1 Regulation on the Principles of Ethical Behavior of the Public Officials and Application Procedures and Essentials Entered into effect as published in Official Gazette dated 04/13/2005 and numbered CHAPTER 1 Objective, Scope, Basis and Definitions Objective Article 1 The objective of this Regulation is to establish ethical culture in public, to determine the principles of ethical behavior of the public officials who have to abide while executing their duties, to assist them in order to display behaviors in accordance with these principles and to raise the confidence of community to the public administration by eliminating the situations which create distrust in the society and which impairs the principles of justice, integrity, transparency and impartiality in carrying out the duties, to inform the community about the behaviors they are entitled to expect from the public officials and to arrange the procedures and essentials of application to the Council. Scope Article 2 This Regulation comprises the administration and auditing committee, the whole staff including the supreme committee and committee chairman and members working in the offices which are contained in the general budget, annexed budget administrations, public economic enterprises, institutions using own capitals, local administrations and their alliances, all public institutions and organizations established under the names of committee, supreme committee, association, institute, enterprise, organization, fund and others possessing the public legal entities. The provisions of this Regulation are not performed for the President, the members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Parliament), members of Council of Ministers, Turkish Armed Forces, members of judiciary, and universities. Legal Basis Article 3 This Regulation has been arranged building on the Articles 3 and 7 of the Law numbered 5176 and dated 25/5/2004 Establishing Council of Ethics for Public Service and Amending Some Laws. Definitions Article 4 The following terms in this Regulation are defined as: The Law: The Law numbered 5176 and dated 25/5/2004 on Establishing Council of Ethics for Public Service and Amending Some Laws, Institution and organization: Public institutions and organizations within the scope of the Law which are stated in article 2, Public officials: The whole staff working in the public institutions and organizations within the scope of the Law which are stated in article 2, Council: Council of Ethics for Public Service Principles of ethical behavior: the principles of ethical behaviors that the public officials have to abide by, Applicant: natural persons who apply to the Council or to the authorized disciplinary committee exercising their right within the scope of the Law,
2 Information: every type of data about the investigation and research that will be carried out within the scope of the Law numbered 5176 taking place in the records of public institutions and organizations, Document: written, published or copied files, papers, books, periodicals, brochures, etudes, letters, programs, instructions, sketches, plans, photographs, tapes and video records, maps, all other sorts of information, news and data transporters recorded in the electronic form. CHAPTER 2 Principles of Ethical Behavior Consciousness of public service in performance of a duty Article 5 C onstant development, participating, transparency, impartiality, honesty, protecting the public interest, accountability, predictability, fitness in service and confidence in statement should guide public officials in performance of the public services. Consciousness of serving the community Article 6 In performance of the public services the public officials should aim at facilitating the daily life of the community, meeting public needs in the fastest and the most active and effective way, increasing the quality of the service, increasing the satisfaction of the community, focusing on the requirement of those benefiting from the service and on the results of services. Compliance with the service standards Article 7- The managers and other personnel of the public institutions and organizations should perform the public services in accordance with the determined standards and processes, inform those benefiting from the services by giving essential explanatory information about the work and transactions during the service processes. Commitment to the Objective and Mission Article 8 - Public officials should behave in accordance with the objectives and mission of the institutions and organizations that they work in. They should act in compliance with the interest of the country, the welfare of the society and the service ideals of their institutions. Integrity and Impartiality Article 9 In all their actions and transactions public officials should act in accordance with the principles of lawfulness, justice, equity and integrity, they cannot discriminate with reasons such as language, religion, philosophical belief, political belief, race, sex etc. while performing their duty or providing services. They cannot act in a human rights violating or restricting way and cannot behave in a way obstructing the equal opportunity. Public officials should use their discretionary authority in accordance with public interest and service requirements away from all sorts of arbitrariness and in compliance with principles of