen. Helen appears to be unattainable for Herriot. The young veterinarian must overcome a series of obstacles (including competitive suitors and his own boorish mistakes) in order to win Helen s heart. It is only after both Tristan and Siegfried encourage Herriot to his attempts at courtship that the hero wins the lady s heart. All Creatures Great and Small concludes with the description of their marriage. The final chapter of the work describes how their honeymoon was spent testing cows for tuberculosis. Over the next twenty years Wight published over a dozen more books narrating the life of Herriot and his various encounters with the denizens of the dales. These works carried forward the story of Heerriot through his time with the Royal Air Force in World War II and into various veteran trips to the USSR and Turkey. In 1995 Alfred Wight died of cancer in his home at Thirlby, where he had moved after fifty years of veterinary work in Thirsk
6 Reading Herriot as a Travel Writer There are at least two reasons why Wight s writings have not been adequately addressed as travel literature. The primary obstacle in reading these texts as travel literature is likely because they have traditionally been considered either children or animal stories. The Academy has not often deemed stories about children and pigs as worthy of critical investigation. But these genres need not be mutually exclusive. A characteristic of exceptional literature is that it transgresses traditional formal boundaries. Reading Herriot s work as children s literature does not disqualify it from other classifications as well. It could be travel literature that children could still comprehend. Huckleberry Finn might serve as an important analogue of travel literature that is of interest to a younger audience. But this simple classification of Herriot as a children s writer is incomplete. First, there are many adult themes present in the works of Herriot, from personal situations like courting, marital difficulty, and drunkenness to societal issues like euthanasia and the difficulties of war. Additionally, the language of the Yorkshire farmer was often a bit rough for children. As often as a character refers to an animal as an Awd bugger! or utters the expletive Bloody ell! it is problematic to conceive of these books exclusively as children s stories. The assignation of these stories to children s literature might be more a result of marketing strategies than based on the actual content of these works. Originally, If Only They Could Talk had a boy holding a horse s reins on the cover and that led many bookstores to put it in juvenile literature. (Wight 363). The same is true of their designation as animal stories. While they certainly contain animals, these creatures inhabit a background that is larger than themselves. Herriot spends more time describing the people and the landscape than he does the animals. When he does lovingly describe animals, it is almost always in the context of their owners. For example, he develops theories about the old rule that the larger the home, the smaller the dog and vice versa. Thus even his treatment of animals in these stories carefully illuminates their owners. Lastly, Herriot has published books exclusively for children and has published abridged additions of these stories which contain only dog or cat stories. (e,g, James Herriot s Dog Stories (1986), not to 04 63
7 be confused with James Herriot s Favorite Dog Stories (1995). He has also published several children s stories Moses the Kitten (1984) and Only One Woof (1985). These titles demonstrate that Wight was aware of the distinctiveness of genre. Several elements of Herriot s stories convey his traveler s eye for unfamiliar terrain. Indeed, a hallmark of good travel writing includes telling tales of alien surroundings. Herriot wrote extensively of the dales and included descriptions of customs, food, religious practices, rites of passage and (obviously) how they treat their pets. James Wight, in a memoir of his father, writes that Herriot was fascinated by the ways and traditions of the [Yorkshire] people, uncovering warmth, humor and other qualities [Herriot] was studying them. (Wight, 98). Herriot observed the farmers in the dale from the position of an outsider. He arrived from Scotland, having left the large metropolitan area of Glasgow, and thus had a perspective that was different from the community of Darrowby. This perspective, at times, made it difficult for him to integrate into this alien society. Wight notes that, Another obstacle [for Herriot] was the learning of a new language. Words like felon garget, marra and wick bombarded his brain as he attempted to unravel the mysteries of the Yorkshire dialect. (Wight, 97). Sometimes Herriot s writing