Electronic Human Resource Management: Issues and Challenges in Jordanian Universities. Dr. Nasser Mohammad Soud Jaradat

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1 Electronic Human Resource Management: Issues and Challenges in Jordanian Universities Dr. Nasser Mohammad Soud Jaradat Abstract The study aims to define the challenges facing the electronic human resource management and their effect on faculty members of private Jordanian universities. The challenges were researched by: electronic human resource management, organizational culture, technology infrastructure, desire and conviction in technology usage, employees' knowledge in technology usage, and researched the performance of the faculty members by: job satisfaction, improvement of offered service, improvement of the educational process output. The data was collected using a questionnaire especially prepared for this purpose. The sample was consisted of 54 faculty members in the Philadelphia University. The main findings of the study were: there are great effects of the challenges facing E-HRM on the faculty members in the Jordanian private universities; the technology infrastructure constituted the primary source of those challenges, followed by the employee s knowledge of using this technology, the desire and conviction of using the technology, and the organizational culture challenge. The study concluded a group of recommendations that were suggested for the private Jordanian universities in order to improve their level of implementation of E-HRM application. KEYWORDS: ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE, JOB SATISFACTION. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 685

2 Introduction Many organizations face on its various kinds many challenges imposed by the changing nature of modern life in multiple fields, which obligates the organizations to be capable of learning how to renew themselves; in order to go side by side with these changes, in addition of meeting changes in the social needs as the age changes by its needs and requirements., The thing that made the most important priority to take concern of developing and growing the work force capabilities at those organizations. This led those organizations to search for new advanced methods in order to develop its human resources. The new world features have become defined by the capability of its members to use knowledge and what it includes from intellectual assets and modern methods and the capability to comprehend and to use the information and knowledge, and the knowledge output for a society became the force that leads this society s present and secures its future, the powerful nation as (grege, 2009) mentions is the nation that is most powerful and knowledgeable by its thinkers and its creative ones, Those who adds the new for knowledge,this led to the necessity in taking care of developing and the growing the human resource field in order to cope with the various improvements of the business. The case of improving the performance of the job performance is considered the most important case in the process of fixing the organization; the efficient organization must have a program to develop its job performance in a consistent and organized way. Improving the job performance is achieved through providing them with new information, skills, directions and knowledge that increases their technical capabilities, and works on renewing their information in a consistent modern way (Al-Aghbari, 2007). Given the increase in the size of business and services, and the speed of change in managerial development that the organization requires, as a result to organizational management and its kind s variety, those organizations have chosen to preserve their entities and their creativity through using the modern managerial levels that depends on new technologies in all fields, precisely in developing the available human resource in the organization. (Basheer, 2008) clarified that that there are future challenges facing the organizations that demands finding practical solutions in order to face them, and increasing the movement of managerial globalization as a thought and in execution, and the speed of technological changes, and transforming from the economical thought to the knowledge thought, seeing the technology as the perfect tool in generating power. Upon all this there must be a change in the management methods and to adopt the new managerial methods, including the electronic human resource management that is considered one of the important methods in making the required change and development. The human resource management plays an important role in increasing the organization productivity, where it proved its use in the world of industry and production, as a result of its important role that it plays in conserving the existence of those organizations (al-azab, 2007). COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 686

3 (Grege, 2009) the electronic human resource management is one of the most important modern managerial methods and strategies to make a change, develop, and achieve the competitive advantage. (Al-Kurdi, 2010) defines the electronic human resource as a new managerial methodology based upon the comprehension and conscious use of the information and communication techniques in accomplishing the basic jobs of management and developing human resource. (Al-Kurdi, 2010) also defines it as the employee s job and responsibilities fulfillment that is required by the organization that he works in, means the results that he achieves in the organization, the performance concept also indicates the to the results defining the behavior, and so the positive performance is desired defining result of behavior and on the other hand the negative performance is an undesired defining result of behavior. Based upon this, the study in addition of the major challenges that face the electronic human resource management could contribute in deepening the knowledge of electronic human resource management concept from one side, and to provide suggestions and recommendations that can help in the decision makers in the Jordanian universities to benefit from the results of this study, as it contributes in recognizing the effect of using the electronic human resource usage on the job performance level of the faculty teaching members. Research Problem The problem of this research is concluded in the lack of scientific knowledge of electronic human resource generally, to define the challenges that face the electronic human resource management in the Jordanian private universities,, and the effect of it on the performance of faculty members, the goal of the study can be achieved through the following questions: 1. What are the challenges that face the electronic human resource management in the Jordanian private universities? 2. Is there a relation between using the electronic human resource management and the level of work performance of the faculty teaching members in the Jordanian private universities? 3. What is the role of the organizational culture that is prevailing in the private universities in relation to learning? 4. What is the availability level of the qualifying infrastructure to intake and comprehend the developing technology? 5. What is the level of accepting the idea of transformation at the management of private universities In Jordan to employing technology? 6. What level of proficiency the universities employees does have in dealing with technological programs and methods? COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 687

