ENERGY IN FINLAND FOLLOW US NEWS NOTIFICATIONS, SOCIAL MEDIA

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1 FOLLOW US NEWS NOTIFICATIONS, SOCIAL MEDIA STATISTICS FINLAND Produces statistics on a variety of areas in society Promotes the use of statistical data Supports decision-making based on facts Creates preconditions for research GUIDANCE AND INFORMATION SERVICE Communication and Information Services Statistics Finland tel Publication orders: Edita Publishing Oy tel Energy_in_Finland_2015.indd 1 ISSN (pdf) ISBN (pdf) ISSN (print) ISBN (print) Product number 3055 ENERGY IN FINLAND :43:02

2 2 Finland in brief Back to Content Area Situated in northern Europe with an area of 338,432 km 2 of which 72% forest, 10% water, 8% cultivated land. Municipalities with high electricity consumption 2013 Population 5.5 million, with average density of 18 persons per square kilometre. More than two-thirds of the population reside in the southern third of the country. Average temperatures in 2014 Town Latitude January July Helsinki C 20.1 C Sodankylä C 18.3 C Economy In 2014* GDP totalled bil., i.e. 37,351/capita. In 2013* services were 70.4%, secondary production 26.8% and primary production 2.9% of the GDP. Structure of industry, Value added gross in production in 2013* bil. % Total industry Mining and quarrying Forest industry Chemical industry Metal industry Basic metals and metal prod Electrical and electronics ind Other metal industry Other manufacturing ind Energy supply Water supply and waste management > 3 TWh > 2 TWh > 1.5 TWh Arctic Circle Tornio Kemi Oulu Kokkola Jämsä Population >500,000 >100,000 >30,000 <30,000 Joensuu Pori Tampere Imatra Rauma Lappeenranta Vantaa Kouvola Turku Porvoo Espoo Helsinki Productive forestland is the most valuable natural resource of Finland. The indigenous energy resources in the country are hydro power, wood and peat. Finland also has some rich deposits of metallic ores from which copper, zinc, and nickel are extracted. Total energy consumption in 2014* 1,340 PJ (32.0 Mtoe) GJ/capita (5.9 toe/capita) Electricity consumption in 2014* 83.3 TWh 15,261 kwh/capita

3 Contents 3 Contents Finland in brief... 2 Total energy consumption... 4 Renewable energy sources... 8 Electricity Heating Industry Enterprises Greenhouse gases Imports and exports International energy statistics Networks information Net heat contents and conversion factors Notes and explanations The data in this pocketbook are based on the Preliminary Energy Statistics 2014 figures. Inquiries: Jonna Hakala Cover photograph: Cover design: Irene Koumolou, Statistics Finland Layout: Hilkka Lehtonen, Statistics Finland Printed by: Edita Prima Oy, Helsinki Statistics Finland Quoting is encouraged provided Statistics Finland is acknowledged as the source.

4 4 Total energy consumption Back to Content Total energy consumption by energy source 2014* Peat 5% Oil 23% Wood fuels 25% Others 3% Hydro and 4% wind power Nuclear energy 18% Coal 10% Natural gas 7% Net imports of electricity 5% Total energy consumption in 2014* was PJ. Total energy consumption by energy source * PJ Net imports of electricity Others Peat 800 Wood fuels Hydro and wind power 600 Nuclear energy 400 Natural gas 200 Coal 0 Oil *

5 Back to Content Total energy consumption 5 Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions * PJ t * Carbon dioxide emissions Total energy consumption Final consumption Total energy consumption and final energy consumption by sector * PJ Total consumption Final consumption Conversion and transmission losses 600 Others 400 Space heating 200 Transport 0 Industry *

6 6 Total energy consumption Back to Content Total Energy Consumption by Energy Source, PJ Oil Coal Natural gas Nuclear energy Hydro power Wind power * Share 2014* 23% 10% 7% 18% 4% 0.3% Annual Change 13/14* 2% 11% 14% 0% 4% 44%

7 Back to Content Total energy consumption 7 Wood fuels Peat Others Net imports of electricity Total * Share 25% 5% 3% 5% 100% 2014* Annual Change 2% 9% 9% 14% 2% 13/14*

8 8 Renewable energy sources Back to Content Renewable energy, PJ Hydro Wind Wood power power fuels in industry and energy production Black Small liquor comand bustion of others wood Heat Others Total Share of pumps total energy consumption, % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 2014* % Share of renewable energy in total energy consumption ( *) and gross final energy consumption ( ), and target for 2020 % Share of renewable energy in total energy consumption Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption Target for 2020 (38%) Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2013 was 37%.