sounds very much like that of a stranger caught in a strange land, encountering strange customs and food. On one occasion he was dining with a farmer and his wife. She offered Herriot two pieces of bacon, each of which consisted of pure, white fat. He was torn between offending the hospitality of his hosts and eating something so unappetizing. When he despaired about how to handle the situation, he spotted a jar of piccalilli. Feverishly I scooped a mound of it on to my plate. It seemed to contain just about everything; onions, apples, cucumber and other assorted vegetables jostling each other in a powerful mustard-vinegar sauce. It was the work of a moment to smother my loaded fork with the mass, then I popped it into my mouth, gave a couple of quick chews and swallowed. It was a start and I hadn t tasted a thing except the piccalilli Looking back, I realise it was one of the bravest things I have ever done. I stuck to my task unwaveringly, dipping again and again into the jar, 04 64
8 keeping my mind a blank, refusing grimly to think of the horrible thing that was happening to me. But at last I came to the end. A final heroic crunch and swallow, a long gulp at my tea and the plate was empty. The thing was accomplished. (ATBB ) Herriot thus encounters an experience so common to travelers, often torn between partaking in disconcerting customs or offending generous hosts. But in this interaction, Herriot excels at recalling the voices of those who are often marginalized by contemporary societies today. Sanford Sternlicht observes that Herriot hears and transmits the lost voices of a landed people who cared for and respected their ancient land, their beasts, and their way of life, and most of all, each other. (136). Critical to the role of a writer of travel literature is the writer s eye toward the unique and distinctive of the local Herriot was able to observe so carefully because of his professional vantage point. Herriot s position as a veterinarian provides a unique perspective on the home as well as the professional lives of the people in the dales. A veterinarian obviously deals extensively with the sheep, cows, horses and other livestock on the dales. In addition, vets during Herriot s day had to work with large corporate farms, as well as small family farms. Herriot observes the changing financial landscape as farmers who have eked out a living in the dales and moors and must continue to scratch and claw in order to continue to survive. James role as a veterinarian also offers him unprecedented access to the interior lives of his patients owners. Because Herriot began to branch out into small animal work early in his practice, he saw the inner workings of numerous dale families. This peculiar perspective allows for a rich fleshing out of characters and the rather private ways that they interacted with their pets. This twin perspective on the home and professional life of the people in the Yorkshire dales demonstrates Herriot s eye for a good story. Ultimately it is not only the people who fall underneath this traveler s eye. Wight s Herriot quickly succumbed to the enchantment of the Yorkshire country itself. On numerous occasions, Herriot describes the land in which he lives from the social location of a 04 65
9 visitor. He clearly fills the role of a city dweller who is enraptured by the natural beauty that surrounds him. Ultimately, Herriot sees the people of the dales as connected inextricably to the dales themselves. The farmers and farm-wives in some ways merge with the animals and the land. This connectedness between people and land is a central theme running throughout these works. Herriot views these people and this land as inextricably linked. This close connection between people and land reflects the notion that our geographical location always affects our social location. Even within the dales, Herriot notes different personalities depending on where the individuals live. The higher up the country, the more I liked them. At the bottom of the valley, where it widened into the plain, the farmers were like farmers everywhere, but the people grew more interesting as the land heightened, and in the scattered hamlets and isolated farms near the bleak tops I found their characteristics most marked; their simplicity and dignity, their rugged independence and their hospitality. (ACGS 67) As Herriot progresses through these books, he notes that the farmers of the dales have begun to change him in many important ways. This change exemplifies a second important journey in these books. Numerous literary critics have noted the importance of a second journey in travel writing. The best examples of travel writings include a journey of discovery that transcends geography and includes the development of the