impartiality and equality. Public officials should not treat the natural and legal persons in a prior or privileged and partial way breaching the principle of equality, should not act in a way aiming at the advantage or disadvantage of any political party, person or group, and should not hinder the policies, resolutions and actions of public authorities which are in compliance with the legislation. Respectability and confidence Article 10- Public officials should behave in a way that will establish confidence for the public administration and they should display with their behaviors that they deserve the confidence and reputation required by the duty. They should avoid behaviors that harm the sense of confidence of the community for the public service, raise doubts and impair the principle of justice. Public officials should act in accordance with the requirements of the service having the consciousness that serving the community is above all sorts of personal and private interests, they cannot misbehave to those who benefit from the service, neglect their work, perform double standard and be partial. Public officials who are in the position of director or auditor cannot behave arbitrarily, they
3 cannot act in an oppressive, insulting and threatening manner, they cannot arrange reports which are not based on certain facts, they cannot demand service, opportunity or similar interests for themselves against legislation and cannot accept anything presented even there is no demand. Decency and respect Article 11 Public officials should treat seniors, subordinates, colleagues, other personnel and those benefiting from the service decently and respectfully and give necessary attention. They should direct them to the relevant unit or authorized person if the subject is out of their authority. Notification to the competent authorities Article 12 Public officials, in the case that their acting against the principles of ethical behavior which are determined in this Regulation or their carrying out illegal transactions or actions is demanded or when they learn or see such actions or transaction while performing their service, should notify the situation to the competent authorities. Supervisors of institutions and organizations should keep the identity of the public officials who notifies and take necessary steps in order to avoid any harm. Avoiding conflict of interest Article 13 Conflict of interest means all sorts of interests, financial or other liabilities and the situation of having such personal interests provided for the public officials, their relatives, friends or the person or organizations they deal with which affect or seem to affect their performance of the duty impartially and objectively. Public officials have personal responsibility in the conflict of interest and as they are the ones to personally know the situation in which conflict of interest may rise. They should proceed cautiously in any potential or real conflict of interest, take necessary steps to avoid conflict of interest, notify the situation to their seniors as soon as they realize conflict of interest and keep themselves away from benefits that are in the scope of conflict of interest. Not using the duty and authorities to derive benefits Article 14 Public officials cannot derive benefit in favor of themselves, their relatives or of the third persons by using their duty, title and authority and cannot intercede, favor their relatives, friends and fellow townsman, perform political nepotism, discrimination or nepotism of any kind. Public officials cannot have their or others' book, periodical, cassette, compact disc and any other similar products sold or distributed; cannot derive benefits to any organization, foundation, association or sports club by donations, help or similar ways. Public officials, when they are on duty or they leave the duty, cannot use the official or secret information they acquired during performance of their duty or as a result of these duties in order to derive economical, political or social benefits for themselves, for their relatives or for third persons directly or indirectly, cannot explain this information to any institution and organization except from the competent authorities. Public officials cannot use the sources of the institution they work for in the election campaigns directly or indirectly or have those sources used. Prohibition of receiving gifts and deriving benefits Article 15 All sorts of goods and benefits which are accepted directly or indirectly whether having economical value or not and which affect or have the possibility to affect the fulfillment of their duties, impartiality, performance and decisions are within the context of gift. The basic principle for the public officials is not to receive or give gift and not to derive interest as a result of duty. Public officials cannot receive any gift or derive benefit from natural or legal persons who have work, service or benefit relationships related to the duty they perform, for themselves, their relatives or third persons or organizations directly or through an interceder. Public officials cannot give gifts by using the public sources, cannot send wreath or flowers to a natural or legal person except from official day, ceremony and festivals; they cannot give out a notice of commemoration, make an announcement or a celebration which are not related to the service.