9 Back to Content Renewable energy sources 9 Renewable energy 2014* Firewood 14% Hydro power 11% 27% Other biofuels Industrial wood fuels 31% Others 11% 21% 5% 38% Recovered fuels (bio) Biogas Heat pumps Black liquor and other concentrated liqours 33% 9% Wind power The divisions of the group Others are partly based on data for The total consumption of renewable energy in 2014* was 425 PJ which is 32% of total energy consumption. Renewable energy 2014* In total energy consumption In electricity supply Nuclear energy 18% Peat 5% 32% Renewable energy Nuclear energy 27% Peat 4% 30% Renewable energy Fossil fuels 40% Total PJ 5% Net imports of electricity and others Fossil fuels 17% Total 83 TWh 22% Net imports of electricity and others

10 10 Electricity Back to Content Supply and total consumption of electricity, TWh Hydro Wind Nuclear Conpower power power densing power 1) CHP industry CHP Net district imports heat Total consumption * Share 2014* 16% 1% 27% 8% 11% 15% 22% 100% Annual Change 13/14* 4% 44% 0% 25% 1% 12% 14% 1% 1) Condensing power includes conventional condensing power, peak gas turbine power and gas engines. Sources: Statistics Finland, Finnish Energy Industries and Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (wind power)

11 Back to Content Electricity 11 Electricity supply * 100 TWh * Net imports of electricity Condensing power CHP, district heat CHP, industry Nuclear power Hydro and wind power Electricity supply 2014* By mode of production Condensing power 8% Net imports 22% Nuclear power 27% CHP, industry 11% Hydro and wind power 17% 15% CHP, district heat Coal 10% Oil 0.3% Natural gas 6% Peat 4% Wood and other renewables 13% By source Nuclear power 27% 1% Other fuels Hydro and wind power 17% Net imports 22% Total electricity supply in 2014* was 83.3 TWh

12 12 Electricity Back to Content Electricity consumption by sector, TWh Industry and construction Householdes Servic- Transm. Total and and Total Forest Metal Chemical in- Others industrtrdustry indus- and public distrib. agri- sector losses culture * Share 2014* 47% 24% 10% 8% 5% 27% 23% 3% 100 % Annual Change 13/14* 3% 2% 2% 6% 17% 2 % 5% 4% 1 % Sources: Finnish Energy Industries and Statistics Finland

13 Back to Content Electricity 13 Electricity consumption by sector 2014* Households and agriculture 27% Industry and construction 47% 11% 21% 17% 51% Other industries Metal industry Chemical industry Forest industry Services and public sector 23% Losses 3% Electricity consumption by sector * 100 TWh Transmission and distribution losses Services and public sector Households and agriculture Other industries and construction Chemical industry Metal industry Forest industry *

14 14 Electricity Back to Content Energy sources in electricity generation, PJ Hydro Nuclear Hard power energy coal Oil Natural gas Peat Other fuels Net imports of electr. Total CO 2 emissions (Mt) * Wind power is included in hydro power. Sources: Statistics Finland, Finnish Energy Industries and Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT (wind power) Imports and exports of electricity * TWh 25 Import Export Net imports * Source: Finnish Energy Industries

15 Back to Content Heating 15 Production and consumption of district heat, TWh Net production of district heat Heat only plants CHP plants Total Consumption of district heat Network and measuring losses Residential buildings Industrial buildings Other consumers Total * Sources: Statistics Finland, Finnish Energy Industries/District heating and since 1995 also Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities.

16 16 Heating Back to Content Production of district heat * TWh Heat only plants 10 Combined heat and power (CHP) 0 plants * Fuel consumption in production of district heat * Natural gas Peat Wood fuels Coal Oil 2014* Others PJ Sources: Statistics Finland, Finnish Energy Industries

17 Back to Content Heating 17 Consumption of energy for heating residential, commercial and public buildings TJ ºC vrk Heating degree day Peat and other Natural gas Heat pumps etc Electricity Oil Wood District heating Energy consumption in households 2013 Space and water heating 82% Cooking 1% Lighting 3% Saunas 5% Other electrical equipment 9%

18 18 Industry Back to Content Electricity consumption by branch of industry TWh Other Food, beverages and tobacco Chemical Metal Wood and paper Fuel consumption in industry 2013 Wood fuel 51% Oil 18% 4% Recovered fuels and reaction heat of industry 3% Peat 11% Coal 13% Natural gas Total fuel consumption in industry in 2013 was 379 PJ.