writer. As Michael Kowalewski notes: while travel writing usually consists of part sociology and part natural history, it has also traditionally gone beyond mere ethnography by being insistently autobiographical (8). Wight s work is obviously autobiographical. In fact, the line between author and protagonist is so liminal as to be almost indistinguishable. But an important narrative device makes it interestingly complex. Throughout these stories, there are two narrative voices speaking to the reader. In his first narrative voice, the young James Herriot is exploring this new land and making these new acquaintances. But in the second narrative voice, an older, wiser James Herriot is reflecting on the incidents of his youth. As an example, in 04 66
10 ACGS he and Siegfried fondly notice a fine collection of medicine bottles which they are to use. The two of us stood gazing at the gleaming rows without any idea that it was nearly all useless and that the days of the old medicines were nearly over. Soon they would be hustled into oblivion by the headlong rush of the new discoveries and they would never return. (ACGS 19). As Richard Gardner observes, this complex dual structure makes a more interesting narrative. The young man is made more likeable by being blended with the narrators thirty additional years of awareness. (Beacham 635) Brunsdales agrees and adds: James Herriot became a more complex literary character than his creator might originally have intended. Herriot the author supplied the grandfatherly perspective that anchored his recorded experiences on his youthful self, a character who might have begun as a humble observer, but matured and became much more interesting as the books progressed. (28) This observation also demonstrates the sense of growth that accompanies Herriot throughout these books. As the young Herriot of the narrative world slowly transforms into the wise author reflecting fondly on the past, we accompany Herriot through that journey. As a result, the reader travels not just to the Yorkshire dales, but through life as well. Good travel writing must include a focus upon the inner self of the writer. The journey inward is as important to the overall narrative as the journey outward. Norman Douglas wrote that: the reader of a good travel book is entitled not only to an exterior voyage, to descriptions of scenery and so forth, but to an interior, a sentimental or temperamental voyage, which takes place side by side with that outer one;... the ideal book of this kind offers us, indeed, a triple opportunity of exploration abroad, into the author s brain, and into our own. The writer should therefore possess a brain worth exploring; some philosophy of life and the courage to proclaim it and put it to the test; he must be naif and profound, both child and sage. (Fussell 15) 04 67
11 But Herriot s books offer another changing protagonist, one that grows and matures alongside Herriot: the Yorkshire dales themselves. As Herriot writes, he does so from the perspective of one who has experience stretching over decades. As his son wrote later: The world that James Herriot wrote about has all but disappeared and the countless family farms are now few in number (Wight 363). Writing about events forty years after the fact provides a temporal perspective that illuminates the past while providing the author with a perspective from a fixed point. This perspective might also contribute to Herriot s honest portrayal of his own faults and mistakes. As often occurs in ethnography, the observed culture has now largely disappeared and exists only in the writings of this initial observer. This last connection between Herriot and travel writing is the modesty of his self-portrayal. His modesty comes through the narrative in numerous ways. Part of the popularity of this series is his frank description of numerous occasions where he made mistakes, misunderstood the local farmers, or exercised poor judgment. Not every chapter ends in a successful tale of a problem solved or an animal healed. But Herriot acknowledges his mistakes and attempts to learn from them. Herriot proves a compelling protagonist, always learning and always seeking. Fussell notes that, Travelers learn not just foreign customs and curious cuisines and unfamiliar beliefs and novel forms of government. They learn, if they are lucky, humility (14). That humility might be the distinguishing mark between traveler and tourist. There is also a final irony inherent to the travels of James Herriot. His process of travel writing has itself remade the Yorkshire Dales. Herriot the traveler has now affected this foreign land. It is as true in travel as it is in quantum mechanics: the observer affects the observed. Decades after his books, Wight himself is now identified exclusively with the Yorkshire land. It is a fascinating irony that other travelers have now written travel guides to Herriot s Darrowby. Thirsk today stands as the center of a tourist industry as farm houses have been transformed into Bed and Breakfast homes. Tourists plan trips to Thirsk and journey to the veterinary office where he worked and the home where he lived. Around 8 million visitors a year visit the Dales area, many of them lured by Herriot s books. (Brunsdale 7)