4 Among the gifts given by the foreign persons and organizations according to the decency and protocol rules in the international affairs, saving for the provisions of article 3 of the Act numbered 3628, the ones that are below the limit of the said article are declared. Donations which mean contribution to the organization for which the public officials work, which will not affect the execution of the organization services in accordance with the law and which are received, provided that they are allocated for the public service, recorded in the fixed assets list of the organization and that they are declared to the public (except from the official car and other gifts received in order to allocate for the service of a specific public official) and the donations which are granted to the institution and organizations, Book, magazine, article, cassette, calendar, compact disc or such goods, Gifts or rewards acquired in publicly held competitions, campaigns and activities, Gifts having the value of souvenir which are given in publicly held conferences, symposium, forum, panel, meal, reception or similar activities, Advertisement and handicraft products which are distributed to everyone and which have symbolic value, Credits taken from financial organizations according to the market conditions, are outside the scope of the prohibition of receiving gifts. a) Gifts of greeting, farewell and celebration, scholarship, travel, cost-free accommodation and gift vouchers received from the people who have service or interest relations with the institution they work for, b) Transactions which are made from unreasonable prices according to the market price when buying, selling or hiring movable or immovable goods or service, c) All sorts of gifts including jewelry, clothes, food or any other goods given by those benefiting from the service, d) Loans and credits taken from the people, who have work or service relations with the institution, are within the scope of the prohibition of receiving gifts. The officials within the scope of this Regulation who are at least general director, equal to or above general manager notify the list of the gifts they received in the previous year and which are stated in the 5 th paragraph of this article and (a) clause of the 6 th paragraph to the Council until the end of January without waiting for any warning. Making use of public domain and sources Article 16- Public officials cannot use the public buildings, vehicles and other public domains and sources except for the public objectives and service requirements and can not have them used; they protect these and take necessary precautions to maintain them available for service at any moment. Avoiding extravagance Article 17 Public officials should avoid wastefulness and extravagance in using the public buildings, vehicles and other public domains and sources, behave in an effective and economical manner while using the office hours, public domain, sources, labor force and opportunities. Binding explanations and factitious statement Article 18 Public officials while performing their duty cannot exceed their authority and make explanation, engagement, promise or attempts binding the institutions they work for, they cannot make a misleading and factitious statement. Notification, transparency and participation Article 19 Public officials should help the community to exercise their right to receive information. They should submit the information and documents upon the demand of natural and legal persons duly apart from the exceptions determined in The Law numbered 4982 on Right to Information.
5 Top executives should present their institutions' processes of tender, activity and audit report to the public opinion through acceptable means under the allowance of related laws. Public officials should pay attention to provide that those who will be directly or indirectly affected from the decision unless there is a contrary legal provision contribute to one or some of the stages of the preparation of fundamental decisions on public services, maturation, decision taking and application of these decisions. Managers' liability to render account Article 20 Public officials can render account about their responsibilities and liabilities while performing public services and they are always open and prepared for the public evaluation and audit. Executive public officials take the precautions required by their duty and authority in order to obstruct the transactions or actions that are inappropriate to the objectives and policies of the institutions on time. Executive public officials should take necessary steps in order to avoid the personnel under his/her authority from corruption. These steps should include practicing legal and administrative arrangements, making appropriate studies in training and notification; proceed cautiously about the financial and other difficulties which the personnel face with and being a model for the personnel with their personal behaviors. Executive public officials are responsible to provide his/her personnel with the appropriate education about the principles of ethical behavior, to observe whether they abide by these principles, to view the life of the personnel incompatible with their income and to guide about the ethical behavior. Relations with the former public officials Article 21 Public officials cannot make former public officials benefited from public services in a privileged way and cannot treat them in a privileged manner. The people who have left their public duties cannot be assigned directly or indirectly to a duty or work such as contractor, commissioner, representative, expert, interceder from the institution or organization they previously worked for -saving for the provisions and periods in the related Laws. Declaring property Article 22 Public officials should declare of property of the movable and unmovable goods, loans and credits belonging to themselves, their spouses and children under their custody as per The Law on numbered 3628 Declaring Property and Anti-Bribery and Corruption. The Council has the authority to investigate the declarations of property if it is necessary. The related persons and organizations (including banks and special finance houses) are responsible to give the requested information to the Council within 30 days at the latest with the aim of controlling the accuracy of the information in the declarations of property. CHAPTER 3 Exercising the Principles of Ethical Behavior and Establishing Ethical Culture Abiding the Principles of Ethical Behavior Article 23 Public officials are responsible to abide by the principles of ethical behavior determined in this Regulation while performing their duty. These principles constitute one part of the legislation that arranges the employment of public officials. The public officials within the scope of this Law are responsible to sign the document Ethical Contract which comes up in Annex -1 in one month. This document is affixed to the employee file of the personnel. The authorized supervisors of the institutions and organizations evaluate the performance and file in terms of compliance with the principles of ethical behavior arranged in this Regulation. Informing the Personnel Article 24 The personnel at all levels employed in the public institutions and organizations should be informed about the principles of ethical behavior and the responsibility related to these principles as a part of the conditions in relation with the employment.