4 Study Hypothesis Based on the study s problem which is to clarify the challenges that face the usage of electronic human resources and the effect on the improvement of the job performance that work in the private Jordanian universities, those hypothesis were built: H01: there is no statistical proof that the usage of electronic human resource management affects the improvement of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. Subsidiaries of this hypothesis are the following: 1. There is no statistical proof for the electronic employment variation affecting the improvement level of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. 2. There is no statistical proof for the training and electronic orientation variation affecting the improvement level of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. 3. There is no statistical proof for the electronic stimulation variation affecting the improvement level of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. H02: There is no statistical proof on the weakness of organizational culture role prevailing in the organizations to affects learning on the level of improvement of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. H03: There is no statistical proof on the availability of technological infrastructure in the organizations to affect the level of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. H04: There is no statistical proof on the worker s desire and conviction of changing from a manual system to an automated one in executing business that affects the level of improvement of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. H05: There is no statistical proof on using technological knowledge to affect the level of job performance in the faculty members in the private Jordanian universities COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 688

5 Research Model In the spotlight of the research s problem, and the revision of the specialized literature, the researcher did define the variations he tested as listed in the following model: Research model Independent variables Dependant variables Challenges that face the electronic human resource management 1. Electronic human resource management -employment -Training and orientation -stimulation 2. Organizational culture 3. Technological infrastructure 4. Desire and conviction in technology usage 5. Employee s knowledge in technology usage Employee s performance for the faculty members 1. Faculty member job satisfaction 2. Improvement of the service level 3. Improvement of the learning output level The practical and theoretical definitions of the research variables The research consists of two kinds, the independent, and the dependent variables and in the highlight of what came in the various literature and studies the following definitions of the study s variables were adopted: (1) The independent variables that includes the following: o The electronic human resource management: (Al-Kurdi, 2010) defines as the new managerial methodology that is based on comprehension and use of communication and information techniques in executing the basic jobs of managing and developing the human resource. And for the purposes of this study it will be measured through its basic functions which are: employment, training and orientation and stimulation. o Employment: (al-salem, 2009.p171) defines it as the main tool that gives the organization the ability to bring individuals and to make a comparison between them in order to choose the best for declared vacancy, this variable will be measured through the measurement of its essential components, which are: attraction, selection, appointing. o Training and orientation: it is defined as the organized process which through the behavior and feelings of the individuals are changed in order to improve and increase their performance and effectiveness, orientation means the process of introducing the organization to the new employee and his job and his co-workers, it will be measured by answering the preview section of the related questionnaire. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 689

6 o Stimulation: means to provoke the insider force of the individual,which interprets the level,direction and the continuity of the necessary efforts to accomplish the job, it will be measured by answering the preview section of the related questionnaire. o Organizational culture: means to reinforce the culture of modern technology, and to transfer from traditional work systems into technological work systems, and to reinforce the learning culture the employees have, it will be measured by answering the preview section in the different divisions of the questionnaire. o Technological infrastructure: means to link the university s equipment with global technology system, provide the tools and equipment, provide the suitable space and location for those equipment and tools, with the availability of central protection system either for the equipment or the information, it will be measured by answering the preview section in the different divisions of the questionnaire. o Technology desire and conviction: the success of change management is related to the blessing, approval and encouraging of the senior management and the conviction of the officials in the private universities in Jordan of the necessity to use technology their universities (Robbins and coulter, 2005, p313), it will be measured by answering the preview section in the different divisions of the questionnaire. o Employee s technology usage knowledge: means the necessity to of the human resource management in providing the employees with the sufficient training to use technology to overcome on possible difficulties such as linguistic, technical and other difficulties, it will be measured by answering the preview section in the different divisions of the questionnaire. (2) Dependent Variable, it includes the job performance : o job performance: (Al-Kurdi, 2010) defines it by the employee s work and responsibilities execution that is assigned to him by the organization, also means the results that are achieved by the employee in the organization, for the purposes of this study it will be measured by its indicators measurement, which are: job satisfaction for the faculty members, improvement of the provided service, improvement of learning output level. Research Importance The subject of electronic human resource management became a modern issue that requires more study and research especially for the growing countries, because of its important nature that is linked to the necessity of deploying technology in developing structures, ideas, methods and capability to resolve problems, and to reach the distinguished knowledge that is capable of creative competition. The aim of this study was achieve a new scientific addition that links between those modern concepts as a result of their importance and their modernization. Inserting technology in the work environment doesn t mean just to buy modern pc, programs and equipment; but the aim of it is to be used by capable individuals to achieve their organization goals in efficient and effective way. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 690