12 Tourism has proven lucrative for the region, bringing in $8 million to Thirsk from (Brunsdale 132) This remaking of the dales is complete to the point of changing its name. The Yorkshire area s new name carefully aimed at travelers is Herriot Country, complete with website (www.herriotcountry.com). Herriot brought film, books, and ultimately tourists to the Yorkshire dales, and paradoxically, the dales exist in its truest state only in his books. His works, his stories, his remaking of the dales all offer important reasons to consider Herriot s work as an impressive example of travel literature. We should enlarge the genre of travel writing and bring Herriot in as well. As Percy Adams writes, The library of travel literature is gigantic, but not too much so, since no library can be too large for this world, or for any reader. (Adams xi). Surely travel literature is vast enough to include a trip to the Yorkshire dales. References Adams, Percy. Travel Literature and the Evolution of the Novel. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983., ed. Travel Literature Through the Ages: An Anthology. New York: Garland Publishing Beacham, Walton, ed. James Herriot (James Alfred Wight). in Beacham s Popular Fiction in America, vol. 3 (Washington: Beacham Publishing, 1988), 635. Brunsdale, Mitzi. James Herriot. New Yord: Twayne Publishers, Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Fussell, Paul, ed. The Norton Book of Travel. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Herriot, James. All Creatures Great and Small. New York: St. Martin s Press, All Things Bright and Beautiful. New York: St. Martin s Press, All Things Wise and Wonderful. New York: St. Martin s Press, The Lord God Made Them All. New York: St. Martin s Press, Every Living Thing. New York: St. Martin s Press,
13 Holland, Patrick and Graham Huggan. Tourists With Typewriters: Critical Reflections on Contemporary Travel Writing. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Kowalewski, Michael, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992 Rossi, Michael J. James Herriot: A Critical Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Sternlicht, Sanford. All Things Herriot: James Herriot and His Peaceable Kingdom. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, Wight, Jim. The Real James Herriot: A Memoir of My Father. New York: Ballentine Books,
T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i p T h e G i f t o f t h e M a g i ONE DOLLAR AND EIGHTY-SEVEN CENTS. That was all. She had put it aside, one cent and then another and then another, in her careful buying
TM Celebration Press Reading DRA2 Level 30 Guided Reading Level N Genre: Fiction Traditional Tale Reading Skill: Analyze Theme King Midas & the Golden Touch Retold by Alan Trussell-Cullen Illustrated by
A BAD BET Mr. and Mrs. Bates had been married for forty years. In those forty years they had never had a fight, much less an argument. They were a happy couple because they always agreed on everything.
Table of Contents Introduction...4 Meeting and Setting Goals...6 Week 1: The Great Human Questions...9 Week 2: Examining the Ways We Know...15 Week 3: The Christian Worldview...24 Appendix A: The Divine
Name: The Great Gatsby Study Guide Chapter 1 1) How does Nick describe himself at the beginning of the novel? 2) How does Nick describe Tom Buchanan? 3) Who is Jordan Baker? What does Nick find appealing
ANALYZING SHORT STORIES/NOVELS When analyzing fiction, you should consider the plot, setting, characters, point of view, imagery, symbolism, tone, irony, and the theme. PLOT Plot refers to what happens
The Parables: The Prodigal Son Luke 15:11-24 LESSON SUPPLY LIST o Bible w/ Marked Scripture o Pencils o Crayons o Cut Apart Story Cards o Copies of Coloring Page o Copies of lesson overview for children
Louisiana We are so proud to announce that we are 100% debt free! Praise God! We started our business with over a million and a half dollars in debt. God has been good to us and true to His Word. Brother
First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he
Change Cycle Change often involves a process. The Bible describes five significant stages of change that are important to understand. They include Rebellion, Realization, Remorse, Repentance, and Restoration.
