The Security Development Life Cycle

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1 Intelligent Testing 18 June 2015 Declan O Riordan The Security Development Life Cycle Test and Verification Solutions Delivering Tailored Solutions for Hardware Verification and Software Testing

2 The Systems Development Framework Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 2

3 Before Development The Security Testing Lifecycle Review SDLC Process Review Policy Review Standards Definition & Design Create/Review Create/Review Review Requirements Design Models Development Review Code Code Walkthrough Unit & System Test Deployment Penetration Config. Mgt. Unit & System Acceptance Test Change Verification Review Health Checks Test Maintenance Operational Reviews Test Regression Tests Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 3

4 Waterfall / V-model & Security Positive: Good documentation up front helps threat modelling; Traditional approach for experienced security professionals; More time for security analysis and planning before delivery. Negative: Architectural decisions taken too early; Tendency towards big-bang testing at the end of development; Change control issues; Last-moment rush to fix security issues leads to ineffective workaround; Maintenance difficulties. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 4

5 Agile & Security Positive: Easier to fix code vulnerabilities that were written days ago than months or years ago; Abuse cases to complement use cases; More likely to have enough information on code, scale, performance and security to make architectural decisions; Better change control. Negative: Need non-functional expertise in the project team; Over-reliance on automation. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 5

6 What is driving security? Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 6

7 EU comprehensive reform of data protection rules A single set of rules on data protection, valid across the EU. Increased responsibility and accountability for processing personal data. e.g. Mandatory notification to the national supervisory authority of serious data breaches as soon as possible (if feasible within 24 hours). A single national data protection authority in the EU country where they have their main establishment. Likewise, people can refer to the data protection authority in their country, even when their data is processed by a company based outside the EU. Wherever consent is required for data to be processed, it has to be given explicitly, rather than assumed. A right to be forgotten will help people better manage data protection risks online: people will be able to delete their data if there are no legitimate grounds for retaining it. EU rules must apply if personal data is handled abroad by companies that are active in the EU market and offer their services to EU citizens. Independent national data protection authorities will be strengthened so they can better enforce the EU rules at home. They will be empowered to fine companies that violate EU data protection rules. This can lead to penalties of up to 1 million or up to 2% of the global annual turnover of a company. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 7

8 The Cost Driver Verizon Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 8

9 Attackers are using asymmetric economics Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 9

10 The spending mismatch Source: OWASP AppSec USA 2014 Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 10

11 Security Policies: Regulatory/Advisory/Informative Organizational policy Issue-specific policies (aka Functional): Acceptable use Vulnerability Mgt. Physical security Risk management Access Control Data Protection Business Continuity Personnel security Incident response Log aggregation and auditing Secure application development Change control System-specific policies: e.g. How laptops are protected Who has access Auditing process Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 11

12 Before Development The Security Testing Lifecycle Review SDLC Process Review Policy Review Standards Definition & Design Create/Review Create/Review Review Requirements Design Models Development Review Code Code Walkthrough Unit & System Test Deployment Penetration Config. Mgt. Unit & System Acceptance Test Change Verification Review Health Checks Test Maintenance Operational Reviews Test Regression Tests Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 12

13 Derive Negative Security Test Requirements Misuse cases describe unintended and malicious use scenarios. Think about how a use scenario can be maliciously exploited. Discover potential flaws or aspects of the app that are not welldefined. Describe all possible, or at least the most critical use and misuse scenarios. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 13

14 Security Design Earn, never assume trust Defend in depth Grant least privileges Get cryptography right Avoid complexity Promote privacy Mediate completely Always consider the users Authorize after Authentication Separate privileges Fail securely Validate at every boundary Separate data & instructions Assume secrets are unsafe Understand external components attack surface impact Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 14

15 Security Models State Machine Biba Information Flow Lattice Graham-Denning Bell-LaPadula Clark-Wilson Non-interference Brewer and Nash Harrison-Ruzzo-Ullman Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 15

16 Before Development The Security Testing Lifecycle Review SDLC Process Review Policy Review Standards Definition & Design Create/Review Create/Review Review Requirements Design Models Development Review Code Code Walkthrough Unit & System Test Deployment Penetration Config. Mgt. Unit & System Acceptance Test Change Verification Review Health Checks Test Maintenance Operational Reviews Test Regression Tests Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 16

17 Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 17

18 Automated scanners: How do they do that? Crawler module: Seeded with URLs, retrieves pages, follows links and redirects to identify all reachable pages and input points. Attack module: Analyses discovered URLs and input points, then generates values likely to trigger a vulnerability. Analysis module: Examines responses to attacks by signature recognition. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 18

19 What are standalone scanners good at? Reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) Some SQL injections Some path traversals Some command injections Simple directory listings Clear text password submission Liberally scoped cookies Forms with autocomplete enabled Items not linked from the main published content Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 19