19 Back to Content Enterprises 19 Enterprises in energy sector in 2013 Turnover, EUR mil. Number of enterprises Employees Staff expenses, EUR mil. Extraction and agglomeration of peat Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel Electricity, gas, steam and hot water supply Wholesale of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and related products Retail sale of automotive fuel Turnover of enterprises in energy sector Electricity, gas, steam and hot water supply Wholesale of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and related products Manufacture of coke, refined petroleum products and nuclear fuel Retail sale of automotive fuel Extraction and agglomeration of peat EUR million Source: Statistics Finland, Financial statements of enterprises.

20 20 Greenhouse gases Back to Content Greenhouse gas emissions * The gases included in the Kyoto Protocol * million tonnes of CO 2 equivalent Energy Industrial prosesses and product use Agriculture Waste Indirect CO 2 emissions from energy and industrial prosesses and product use Total emission without land use, land use change and forestry Land use, land use change and forestry Greenhouse gas emissions by gases * million t CO 2 eq * F gases Nitrous oxide Methane Carbon dioxide Source: Statistics Finland, Greenhouse Gas Inventory

21 Back to Content Greenhouse gases 21 Finland s greenhouse gas emissions * million t CO 2 eq * The EU s emissions trading started in Source: Statistics Finland, Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greenhouse gas emissions, total CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion CO 2 emissions from the emissions trading sector, total CO 2 emissions from the emissions trading sector from fuel combustion National allowances under EU ETS and verified CO 2 emissions for 2014 by branch in Finland Combustion installations with a rated thermal input exceeding 20 MW Mineral oil refineries Manufacture of iron and steel Manufacture of lime and cement Manufacture of glass and glass wool Manufacture of ceramic products Forest industry Petrochemical industry Combustion of fuels Manufacture of non-ferrous metals Mineral wood production Emission allovance on Manufacture of gypsum or plasterboard Kyoto period by year Manufacture of nitric acid Emissions 2014 Small district heating plants (opted in) million tonnes of CO 2 eq. Source: European Commission

22 22 Imports and exports Back to Content Value of energy imports 2014* Crude oil and NGL 52% Other petroleum products 31% 1% Nuclear fuel 1% Other fuels 4% Hard coal and coke 1) 6% Electricity 6% Natural gas 1) includes coking coal Total imports of energy products were million euros in 2014*. That was 18.4% of total imports to Finland. Value of energy exports 2014* Middle distillates 41% 0.1% Peat 0.2% Wood fuels 2% Other fuels 2% Electricity 36% Motor gasoline 19% Other petroleum products Total exports of energy products were million euros in 2014*. That was 9.4% of total exports from Finland. Source: Finnish Customs/Foreign Trade Statistics

23 Back to Content Imports and exports 23 Energy imports 2014* Unit Russia Sweden Norway Other countries Total Amount Total Value mil. Coal and coal products 1000 t Natural gas mil. m Oil and petroleum products 1) 1000 t Peat 1000 t Wood fuels 2) 1000 t Nuclear fuel tu Electricity GWh Value mil ) Includes natural gas condensate 2) Includes wood pellets and other wood fuels Source: Finnish Customs/ Foreign Trade Statistics Energy exports 2014* Unit Sweden United Kingdom Estonia Other countries Total Total Amount Value mil. Coke 1000 t Petroleum products1000 t Peat 1000 t Wood fuels 1) 1000 t Electricity TWh Value mil ) Includes wood pellets and other wood fuels Source: Finnish Customs/ Foreign Trade Statistics

24 24 Imports and exports Back to Content Imports and exports of electricity in Nordic countries 2014 TWh Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Imports Exports Net imports of electricity Total electricity generation in Nordic Countries 2014 Hydro power 52% 13% Thermal power, renewables 20% Nuclear power 9% Thermal power, fossil Total generation 407 TWh Electricity consumption in Nordic Countries 2014, TWh Sweden 136 Norway 125 Finland 83 Denmark 33 Iceland 18 Total 395 Source: Entso-e: Monthly Statistics % Wind power