Lesson One: God Is Always At Work Scripture: Jeremiah 29:11 Summary: This lesson introduces the Esther unit. The children will meet the main characters of the story and will learn about the exciting things
Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group
p T w o T h a n k s g i v i n g D a y G e n t l e m e n THERE IS ONE DAY THAT IS OURS. THERE IS ONE day when all Americans go back to the old home and eat a big dinner. Bless the day. The President gives
Devotion NT298 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Paul s First Missionary Journey THEME: God has a calling on the lives of every one of His children! SCRIPTURE: Acts 12:25 13:52 Dear Parents
Crash NARRATIVE Crash tells the story of a group of very different people and the way in which their lives intersect over a period of twenty-four hours. As the film begins, each episode in the narrative
Gift of the Magi By O Henry One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it in the smallest pieces of money - pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by negotiating with the
The Inklings & Their Influence: Mere Christianity for Moderns I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen; not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else. C. S. Lewis,
The Good Shepherd My family lived in a house on my grandfather s farm. My grandfather raised sheep. Many a morning I would awaken to the bleating of sheep in the field. Every spring we would go through
Spanish, Shakespeare and Statistics: The Pathway of a Physician s Career By: Emma Svenson Probable Majors: Biology and Spanish Honors College of Letters and Science UW-Madison I hereby affirm that this
A Trip to Cambridge By Iina Lahti A beautiful sunny day in July; I m walking on a street in the middle of a city, being surrounded by stunning old buildings. Colleges and churches seem to be in every corner,
Census records are one of the best ways to discover details about your family and how that family changed every 10 years. You ll discover names, addresses, what people did for a living, even which ancestor
THE HISTORY OF FRANKENSTEIN Mary Shelley s novel, FRANKENSTEIN, first appeared in 1818. Since then the story has been retold and adapted for the stage, on film, on radio, on television and in comics. There
Title: GOD CREATED THE WORLD AND PEOPLE SPOILED IT Theme / Bible Basis: Review of Genesis 1-11 Bible Reading: Psalm 148, NLT Introduction: In our recent messages, we have read together from several stories
18 Who Jesus Is LESSON 1 Finding Out About Jesus Who do you think Jesus is? Some people say He was a great teacher. Others say He was a prophet, a philosopher, a Western god, or a good man whose example
FILMS AND BOOKS Reading a book is very different to watching a film. The way that we understand both is also different. We firstly need to think of the ways in which films and books tell their stories.
PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.
92 A Study of Anti-heroism: A Character Analysis of Holly Martins from the film The Third Man (1949) Yoshiya Nishi INTRODUCTION One of the ways to compare two cultures is to focus on the idea of heroism.
A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Charles Dickens Born in 1812 in Portsmouth, England He had very encouraging parents who supported his writing and acting His father was sent to debtor s prison At
THE GREAT GATSBY GUIDED QUESTIONS The following questions are a combination of comprehension/knowledge level questions and interpretive level questions. CHAPTER ONE 1. How does Nick describe himself at
Writing Topics Topics in the following list may appear in your actual test. You should become familiar with this list before you take the computer-based TOEFL test. Remember that when you take the test
Bible for Children presents EZEKIEL: MAN OF VISIONS Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Lazarus Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children, Inc.
YOUR MYSTICAL CONNECTION TO THE ANIMAL KINGDOM An Interspecies Communication Virtual Intensive August 17 September 11, 2011 Offered to the CoreLight community by Anna Breytenbach, Interspecies Communicator
Lesson 2: Principles of Evangelism Introduction In our last lesson, we discovered that our identity determines, more than anything else, the success of our mission work. Who we are is so much more important
AY FGM FOURTEEN FGM WakeTheLion an interview with Sonyanga Ole Ngais Sonyanga is Captain of the Maasai Cricket Warriors, coach of the Maasai Cricket Ladies team, and one of the stars of the highly acclaimed
Marriage and Gender Roles Intimacy & Sexuality By Tim Warner Copyright The Pristine Faith Restoration Society The Divine Union Gen 2:18,21-24 18 And the LORD God said, "It is not good that man should be
HOW WERE PEOPLE SAVED BEFORE JESUS CAME? BOB BRYANT Cypress Valley Bible Church Marshall, Texas I. INTRODUCTION How were people saved before Jesus came? Some suggest that people were saved by sincerely
Whereas I was Blind, Now I See John 9: 1-11; 25 We all know that great hymn well: Amazing grace, how sweet the sound, that saved a wretch like me; I once was lost, but now I m found; was blind, but now
Reality 2: God Pursues a Continuing Love Relationship with You that is Real and Personal Reality 2: God Pursues a Continuing Love Relationship with You that is Real and Personal Created for a Love Relationship
Ordinary Moments of Grace To everything there is a time and a season for every purpose under heaven. A time to be born and a time to die. A time to sow and a time to reap. A time to laugh and a time to
Hello. My name is Madeline Walker, and I am the School of Nursing s Writing Scholar. After three years on a full- time contract, I am now (as of July 2013) half time in this role. I work one on one with
Your Image of the Child: Where Teaching Begins by Loris Malaguzzi These comments are translated and adapted from a seminar presented by Professor Loris Malaguzzi in Reggio Emilia, Italy, June 1993. There
Prayer Service: Experiencing God s Love Leader Script This prayer service is for use with parents and children gathered together. Can be used at the beginning or end of a gathered session/retreat for preparation
~ The Great Banquet ~ You can learn much more about this story by doing these three things: 1. Read Luke 14:1-24 2. Discover key cultural and historical insights. 3. Answer the reflective questions. 1.