6 Establishing Ethical Culture and Training Article 25 The Council makes all sorts of studies about the establishment and development of ethical behavior, have them made, arranges researches, inquiries, public opinion polls, scientific meetings and similar activities, prepares, coordinates, executes training programs for the public officials or cooperates with relevant ministries, other public institutions, organizations, universities, local administrations and non-governmental organizations in their fields about this issue. The managers of institutions and organizations should provide that the principles of ethical behavior take place in the fundamental, preparatory and in-service training programs for the public officials. Principles of Institutional Ethics Article 26 The principles of ethical behavior determined in this Regulation should be practiced in the institutions and organizations within the scope. Furthermore, the institutions and organizations can submit their own principles of ethical behavior according to the quality of the service or duty they perform under the audit and approval of the Council. Authorization to request information and document Article 27 Ministries, other public institutions and organizations are obliged to submit the information and documents demanded by the Council about the applications in due time. The Council has the authority to call for the related representatives from private organizations and from the organizations within the scope of this Regulation and to receive information. Authorization to investigate and to search Article 28 The Council has the authority to make necessary investigations and researches about the behaviors and practices against the principles of ethical behavior ex officio or upon the applications. The Council can gather information and document from institutions and organizations through competent authorities when necessary in order to be the basis for the investigation and research it will make about the behaviors and practices against the principles of ethical behavior. The Council executes its investigation and research within the framework whether the principles of ethical behavior are violated or not. The Council concludes its investigation and research within three months at the latest. Furthermore the Council can perform activities, analysis and researches about the establishment and development of the principles of ethical behavior in institutions and organizations. Ethics Commission Article 29 An ethics commission consisting of at least three people from the institution should be established by the top executive of the institution or organization in order to establish and develop ethical culture, to advise and direct about the problems the personnel face with about the principles of ethical behavior and to evaluate ethical practices. The top executive of the institution and organization determines how long the members of the ethics commission will work and the other related matters. The information of curriculum vitae and communication of the members of the commissions should be notified to the Council within three months. Ethics Commission works in corporation with the Council. Delivering Opinion Article 30 The Committee is authorized to deliver opinion about the problems faced during the practice of the principles of ethical behavior. CHAPTER 4 Application and Ex-officio Investigation Procedures and Essentials Application right Article 31 According to the essentials determined in The Law numbered 3071 on the Right of Petition, the citizens of the Republic of Turkey and foreign natural persons dwelling in Turkey who have the capacity to exercise civil rights can make applications. The foreigner who appears
7 to be in Turkey for any reason and who witnesses a breach of ethical principles should be accepted as dwelling in Turkey in terms of application right. The condition that the interest of the applicant is affected is not essential in order to apply. Nevertheless, applications, which are explicitly understood as having slandering intentions on public officials and deprived of applicant identification, will not be evaluated. In terms of disputes that are being examined or adjudicated by judicial bodies, no applications can be sent to the Council or authorized committee of discipline. The processes of applications, which are turned out to be applied for jurisdiction, should be aborted. The subject of complaint, which is pre-examined by the Council, neither can be regarded as a subject of complaint once more nor examined without any indication of new evidence. Application formats Article 32 - Applications are made through the means of; A written petition, An electronic mail, An oral application that is officially recorded. Application Procedure Article 33- The applications that are related to the officials who at least have general manager rank or a rank equal to the level of a general manager that is accepted by The Council as in list on Appendix- 2 should be sent to the Presidency of Council. Other applications should be sent to the related institutional authority in order to direct them to the committees of institutional discipline authority. Applications by real persons via petitions should include their names, surnames, residences or business address' and signatures. Information and documents concerning any allegations about behaviors that are contrary to ethical principles are defined explicitly and in detail in the petition. The existing documents are attached to the petition. The subject of application for the contrary behavior allegation is depicted objectively by defining person, time and place. For petitions to be written by type- writer or be hard copies is not conditional. It is sufficient for them to be readable and illegible. The official date of the application is the date it is recorded in the Council. Application petitions can also be sent to the Council by mail. In this case, the official date of the application is the date it is recorded in the Council. In case of oral applications an official minute should be prepared including the signature and the address of the applicant. Electronic Applications Article 34- If the application is carried out by means of electronic mail by natural persons, the name and surname, the residence and business address of the applicant are defined. For applications that are carried out by foreigners residing in Turkey, the passport number and nationality are depicted. In terms of applications that are carried out by electronic mail, the official date of application is the date of arrival to the Council's official address. The Acceptance and Process of Applications Article 35- The application petitions should be recorded and a document including the official date and number should be given to the applicant if she/he exists there. The application petitions that arrived any of the institutions and organizations by mistake should be sent to the authorized committee of discipline or the Presidency of Public Officials Ethical Council in terms of their relation without being processed. The President of Council or a member attained within the shortest possible time should give the recorded application to a reporter. The reporter should prepare a pre-report after examining the application in terms of duty, subject and acceptability and then present it to the President of Council. The name and surname of the applicant, the name, surname, duty of the complained public official, the subject of application, the advice of the reporter, his/her name, surname, signature and the date should take place in the report of the reporter. The President of Council or a related member should place the report on the agenda of the Council after claiming and attaching necessary additional information and documents from related areas if seen necessary.