7 This study importance comes from it being focus on one of the important elements that could transfer an organization in the university private sector from a traditional one to a creative, flexible and responsive organization. Also this study is considered the first of its kind in Jordan (as the researcher believes), because of that it will be one of the pioneering studies in this field because of what it could contribute in developing the researchers and specialists concepts from one side and the universities decision makers from the other side, especially in what is related to the applicable side on what this research recommend and conclude. Study Objectives The research main goal is to define the challenges that face the electronic human resource management and the effects that it has on improving the level of performance, the subsidiary goals are: 1. Define the relation between using the electronic human resource management and the job performance level of faculty members in the private Jordanian universities. 2. Clarify the role of the prevailing organizational culture in the private Jordanian universities considering learning. 3. Clarify the availability level of the qualifying infrastructure to absorb the advanced technology in the private Jordanian universities. 4. Define the level of accepting to transform at the management in the private Jordanian universities to technology deployment. 5. Clarify the level of employees proficiency in handling with the technological programs and methods in Jordan s private universities staff. Research Limitation The research will be limited in the private Jordanian universities for the purpose of studying the challenges facing the electronic human resource management in those universities, and the effect it has on improving the job performance in it, and so the limitations are: 1. Publicizing the results of this study is limited to private Jordanian universities only. 2. Data collecting was based on the individuals the research applicants on only. Conceptual Frame and the Previous Studies Theoretical; background of the study: The idea of presenting information and services electronically is not a new idea, it already was available in many universal universities, which used the television cable system, and one of the most countries that used those systems was France (gronlund, 2001). As it is known that universities were found for presenting the service of teaching and qualifying, on the other side those students are eager to have those services and information at the easiest and quickest ways. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 691

8 It is also required for the info & service provider to put on his consideration that those services are not limited only to the teaching process, as it also consists of all the services that the student and the employee in the universities need (Barquin, 2001, p.207 ). And so on the private universities have to organize their priorities which aim to transform from providing the services in traditional ways to electronic ways especially in the kind, variety and the services recurrence provided to citizens and business enterprises. 1) The electronic human resource management concept. The electronic human resource management is defined as a new managerial methodology based on comprehending and the conscious use of information & communication techniques in handling the basic assignments of managing & developing human resource. Electronic human resource is considered a new pattern of thought and managerial practicing that adopts the age of fast variable changes, contains its renewable techniques, applies its effective mechanisms and invests in its information & communication techniques that achieves its functions, the most important specifications of the electronic human resource management resembles in: - adopting the concepts of ( strategic management ) from the side of blurred vision,the essential message of the organization and the positive handling with the Surrounding external and internal environment, goal defining strategy for the human resource management. - Immediate & positive response with the transformations in the work market and the and the necessary developments in the structure of human resources management, amending the methods & the attraction plans,in addition to the suitable selection process which is applicable with those transformations. - The fast & continuous development to redesign the organizational engineering structures, the systems, the work procedures and the basis of the decision making, authority and the responsibilities distribution to go head by head with technical evolutions. - Facilitate the learning and investing the experiences, the accumulated knowledge of the human resources and deploying them to develop the competitive abilities of the organizations through the knowledge management concept. - Searching the global work market for the best human resources. - Depending on the essential modern age technique which is the computer, information techniques, communication techniques, and the internet with all that submerged from it like the widespread and the intranet. 2) The Jordanian interest in transforming to the electronic management. Since the Jordanian government initiated the application of the royal vision of transiting from the traditional government to the electronic government, it became an essential need for the individuals who apply for the announced vacancies to obtain an (ICDL) certificate; also the government initiated a computer for every citizen campaign with low prices and facilitated payments, In addition to the huge demand from the Jordanian citizens on the internet for its multiple uses. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 692