FINDING Adela Andrea von Barby Patterson s journey to find her birthmother produces bittersweet truths and wonderfully unexpected surprises by BOH HATTER (Courtesy of ISS-USA) Andrea von Barby Patterson
CAMPO BARGELLO Campo Bargello From farming the land to the world of international finance and multinationals, and back again to the land, for love. This is the unusual journey taken by Marco Querci, the
101 IELTS Speaking Part Two tasks about the Past, Present and Future The most challenging and least likely tasks in the exam are the tasks that are mainly about the future (towards the bottom below), with
Testimony of Susie Trotochaud of Georgia Before the Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations
WRITING ABOUT FICTION by Anne Garrett THINK CRITICALLY AND ANALYZE Your job in writing about literature is to uncover the author s message (theme(s) of the work) and analyze how that message was produced
1 Using Learning Journals To Improve Student Performance in World History and Geography Jennifer Miro Annandale High School Fairfax County (VA) Public Schools Submitted June 2002 Introduction At the midpoint
Name: English 11 Kingsbury/Tietz Chapter 1 1. How does Nick describe himself at the beginning of the novel? 2. How do East and West Egg compare? 3. During what period is the novel set? 4. How does Nick
A COACHING STYLE OF MANAGEMENT In this chapter we look at how you might use a coaching approach in managing people. We begin by exploring what we mean by coaching, which I regard as being primarily non-directive.
The Church: God s Fellowship Text: I John 1:1-10 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we looked upon and have touched with our hands, concerning
The Heroic Journey: Metaphor for the path through addiction and recovery to becoming one who has gifts to share There is a plot which appears over and over in stories told by all cultures, in books, movies,
1 Meghan Ryan Melissa Liberman Kayla Gomes Dr. Susannah Stern Children & Media November 3, 2010 CTA Compliance Project Introduction This paper is an assessment of the KSWB-FOX affiliate for San Diego and
WILL YE ALSO GO AWAY JOHN 6:60-69 Text: John 6:67 John 6:67 67 Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away? Introduction: Toward the close of John chapter 6, there is a sad and arresting verse.
Prayer Service to Celebrate the Ministry of Teachers During Catholic Schools Week 2015 You Will Need A large candle with the words Love, Kindness, Joy, Truth and Justice (the final page of this document
Yogi Tea Bag Inspirations received from all the Yogi Tea Debby has consumed over the last year A Act selfless, you will be infinite. Appreciate yourself and honor your soul. As a plant can t live without
Social Imaginings: A Rhetorical Analysis of the text Alcoholics Anonymous Kevin Kardos Rhetoric Dr. David Franke Fall 2003 One could as well describe writing as an imagination of a relationship. -George
Page 1 Table of Content The Psychic Lotto Formula Jackpot to Success System... 4 Part 1 Channeling the Power of Your Mind to Success... 6 Part 2 Visualization... 12 Part 3 Integrating Luck and Making it
Discussion Guide RULES Written by Cynthia Lord Published by Scholastic Press ISBN 0-439-44382-2 The Book (text taken from the book jacket) Twelve-year-old Catherine just wants a normal life, which is near
Bible for Children presents BEAUTIFUL QUEEN ESTHER Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Janie Forest Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children,
BOOK 1, PART 3, LESSON 4 THE FORGIVING FATHER THE BIBLE: Luke 15:11-32 THEME: We can discover what Jesus wants us to do and be by hearing the parables Jesus told. PREPARING FOR THE LESSON MAIN IDEA: Jesus
Compare and Contrast Versions of a Story What story has wicked stepsisters, a fairy godmother, glass slippers, and a girl who works hard and ends up marrying a prince? Cinderella! You have probably read
BASICALLY, ESSENTIALLY, COMMONSENSICALLY: THE THOMAS PAINE OF OKLAHOMA CITY UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF LAW Cindy Richard In 1776, the rebel Continental Army suffered great losses and was often found in retreat.