8 The Council should discuss the report and agree upon claiming and attaching necessary additional information and documents in case that it becomes necessary to deepen the investigation. On condition that the application is found acceptable, the complained public official has the right to defend himself. The duration of defense consists of 10 days following the date of request as it is notified to the official. In case that the deadline for the process comes across with an official holiday, the working day following the holiday is accepted as the last day of the process. Private institutions and organizations which are requested for information should submit the requested information and documents to the Council in the pre-determined process. The Council should complete its investigation within three months and makes a decision with the absolute majority of the exact number of the members. The duration starts at the date of official recording of the application. In terms of division of labor, the members of the Committee can be attained for some positions if some further investigation is necessary. The petitions of application which are deprived of name or signature and electronic mail which does not include the matters described as in Articles 33 and 34 will not be processed and the applicant should be informed about the situation if possible. Applications that are soon turned out to include false claim are aborted as soon as the situation is proved out. In terms of applications through electronic mail the identification numbers that are submitted by the applicant would be checked via the internet page of the General Management of Population and Citizenship Affairs Department of Ministry of Internal Affairs in order to determine whether the identification that is submitted by the applicant is correct or false. Applications that contains of false name and surname should not be processed. The security of applications that are received in electronic or written format in terms of information and documents should be maintained in institutions and organizations inline with general rules. In terms of evaluating and investigating of the information and documents that are sent to or the information received by the Council the principle of privacy of data should be abided. The President of Council, the Members and the secretary personnel should abide by the obligations of privacy principle. This obligation continues after the President, Members and other personnel quit their duties. The documents of which the investigations are completed would be sent back. Ex-officio investigation Article 36 - Upon understanding that a public official under the authority of investigation of the Council has behaved in breach of ethical principles, the Council may use its ex-officio investigation authority. The report, which has been prepared after collecting necessary information under the supervision of a member or a reporter who has been attained by the President of the Council, should be submitted to the President. The subject would be added to the agenda that will be determined by the President and discussed in the Council. Necessary information and documents should be collected in order to deepen the investigation when it is needed. The investigation should be completed according to the matter which is determined in Article 35, the necessary decision is taken. Matters in terms of Assemblage, Quorum and Decisions Article 37- In case of President's not being able to participate in meeting due to any excuse; the Council would assemble with absolute majority of the exact number of members under the Presidency of a member who is attained by the President and decide with the same majority. The name and surname of the applicant, the name, surname and the duty of the complaint public official, the date and number of decision, the documents and information that are based upon via decision, the names and signatures of the President and the Members who has taken participated in the decision, the votes of minority if available, the name and surname of the reporter should have taken place in the documents of decisions. If the subject of application that is being investigated is understood to be applied for jurisdiction, the investigation should be aborted accordingly and evaluated according to the resolution of civil jurisdiction.