9 And because of this the transformation environment to electronic services and the transformation of the public districts and institutions towards using technology is now an encouraging and suitable environment (awad, 2003, p.45). But the question that is urged to be answered in this field is: is it sufficient to launch a university website in order to say that this university is using technology efficiently? The student or the employee can enter to the website to the electronic university services by entering either his university number or his employee number going through accumulated details in the shape of listed organized data reflects his résumé during the years he stayed in the university. 3) Benefits if transforming into electronic work. The university s services & data display must have a privilege of being easy, clear, written in an uncomplicated way the individual could understand & handle, the cost of providing & exchanging the services and info could be high but then there future benefits superior its whatever cost,benefits such as (executive office of the president of the united states, April,2003 ) : 1- Financial cost savings that could reach millions of jd s whether on the citizen or the university. 2- Decreasing the amount of written & paper work. 3- Decreasing the needed time to accomplish transactions from days to minutes. 4- Easing the pressure that could happen in the universities as a result of aligning in waiting rows is efficiently achieved. 5- Decreasing the cost of the employee or the student transiting from his home or workplace to the university at its minimum level as the transaction is done automatically. Dealing between the university divisions and its members & employees through the advanced technology is not limited by possessing technology as equipment, or the completion of the infrastructure, although they are important but the application and the practical use needs the availability of various systems, such as :operating and processing data systems, decision support systems, strategic information systems, managerial reports systems, knowledge defining systems, team work support systems and operations control systems (teshori, 2006). Also there is some private Jordanian universities that are still limited in using the technology internally, meaning there is no effective communicating methods with the outside environment through an electronic data base (the internet) by the internal and external network systems (Areiqat, 2008). 4) The effects of modern techniques on the structure & performance of human resources. The effects of the modern techniques is clear in the reduction it made in time and distance, and achieved more interdependence between the organization s components and its markets and vendors, also it showed a fast and immediate response to the changes of the markets and customers orders. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 693

10 Those effects reflected the structures of human resources in the modern business organizations by the following: - The clear directions decreasing the size of the work force as a result of fewer numbers of employees are needed to do the same work with higher efficiency. - The shrinking of the mid-management, those who specialize in mediating jobs between higher management and the executives on their different organizational positions. - The tendency to the disappearance of brokers between the organization and its clients or vendors replaced by the telecommunication & information techniques like the technique of just in time and dealing through internet. - The retreat of incompetence workers that were filling vacancies that need muscle work without brain work where the new techniques replaced them with more efficiency. - Increase in requiring new categories of workers that have the knowledge and specialization in computer programming science and others who have thought and mental capabilities to absorb the new techniques and their applications in business management and the variety of organization s activities. - The increase the demand of human resources who are capable of handling the work in the self managing teams where modern organizations are oriented to. - Increase in the need of human resources that obtain massive capabilities of business diversification and express transit between different job locations in the world, and the capability of coping with multiple cultures that deals with those world organizations. - The transformation of the systems & business relations from the concept of hiring to the partnership concept, and changes the outlook of human resources from being parts to being interest holders in the organization. - Transforming the attention of human resource from only to provide the working force for the organizations various sectors to the original concern of recruiting human resources to achieve the aimed results by attracting them to work by activating the performance management concept. 5) Electronic environment inside universities. Transformation from the traditional university system to electronic university system demands a deep comprehension for its properties to guarantee its success, especially that 65% of electronic universities experienced a tragic failure and the cause was the non- understanding of those properties (Altenok, 2008). As a result it is necessary to provide the encouraging and suitable environment; In order to provide such an environment first there must be a full conviction for the chairmen of the private universities in Jordan of the necessity to transform and to initiate providing the legal supporting environment for the transform process through revising some law scripts, materials, paragraphs, clauses making amendments in the laws and followed procedures and cancelling what contradicts with transformation process. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 694