20 OWASP #3 Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks are a type of injection problem, in which malicious scripts are injected into the otherwise benign Firewalls and / IDS trusted / IPS based web upon sites. patternmatching known bad REGEX Cross-site scripting attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code, generally in the form of a browser side script, to a different end user. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 20

21 OWASP #3 XSS: Reflected Reflected XSS Firewalls attacks / are IDS / those IPS based where upon the patternmatching known bad REGEX injected code is reflected off the web server, such as in an error message, search result, or any response that includes some or all of the input sent to the server as part of the request. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 21

22 OWASP #3 XSS: Stored Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Stored XSS attacks are those where the injected code is permanently stored on the target servers, such as in a database, in a message forum, visitor log, comment field, etc. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 22

23 OWASP #3 XSS Type 3 of 3: DOM-based The page itself (the HTTP response that is) does not change, but the client side code contained in the page executes differently due to the malicious modifications that have occurred in the DOM environment. Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX DOM (Document Object Model) XSS attacks execute a payload as a result of modifying the DOM environment in the victim s browser used by the original client side script. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 23

24 OWASP #1 Injection SQL (Oracle, MySQL, MS-SQL) Database injection Operating System (OS) command injection Web scripting language injection XPath injection SOAP injection SMTP injection LDAP injection HTTP Header injection Occurs when an Firewalls application / IDS is / IPS built based upon upon false patternmatching properly known validated bad and REGEX commands are injected when assumptions of trust. User input is not the language interpreter treats malicious input as program instructions written by the developer. Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 24

25 Path traversal example The Server extracts the value of the file parameter from the string. The value is appended to C:\example\images\ The file called diagram1.jpg at that location is opened. The contents of the file are read and sent to the client. What if we placed an alternative value in the file parameter? pair\sam The application obtains the following path: C:\example\images\..\..\winnt\repair\sam The two traversal Firewalls sequences / IDS / step IPS based up the upon directory patternmatching known bad REGEX to the root. C:\winnt\repair\sam (Windows Security Accounts Manager password database file) Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 25

26 Automated scanners: What goes wrong? Rudimentary input validation not probed for bypass Vulnerability triggered but result doesn t match expected signature Broken access controls do not have a standard signature Scanners don t understand the meaning of changing parameters within the application Logic flaws don t have a standard signature Design vulnerabilities don t have a signature Understanding the significance of content from modifying session parameters (predictable sessions) Leakage of sensitive information Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 26

27 Automated scanners: What goes wrong? Attempts at Artificial Intelligence generate massive volumes of false positive and false negative results A large proportion, but not all, low-hanging fruit will be detected by automated scanners Every Web Application is different, much more than network infrastructures Syntax versus semantic meaning of content Improvisation Intuition (multi-stage process, sequence changes, crafted changes to multiple parameters) Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 27

28 Security Testing Tools Pentest Frameworks: Metasploit & Kali Linux Intercepting Proxy: BurpSuite Zap w3af Charles Webscarab Ratproxy / IPS based upon pattern-matching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 28

29 Security Testing Tools Password / Network cracker: John The Ripper Hydra Cain & Abel Web server vulnerability scanner: Nessus Network Scanner: Nmap Netcat Zmap / IPS based upon pattern-matching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 29

30 Security Testing Tools Sniffer: Wireshark Ettercap Dsniff Wireless: Aircrack-ng (best with Fern Wifi Cracker as a GUI interface) Kismet WifiScanner Bluetooth: Bluescanner FTS4BT BlueSpam / IPS based upon pattern-matching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 30

31 OSINT tools Maltego is a program that can be used to determine the relationships and real world links between: People Groups of people (social networks) Companies Organizations Web sites Internet infrastructure such as: Domains DNS names Netblocks IP addresses Phrases Affiliations Documents and files Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 31

32 The intercepting proxy Penetration testers and hackers will use an intercepting proxy. Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 32

33 Before Development The Security Testing Lifecycle Review SDLC Process Review Policy Review Standards Definition & Design Create/Review Create/Review Review Requirements Design Models Development Review Code Code Walkthrough Unit & System Test Deployment Penetration Config. Mgt. Unit & System Acceptance Test Change Verification Review Health Checks Test Maintenance Operational Reviews Test Regression Tests Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 33

34 OWASP #9 Using Known Vulnerable Components / IPS based upon pattern-matching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 34

35 OWASP #9 Using Known Vulnerable Components Verizon research found 99.9% of exploited vulnerabilities were compromised more than a year after the CVE was published. / IPS based upon pattern-matching known bad REGEX Year CVE was published for vulnerabilities exploited in 2014 Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 35

36 Safe journey home Firewalls / IDS / IPS based upon patternmatching known bad REGEX Copyright TVS Limited Private & Confidential Page 36

37 TMS - Bristol 18 th June 2015 Declan O Riordan The Security Development Life Cycle Test and Verification Solutions Delivering Tailored Solutions for Hardware Verification and Software Testing

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