25 Back to Content International energy statistics 25 Electricity generation in Nordic Countries 2014 Iceland 72% 28% 18 TWh 142 TWh Norway 96% 2% 2% 151 TWh 8% 7% 2% 42% 41% 35% 20% 2% 25% 17% 65 TWh Finland 48% 9% 43% Sweden 31 TWh Denmark Hydro power Nuclear power Thermal power, fossil Thermal power, renewables Wind power Source: Entso-e: Monthly Statistics 2014

26 26 International energy statistics Back to Content Electricity spot prices of the nordic power exchange NordPool by price area, /MWh Year Month Oslo Stockholm Helsinki Copenhagen Tallinn System Development of spot prices on Nord Pool EUR/MWh 100 Price area Finland System price The system price is the price calculated on the basis of all bids and offers at the Power Exchange, in which possbile restrictions caused by the electricity transmission capacity are not taken into account. Source: Nord Pool

27 Back to Content International energy statistics 27 Electricity prices for households on the 2nd half of 2014 Denmark Germany Ireland Spain Cyprus Italy Portugal Belgium United Kingdom Austria Sweden Greece France Luxembourg Netherlands Slovenia Finland Slovakia Poland Estonia Croatia Lithuania Latvia Czech Republic Romania Malta Hungary Bulgaria Cent per kwh Households annual consumption of kwh. Prices include taxes Source: Eurostat

28 28 International energy statistics Back to Content Electricity prices for industry on the 2nd half of 2014 Denmark Cyprus Italy Germany Malta United Kingdom Ireland Greece Portugal Lithuania Spain Slovakia Latvia Belgium Austria Croatia Hungary Estonia France Netherlands Luxembourg Slovenia Poland Bulgaria Romania Czech Republic Finland Sweden Cent per kwh Electricity prices to industrial consumers with annual consumption of MWh. Prices include taxes. Source: Eurostat

29 Back to Content International energy statistics 29 Total energy consumption in EU, PJ Germany France United Kingdom Italy Spain Poland Netherlands Belgium Sweden Czech Republic Finland Austria Romania Greece Portugal Hungary Denmark Slovakia Bulgaria Ireland Croatia Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta EU Source: Eurostat

30 30 International energy statistics Back to Content Electricity consumption in EU, TWh Germany France United Kingdom Italy Spain Sweden Poland Netherlands Belgium Finland Austria Czech Republic Greece Portugal Romania Hungary Denmark Bulgaria Slovakia Ireland Croatia Slovenia Lithuania Estonia Latvia Luxembourg Cyprus Malta EU Source: Eurostat

31 Back to Content International energy statistics 31 Consumption of energy and electricity per GDP-unit in EU countries 2013 Denmark Ireland Luxembourg Italy United Kingdom Austria Malta Spain Sweden Germany France EU 28 Cyprus Greece Netherlands Portugal Belgium Finland Croatia Latvia Lithuania Slovenia Romania Hungary Slovakia Poland Czech Republic Estonia kwh/1000 Electricity (kwh/1000 ) Energy (kgoe/1000 ) Bulgaria kgoe/1000 Source: Eurostat

32 32 International energy statistics Back to Content Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2013, and the target for 2020 Sweden Latvia Finland Austria Portugal Denmark Estonia Slovenia Romania Lithuania France Croatia Spain EU 28 Greece Germany Italy Bulgaria Ireland Poland United Kingdom Slovakia Netherlands Czech Republic Hungary Cyprus Belgium Luxembourg Malta 2013 Target for This indicator is calculated on the basis of data covered by Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics. Reporting countries provide additional information on renewable source not covered by the Regulation. This indicator may be considered an estimate of the indicator described in Directive 2009/28/EC because statistical systems in some countries are not yet fully developed to meet all the requirements of this Directive. Source: Eurostat %

33 Back to Content International energy statistics 33 Gas production and consumption by region in 2013 North America Russia Middle East Asia Pacific Europe and Eurasia 1) Africa South and Central America Production Consumption Billion m 3 Coal production and consumption by region in 2013 Asia Pacific North America Europe and Eurasia 1) Russia Africa & Middle East South and Central America 1) excludes Russia Production Consumption Mtoe Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2014