11 Previous Studies: We find in the management literature many studies and researches especially in information management that indicates to various kinds of obstacles, barriers and challenges which prevented organizations transition from traditional management into the method of unique management that considers the technology as an element of success, here we will discuss the main studies: (Srivasatava, 2010) research addressed: Shaping Organization with e-hrm, the study aimed to uncover the effectiveness of using the electronic resources in human resource management in the American state of San Francisco. The research was applied on a sample consisting of 35 male & female employees in human resource section at the American companies in the state of Francisco. The research used personal interview method, employees use of programmes, technological & electronic courses. Results of the study showed that electronic human resource management have an essential effect on managing and developing human resources in the fields of experience exchange, providing a base for remote learning, changing the culture of the organization from being a paper based culture to an electronic based culture in all work fields, with providing a work environment based on information & telecommunication technology. The study showed that electronic resource management is flexible in response for changes happening in the systems & laws of work and labor in addition to transforming from making attention on the tactical plans into facilitating and applying strategic planning, also the results showed that one of the most important obstacles of applying electronic management is the variance degree of basic structure of information & communication technology in different companies. (Grege, 2009) addressed: The use of information technology in contemporary HRM A practice-based study of e-hrm at Sandvik Corp. The study aimed to uncover the effect of electronic management use in human resource at the French Sandvik corp. The study was applied on 50 male and female employee in the company using the observation method, the most important results of the study is : there is a gap between theory and application in the use of information technology in human resource management, the application of electronic resource in the organization have a large flexibility, the main goal of improving procedures electronically is to remove & minimize the loss of transactions,facilitate the work, provide feedback from the process, decrease the process length and minimizing number of mistakes of the service. (Foster, 2009) addressed Making Sense of e-hrm: Technological Frames, Value, Creation and Competitive Advantage. The research was applies upon 46 employees in 15 British companies at human resource departments, the observation & personal interview methods were used in collecting the data. Results of the study showed that the use of electronic human resource management led to lower the cost, improve the quality of human resources, increase of productivity, provide the COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 695

12 capability & competition strategy, improve the managerial efficiency of the employees, in addition of lowering the operating cost of human resource, improving the individuals managerial productivity and effective strategic capability. (Foster, 2008) addressed: An exploratory analysis of e-hrm in the context of Hrm, transformation This research aimed to uncover the effect of electronic resources has on human resource management in the British companies. This study was applied on 40 employees in the public sector companies at human resource departments. The study used the personal interview method in collecting data. The results showed the interactivity of employees with electronic resources (like modern technology programs) in human resource management, as it also shoed the importance of training employees on technology and electronic programs through providing an interactive environment rich with applications based on computer technique and its networks and multimedia which makes the trainee capable of reaching his training process goals. (Kelemen, Mekovec, 2007) addressed: Electronic Document Management as the Basis for E- government Services. This research aimed to uncover the effect of electronic resources has on human resource management. This study was applied on 22 employees in the public sector companies at human resource departments in the United States of America. The observation & personal interview methods were used in collecting the data. The results showed the effectiveness of using electronic human resource management in effecting internally and externally on the organization, also it showed the existence of challenges that face electronic human resources in applying electronic systems, such as : attraction, choosing the best elements of electronic system use in handling with clients, response flexibility for the changes happening in the systems,labor law and work force, transforming from tactical planning into facilitating and applying strategic planning, removing the misunderstood that the job of human resources doesn t have any added value in public sector. The study also showed that the human resource management contributes in increasing employees managerial efficiency, lowering the operating cost of human resources, improving the individuals productivity management improving the effective strategy capability, providing a practical frame to define the common links between electronic human resource management and the competitive advantage. Al-naba a information network study (2007) addressed: thus of the enormous wealth... gulf countries retreats technologically. The study indicates that most the oil returns of the gulf countries are being used in commercial, stock markets, building and construction sides, but a noteworthy retreat for the use of technology for achieving more competing advantages in comparison with some wealthy or developing countries in Asia. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 696

13 The study proves this retreat by referring to the latest report from the world economic forum (Al- Maktoom, 2008) that indicates to the UAE as country that adopts telecommunication & information technology which came in the 29 th positioned from 122 countries in the world, Qatar came in the 36 place, Bahrain in the 50 place and Kuwait in 54 th. Then the study indicates to the reasons of this retreat and considers one of its important reasons is that the goal of the gulf investors is to make quick profit without intending to establish organizations which allow the recovery and prosperity of technology, as a result many countries superior the gulf countries although they are less wealthy. (Abu- Halima, 2007) addressed: "E.Government, Case Study: USA and Singapore". The study indicates the reason of Singapore coming in the first place is that the population of Singapore overcomes other countries population by owning personal computers, also by the widespread knowledge of using that pc s by linking them with government establishments such as health, education, civil status and others. The third and most important reason is the desire of all citizens and the government represented by its employees headed by the minister of information & technology and his continuous interactive with all the transformation elements in the electronic government, his updated follow up with this transformation. (Tonta, 2003) addressed: Internet and Electronic Information Management. It was aimed to uncover the effectiveness of electronic human resource management and its applications in companies. The study was applied on 6 Turkish companies (in human resource department) in Ankara, The observation & personal interview methods were used in collecting the data. The results revealed the effectiveness of electronic human resource management and its applications in the companies and the organizational structures such as developing and managing human resource. (Barker, 2002) addressed: Innovations in Workforce Management: the Electronic Learning Record, Prior Learning Assessment, and Human Capital Accounting. This research studied the effectiveness of using the electronic human resources in human resource management and its effects on the work force of the American companies working at the state of California. The study was applied on 12 companies, the observation & personal interview methods were used in collecting the data. The results revealed that electronic human resource management have an effective factor on managing and developing human resources in the fields of experience exchange, providing a base for remote learning, changing the culture of the organization from being a paper based culture to an electronic based culture in all business fields. The study showed that electronic resource management has flexible response for changes happening in the systems & laws of work and labor, also it showed the necessity to prepare training programs and courses for training the employees on using electronic resources effectively in human resource management. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 697