AMERICAN LITERATURE Chapter 10 JAMES FENIMORE COOPER 1789 1851 James Fenimore Cooper created the first real American literary hero with the crafting of his character Natty Bumppo. Natty Bumppo (also referred
at M I C H I G A N Winter 2001 A PUBLICATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN MEDICAL SCHOOL Healing and D iscovering: Michigan s Ambitious MSTP Grads Bridge the Clinic and the Laboratory After 30 Years of
Joy Scripture Verses In The New Testament (Matthew 13:20) The one who received the seed that fell on rocky places is the man who hears the word and at once receives it with joy. (Matthew 13:44) "The kingdom
Heartbreak, hope and healing: Birth mother tells her adoption story Kavita Varma-White, TODAY contributor March 2, 2013 at 10:42 PM ET Every now and then, you hear a story that s equal parts pain and joy,
I N T R O D U C T I O N THE NEW REALITIES OF SELLING Your present circumstances don t determine where you can go; they merely determine where you start. Nido Qubein WELCOME TO THE new world of selling!
Test žáka Zdroj testu: Celoplošná zkouška 2 Školní rok 2012/2013 ANGLICKÝ JAZYK Jméno: Třída: Škola: Termín provedení testu: Datum vytvoření: 14. 10. 2013 Obtížnost 1 Úloha 1 Woman: They are beautiful!
Why do I believe God exists? Why do I believe God exists? Consider these words from the Bible:...what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Intrinsic Approach Basically an Approach divide into two types. They are The instrinsic approach and The extrinsic approach. The intrinsic approach was originally written
Explanatory Notes: WILL WE BE MARRIED IN THE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Series title: Topic: Marriage in heaven / heaven as a marriage Table of Contents: Message 1: What is the Life after Death Like? p. 1 Message
Wiederman 1 Sexual Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs Most people are too focused on sexual activity they think it is more important than it really is. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? What is
The Great American Mixed Blood Richard Moon San Antonio College As an introduction to my paper, one first needs to ask two questions: What is Native American? and What is Native American literature? Must
How to Use the CORE Group Discussions From the very beginning, we want to express our deepest thanks for being willing to engage in CORE. At the heart of these discussions is a desire to see you and those
Theme, Plot, and Conflict Purpose: Use this resource to learn about how theme, plot, and conflict are different from one another but yet work together in literature. When reading literature, the reader
Neville 02-12-1968 SALVATION HISTORY It is God's purpose to give himself to you as though there were no other! And when He does, it will not be you and God, but you as God! Although it seems impossible
To All BIS Digital, Inc. Associates: It is with deep sorrow that I have to announce the passing of Bob Wolfe. After fighting cancer for the last several months he had called me last Friday from the hospital
Lesson 2: God s Plan for Your Life Intro When old, many people look back at their lives and soberingly ask: That was it? To ask that question at the end of a lifetime is a great tragedy! When you choose
Contents Foreword vii Preface ix Acknowledgments xiii 1. Introduction 1 2. Caring and the Nursing Administrator 10 3. The Element of Caring in Nursing Administration 27 4. Organizational Theory 38 5. Leadership
Marriage 1. Marriage was instituted and designed by God. Gen. 2:18 25. 2. At the heart of marriage is companionship and intimacy, which both husband and wife must promote. Gen. 2:18, 24. And the Lord God
By DEBORAH ROWLAND and MALCOLM HIGGS A huge amount of change initiatives fail. Based on a combination of 4 years rigorous research and practical application of the emerging ﬁndings, the book explores the