34 34 International energy statistics Back to Content Oil production and consumption by region in 2013 Middle East North America Russia Africa Asia Pacific South and Central America Europe and Eurasia 1) 1) excludes Russia Production Consumption Million tonnes World oil, natural gas and coal reserve sufficiency Coal Natural Gas Oil Years Total reserves at the end of 2013: oil 238 billion tonnes, natural gas 186 trillion m 3, coal 892 billion tonnes. Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2014

35 Back to Content Networks information 35 Electricity network information * Transformer substations, number High voltage substations Distribution substations Lengths of low voltage lines (0.4 kv 1 kv), km Overhead lines Cables (inc. sea cable) Cabling rate 22 % 29 % 37 % 39 % 41 % Lengths of medium voltage lines (over 1 kv 70 kv), km Overhead lines Cables (inc. sea cable) Cabling rate 8 % 9 % 12 % 15 % 16 % Lengths of high voltage lines (110 kv 400 kv), km 110 kv kv kv Source: Energy Authority Energy statistics by Statistics Finland Energy table service The Energy table service provides information on the energy industry as an extensive compilation of Excel tables and statistical graphs. The service is in Finnish, English or Swedish, and is updated annually. The Energy online service is available at Energy in Finland Statistical pocketbook on energy statistics. Homepage of the Energy topic ( The updated statistics, latest tables and figures on consumption of hard coal energy consumption in households energy prices energy supply and consumption energy in manufacturing production of electricity and heat

36 36 Net heat contents and conversion factors Back to Content Net heat contents and densities of energy sources Fuels Unit Net heat content Density GJ MWh t/m 3 Crude oil t Heavy fuel oil t Light fuel oil t Diesel fuel t Kerosenes t Other kerosines t Naphtha t Motor gasolines t Aviation gasolines t LPG t Refinery gases t Hard coal t Coke t Natural gas m 3 (0 C) Blast furnace gas m Coke oven gas m Black liquor t (dry matter) Wood pellets t Bark t 5 11 Sawdust t 6 10 Forest residue chips t 6 11 Whole tree chips t 7 11 Chips loose m Milled peat t Sod peat t

37 Back to Content Net heat contents and conversion factors 37 Conversion factors between energy units toe MWh GJ Gcal toe MWh GJ Gcal Example: 1 toe (tonne of oil equivalent) = MWh Prefix k = kilo = = 10 3 M = mega = = 10 6 G = giga = = 10 9 T = tera = = P = peta = = Carbon dioxide factors for some fuels g CO 2 / MJ Motor gasolines 69.4 Default bio share 8% Diesel fuel 65.5 Default bio share 11% Light fuel oil 73.5 Heavy fuel oil 79.2 Kerosenes 73.2 LPG 64.9 Other oils Hard coal 93.3 Coke Natural gas Milled peat Bark, wood fuel Industrial wood residue Black liquor Source: Statistics Finland/Fuel classification

38 38 Notes and explanations Back to Content Note Hydro power, wind power and imported electricity have been made commensurate with fuels according to directly obtained electricity (at the efficiency ratio of 100 per cent) and nuclear power at the efficiency ratio of 33 per cent. Calculation method for heating energy Net heating energy for buildings was calculated by subtracting boiler losses from fuels according to the following default efficiencies: Small combustion of wood 55% Peat 60% Coal 60% Heavy fuel oil 83% Light fuel oil 78% Natural gas 90% District heating 100% Electric heating 100% Source: Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Tampere University of Technology

39 Back to Content Notes and explanations 39 Explanation of symbols.. Data not available Magnitude zero 0 Magnitude less than half of unit employed * Preliminary Break in the time series

40 FOLLOW US NEWS NOTIFICATIONS, SOCIAL MEDIA STATISTICS FINLAND Produces statistics on a variety of areas in society Promotes the use of statistical data Supports decision-making based on facts Creates preconditions for research GUIDANCE AND INFORMATION SERVICE Communication and Information Services Statistics Finland tel Publication orders: Edita Publishing Oy tel Energy_in_Finland_2015.indd 1 ISSN (pdf) ISBN (pdf) ISSN (print) ISBN (print) Product number 3055 ENERGY IN FINLAND :43:02

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