14 Study Methodology (1) Nature & Kind of the study. This study is considered a kind of the descriptive analytical method where in its theoretical side discusses how the private universities in Jordan provides its services using technology. (2) Study's Population and Sample The target population is all the private universities in Jordan which are in total 13 universities that use technology in their service and information exchange with individuals and business organizations. In this study, the sample contains the University of Philadelphia as it was classified in first position in employing modern technology. University of Philadelphia has 261 faculty members, 62 individuals were chosen by approximately a percentage of 24%. (3) Unit of analysis. For the purpose of this study, the sampling & analytical unit was defined from the community of faculty members in the University of Philadelphia, the some of the sample unit is 62 responsive individuals, the questionnaire was distributed on the researched individuals, the researcher was capable of retrieving 54 questionnaires valid for statistical analysis, by a percentage of 87% from the distributed questionnaires. (4) Sources of Collected Data Necessary Data & information was collected using two kinds of sources: 1- Secondary Sources: represented in electronic human resource management and job performance literature, taken from specialized periodicals and books. They also were useful for making introduction on the importance & definition of job performance concept. 2- Primary Sources: represented in designing the questionnaire and the place it for the purpose of collecting data direct from the study s sample, also the researcher will be using the personal interview methods as data collection method by placing a group of questions that will be asked on the sample individuals. (5) Statistical methods used in the analysis. In the analysis process the following methods will be used: Descriptive statistics in order to extract the mathematical means, standard deviations, statistical redundancy for the different paragraphs of the questionnaire in order to display and read the properties of the sample unit. Inferential statistics precisely the t test in order to recognize results of independent variables analyzing, also the job performance variable. The f test in the ANOVAs table, also the t test to examine the hypothesis related to some independent variables in order to answer the study s questions through hypothesis test. Multi Linear regression test to examine the primary hypothesis and its secondary hypothesis. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 698

15 Study s Results. After the encoding process for the primary data and the computer data input, then the statistical analyzing procedures have taken place the researcher was able to display the most important results of the study, as the following: The sample s individual s demographic properties The study s results were based on the data provided by the faculty members in the University of Philadelphia the male percentage was 74.1%, also the higher percentage of them 77.8% were in an age criteria of year old, also the qualification for the highest percentage was 72% of doctorate holders degree, and the percentage of 27.8 were holders of a masters degree, percentage of holders of the assistant professor degree was 46.3%, percentage of the holders of the associate professor degree is 18.5%, and the percentage of those who hold the prof. dr. is 7.4%,holders of the master s degree and work as tutors are 27.8%,those who have an experience more than 20years had a percentage of 25.9%, those who have an experience less than 10 years had a percentage of 22.2% from the total number. As table no.1 shows that those numbers clarify the interrogated faculty members are mostly males, and the higher percentage of them are between the age of 30 and 50, most of them hold the doctorate certificate with a degree of assistant professor,and have an experience of more than 10 years. Table no. (1): The demographic properties of the interrogated Percentage redundancy categories Variable 74.1% 40 male gender 25.9% 14 Female 0% 0 Less than 30 years 31.5% years 46.3% years age 14.8% years 7.4% 4 More than 60 years 27.8% 15 Master s qualification 72.2% 39 doctorate 27.8% 15 tutor 46.3% 25 Assistant professor Academic degree 18.5% 10 Associate professor 7.4% 4 Prf. Dr. 22.2% 12 Less than 10 years 51.9% years 25.9% 14 More than 20 years Years of experience Challenges facing electronic human resource management COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 699

