Measurement of Off-Road Vehicle Emissions in Mexico using three PEMS platforms

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1 Measurement of Off-Road Vehicle Emissions in Mexico using three PEMS platforms Miguel Zavala, Rodrigo Gonzalez, Marco Balam, Luisa T. Molina Molina Center for Energy and the Environment Andres Aguilar, Francisco Guardado Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático Daniel Prato, J. Ignacio Huertas Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Toluca Aron Jazcilevich Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Chandan Misra California Air Resources Board 2015 PEMS Conference & Workshop 5 March 26 & 27, 2015 UCR CE-CERT 1084 Columbia Ave, Riverside, CA

2 Off-Road Vehicle Emissions in Mexico Objectives 1. To characterize the particulate matter and gaseous emissions of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using PEMS. 2. To evaluate the potential emissions reductions by the implementation of emissions control devices. There is a need of off-road vehicle emissions information in Mexico and this is the first pilot project to address this need.

3 Project Activities Visits to sites and vehicles (30) Logistics and planning SECURITY VEHICLE AVAILABILITY RAIN Inspection of vehicles a) Opacity Test b) Oil and fuel sample c) Inspect the air intake system d) Visual inspection of the engine e) Install data logger Measurement Calibrations Selection of vehicles Design of measurement protocol Acquisition of control devices Installation of control devices PEMS Installation Calibrations Measurement

4 PEMS for measurements CO 2 CO NO x O 2 ECOSTAR From ITESM NDIR NDIR NDUV E-Chem BC AVL-MSS From CARB Photoacoustic AXION R/S From UNAM CO 2 CO HC NO x O 2 PM NDIR NDIR NDIR E-Chem E-Chem LLS

5 Sampling locations and testing procedure Site A Site B Testing area Testing areas Installation area Installation area Logistical work Install PEMS Move to testing area Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Move back to installation area Uninstall PEMS Assess data 6 months 3-4 hours 1-2 hours 2-3 hours

6 Sampling set up Dilution Air HEPA MSS SEMTECH EFM Exhaust ECOSTAR AXION Safety strips Safety during installation and operation was a constant challenge Additional Padding All vehicles tested use ULSD

7 No Type Engine year RESULTS: Sampling size Manufacturer/ displacement (liters) Baseline Tests (minutes) Filter Tests (minutes) Control Type 1 Backhoe A 2010 Komatsu/ p-dpf 2 Backhoe B 2010 Komatsu/ p-dpf 3 Front loader A 2010 Komatsu/ DPF 4 Front loader B 2010 Komatsu/ DPF 5 Bulldozer A 2008 Komatsu/ DPF 6 Bulldozer B 2008 Caterpillar/ DPF 7 Crane 2009 Link-Belt/ Tractor 2009 New Holland/ p-dpf 9 Compressor 1999 Cummins/ Generator 2010 Cummins/ DPF 11 Excavator 2008 Volvo/ DPF MSS + AXION MSS + ECOSTAR MSS + AXION + ECOSTAR p-dpf Partial flow Diesel Particulate Filter

8 Diversity of sampling modes BACKHOE A Engine startup Moving to testing area Lifting and pushing tests Big bucket Lifting tests Small bucket Moving back to initial area Idling Checking instruments and data gathering

9 PEMS Comparison BULLDOZER B

10 Baseline vs filtered emissions EXCAVATOR Baseline With DPF [g/s]

11 Pollutants relationships GENERATOR NO x PM BC

12 Conclusions 1. Measurements represent off-road emissions data obtained for the first time in Mexico. Ongoing analysis of the data will produce emissions factors by vehicle and operation mode. 2. The observed variability in emissions indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data (activity data) for inventories. 3. Results showed generally good comparison of CO 2, CO, and NO X between ECOSTAR and AXION, but analysis are still ongoing. 4. Substantial BC reductions were observed when using emission control devices. Further analysis will quantify the benefits. 5. The collaboration generated from this project among key institutions can be used to foster the research on off-road sources in Mexico.

13 Collaborators Molina Center for Energy and the Environment Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático LTM Center for Energy and the Environment Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey campus Toluca California Air Resources Board Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Gobierno del Distrito Federal TETRA TECH Sponsors United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático (INECC) Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MCE2) Special thanks to: Ing. Reyes Martínez Cordero of the Planta de Asfalto del Distrito Federal Ing. Jaqueline de la Cruz of Geo-Construcción Mr. Antonio Nava of Sistema Maíz

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