9 The Matter of Investigation and Adjudication in Discipline Committees Article 38- Applications that are submitted to the committees of discipline within the context of the Law numbered 5176 and related Regulation in terms of public officials' behaviors against ethical principles should be investigated by means of ethical behavior principles that are set up in this Regulation and via application procedures and essentials. The decisions that are taken by these committees about the existence or absence of a breach of ethical principles should be notified to the authority of institution or organization, the public official who is applied for about the subject and the applicant. The decisions of discipline committees would not be announced to public. Process on Decisions Article 39- The decisions would become definite by the signatures of President and Members. The definite decision is presented to the Prime Ministry. The judicial application against the Council decisions is available. In case that the Council determines that the public official who has performed the subject, process or action subjected to application against the ethical principles, this occasion should be announced to public by Prime Ministry via Official Gazette as a decision of the Council. Nevertheless if the decision of the Council would be cancelled by judiciary then it implements this judicial decision and has it published on the Official Gazette. Decisions that are not determined as against the ethical principles would be notified to the authority of Prime Ministry and related person via written documents. These decisions would not be announced to public. Decisions about unacceptable applications would only be notified to the applicants. Article 40- Beginning from the day of their formation, applications about behaviors against ethical principles that are not submitted in two years should not be investigated. Temporary Article 1 - Behaviors against ethical principles that are performed before the date of the publication of this Regulation on Official Gazette can not be the subject of any complaint and denunciation. Temporary Article 2 - Within three months beginning from the publication of this Regulation on Official Gazette, public officials within the context sign the ethical contract document in Article 23 and these documents are placed in the personnel's individual official file. Operative Effect Article 41- This Regulation enters into effect on its publication date. Law Enforcement Article 42- The judgments of this Regulation are carried out by Prime Minister. APPENDIX -1 Public Officials Ethical Contract Within the consciousness and comprehension that public service is superior to any private interest and public official is in society's service; I pledge to work in order to facilitate the daily life of the community, to meet the needs within the most effective, rapidly and efficient way possible, to scale up the service quality and the satisfaction of the society, To carry out my duty according to the principles of respect for human rights, transparency, participation, integrity, accountability, protection of public benefits and the principles of rule of law, To act according to requirements of the service without any discrimination of language, religion, philosophical belief, political opinion, race, age, the physical disability and gender, in impartiality without giving any chance to behaviors and implementations that hinder equal opportunity, To carry out my duty without accepting any gifts from any real or legal person who
10 has no relation wit duty, without making any mileage in terms of material and moral interests or any other in the same quality and without having any private interest expectations, Not to make use or let others make use of social goods and sources except for social aims and requirements of service, not to waste these goods and sources, To carry out my duty and to service depending on ethical behaviors and assets those are determined in regulations prepared by Public Officials Ethical Committee. APPENDIX-2 LIST OF PUBLIC OFFICIALS WITHIN THE SCOPE OF COUNCİL OF ETHİCS FOR PUBLİC SERVİCE WHO HAS THE MINIMUM RANK OF GENERAL MANAGER, EQUIVALENT AND HIGHER In Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM) and General Secretariat of the Presidency of Republic General Secretary Assistant General Secretary 1- In Prime Ministry and Ministries Undersecretary Deputy Underecretary General Manager President of Review Committee President of Committee (for persons who have 6400 or higher additional salary indicator) Governor Kaymakam (District Governor) Ambassadors, Permanent Representatives Chief Counsel of Prime Minister 2- In Bound and Related Institutions and Organizations' Undersecretary - President of YOK (Turkish Council of Higher Education), Members of Execution Board, General Secretary and President of OSYM - Deputy Secretary - General Manager - President of Review Committee and Presidents of other Review Committees General Secretary and Assistant General Secretaries (for persons who have 6400 or higher additional salary indicator) President (for persons who have 6400 or higher additional salary indicator) President and Assistants of Organizing and reviewing Institutes and Organizations Committee Members Assistants of President of Institutions and Organizations (for persons who have 6400 or higher in additional indicator) General Manager of Public Economic Organizations and related partnerships Executive and Auditing Committee Members of Public Economic Organizations In Local Administrations
11 Presidents of Metropolitan Municipalities Presidents of Provincial and District Municipalities General Secretary and Assistant General Secretaries of Metropolitan Municipalities General Manager of Metropolitan Municipality and Related Organizations President of Metropolitan Municipality Review Committee Provincial Municipality and Province Private Associations and their Superordinate Association Presidents General Managers of Metropolitan Municipality Companies, Executive and Auditing Committee Members Municipality Presidents falling within the province of Metropolitan borders In Career Associations having public institute status President of Administrative Board President and Members of Administrative Board and General Secretary of Higher Associations In terms of Law numbered 5176; persons whose status are defined as undersecretary, Deputy Secretary and general manager, other executive and auditing committee members in institutions and organizations within the context of Act, other public officials who are regarded as at least general manager or equivalent under the light of the body of organization and the quality of services they conduct.
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