16 Five indicators were used to point to the challenges facing the electronic human resource management in Jordanian private universities; the analysis of these indicators came with the results mentioned in table (2) as follows: Table no (2): Mathematical means, standard deviations, t value and level of significance for the challenges facing the electronic human resource management. No. Phrase mean Standard deviation T value significa nce 1) electronic human resource management 1 Recruiting Training and orientation Stimulation Total )Organizational culture 1 Organizational culture plays a direct role in universities by handling with technology challenges that face the learning process 2 Organizational culture plays a direct role in our community by shaping the behavior of faculty members in what s related to facing the technological challenges 3 University Reinforces the culture of learning the employees have (tutors & managers) on the level of making a transformation from traditional pattern in business into electronic pattern Total ) technology infrastructure 1 The process of building the electronic infrastructure from equipments & tools has the encouragement and adoption of the university 2 The capability of the university in transforming from the traditional pattern into the electronic pattern is linked to its capability in building the infrastructure. 3 The university believes its success in building the electronic infrastructure comes from its success in developing the electronic human resource management Total ) desire & conviction in the use of technology 1 The faculty members desire to communicate between each other electronically and not by paper,also with the different departments of university 2 Faculty members of the university are convinced that technology usage in work completion and communication does improve their performance. 3 Faculty members of the university believe that use of technology provide them with a higher capability to develop themselves. Total COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 700

17 5) the employee s knowledge of using technology: 1 The university bets in achieving its success on transforming into electronic achievement of its work on the efficient qualification for its human resource in the field of business computerizing. 2 The university commits the faculty members to computerize their work in what s related to the academic résumé, qualification and his research. 3 Technical difficulties that face the faculty member is encountered by the university through providing suitable training courses. 4 The university adopts stimulating workers policy into electronic training programs, especially in developing the managerial process. Total Total of the challenges that face the E-HRM (1) The Electronic Human Resource Management. The dimensions of electronic recruitment, electronic training & orientation, electronic stimulation as indicators on the existence of electronic human resource management in the private universities in Jordan, the analysis of those indicators came shown in table no. (2) As the following: a) Electronic Recruitment The effecting level of electronic recruitment on faculty members performance was estimated by Jordanian private universities, as a result estimating the level of applying electronic human resource management through the answers of the sample unit s answers on a group of questions, the mathematical mean of the electronic recruitment variable reached 4.26, it is a few higher than the answer (yes) on the likert scale, which means the large approval that the university applies the electronic recruitment concept, that is linked with improving the provided service level to the students and to faculty members by the university. b) Electronic Training & Orientation. Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that examines the level of private university s in providing training &Qualification for the faculty members, the total mean for this variable reached 4.03, it is higher than the answer (yes) on the linkert scale, which means approval that private universities provides electronic training &orientation for faculty members. Except for the paragraph that have got: the university handles the weakness of the faculty member as a challenge that imposes procedures to improve his electronic capabilities by training which its mean came less than agree, all other paragraphs related to this variable had a mean that was very close from the answer (agree). c) Electronic Stimulation Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that examines the level of private university s electronic stimulation, the mean for this variable reached 4.14, it is higher than the answer (yes) on the linkert scale, which means a large approval that the private universities electronically stimulates its faculty members. COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 701

18 The total average of the electronic human resource management variable is 4.14, its between the agree and strongly agree on the linkert scale,as it is shown the higher average was for electronic recruitment then for electronic stimulation then for training afterwards the electronic orientation. (2) Organizational Culture. Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that examines the level of private university s organizational culture in contribution of the acceptance of faculty members to the technological changes, the arithmetic mean for this variable reached 4.07, it is a few more than the answer (yes) on the linkert scale, which means the sample unit s approval that the organizational culture is important for the acceptance change and technology developments, especially in what is related to human resource. (3) Technology Infrastructure means the equipment and tools that must be available in order to practice the electronic human resource management, and to facilitate the process of communication and connectivity between the faculty members with the different departments of the university, and with the outside world also, Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that examines the level of private university s technology infrastructure availability, the arithmetic mean for this variable reached 4.46, which is higher than the answer (yes) on the linkert scale, meaning a large approval on the fact that private universities provides the availability of technology infrastructure by a large scale. (4) Desire & Conviction Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that measures the level of desire and conviction of the faculty members in Jordanian private universities on using technology with arithmetic mean of 4.33, it is higher than the answer (yes) on the linkert scale, which means there is a large desire conviction in the faculty members to transform from traditional system into the electronic system. (5) Employee s Knowledge of Using Technology This variable indicates to the attempt of Jordanian private universities to supply their faculty members with the capability of using modern technology, the arithmetic mean for this variable reached 4.43, it is higher than the answer (yes) on linkert scale, which means the large approval that the Jordanian private universities have reinforced the capability of its faculty members to have the knowledge of using technology. The average arithmetic mean for challenges was 4.28, this indicates that the Jordanian private universities was able to overcome those challenges through placing a group of procedures and changes where providing the technological infrastructure with a an arithmetic mean of 4.46 where it took the first place, followed by reinforcing the knowledge capability of faculty members in using technology through training and orientation with an arithmetic mean of 4.43, then the desire & conviction in using the technology by stimulation came with an arithmetic mean of 4.33, afterwards the application of electronic human resource management through recruiting, training and stimulation came forth with an arithmetic mean of 4.14, and at last came the change of the organizational culture based on the acceptance of transform from traditional COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 702

19 into modern technological systems in electronic human resource system with an arithmetical mean of The faculty members job performance Faculty members Job satisfaction, improvement of the provided service, improvement of the learning process output were used as important measurements for the faculty members job performance in the Jordanian private universities, the results as shown in table (3) as the following: Table no. (3) The arithmetic means, the standard deviations, the t value and the level of performance significance. No. Phrase Arithmeti cal mean Standard deviation T value Member s faculty job satisfaction. 1 The jab satisfaction of the faculty member is linked to availability level of technology provided by the university( a modern pc, internet, advanced teaching methods). 2 The electronic facilitations provided by the university effects the desire to satisfy the scientific research the faculty member has.. 3 The academic performance reflects a more demanding desire in the faculty member when he uses the technology to develop his performance significanc e Total Improve the level of rendered service 4 The management of the university is keen to improve the level of rendered service 5 The admission & registration management recruits in the modern technological university the structuring of a comprehensive student s where it makes it available for faculty member to reach him easily. 6 The university depends on the method electronic connectivity between students & faculty members 7 The university aims to decrease the size of written & paper work by using the electronic connectivity between faculty members and the different departments in the university Total Improving learning process output 8 The quality of university education output in addition to the electronic facilitations quality of services is liked to capability of the faculty member to employ the technology in improving the level of students. 9 The electronic education method used by the faculty member achieves faster positive results than the results achieved by the traditional education method. 10 The university aims through wide spreading the electronic connectivity culture to increase the capability of the faculty member to accelerate the student s receiving of the information. Total Total of the Performance effectiveness COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 703

20 (1) Faculty members job satisfaction. Through analyzing the sample unit s answers on a group of questions that examines the level of satisfaction the faculty member feels as a result of the Jordanian private universities appliance of electronic human resource management, the arithmetical mean for faculty members reached The results show by this variable that the faculty members of the private universities in Jordan posses high degree of satisfaction as a result of the availability of technological capabilities that Jordanian private universities create which enables them to increase their chances in developing their teaching and research performance. (2) Improving the level of rendered service to the students. This indicator was used to measure the improvement level of the rendered service to the students as a result of using the electronic human resource management in the Jordanian private universities; this indicator was estimated by answering the sample unit s questions in relation to measuring this improvement. Table no.3 shows that the total mean of estimations on this indicator reached 3.96, this average is considered positive & acceptable and close to the (yes) answers in the linkert scale. (3) Improving the education process output. This indicator was estimated by answering the sample unit s questions in relation to measuring this variable, table no.3 shows that the total mean for this variable reached 4.32, this mean is considered strong and overcomes the (yes) answers on the linkert scale, which indicates using and applying the electronic human resource management have contributed in improving the learning process outputs in the Jordanian private universities. The total mean of the employment performance of faculty members reached 4.27, which comes between agree and strongly agree on the linkert scale, as it appears the highest mean was for job satisfaction of the faculty members which reached 4.53, followed by the learning process output that reached 4.52, afterwards came the improving of rendered service to students Hypothesis Testing Here is a display of major hypothesis testing results for the primary and secondary hypotheses, the multi linear regression was used in order to test this hypothesis. The Primary Hypothesis Testing. There is no statistical indication on the use of electronic human resource management to improve the performance level of the faculty members in the Jordanian private universities. The test of multi linear regression was used in order to test the primary hypothesis and its subsidiary hypotheses, the results were recorded in table no. 4, the results showed the refusal of the null hypothesis and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis, meaning there is an effect of using the electronic human resource management on improving the performance level of the faculty members in private Jordanian universities, also the numbers in the table show that the calculated F value is 9.722, which is bigger than the scheduled F value of 2.76, with a level of significance of which is less than COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 704

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