Towards a miniaturized micromechanical electronic nose SYWERT H. BRONGERSMA SR. PRINCIPAL RESEARCHER

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1 Towards a miniaturized micromechanical electronic nose SYWERT H. BRONGERSMA SR. PRINCIPAL RESEARCHER

2 e-nose: advanced sensing in complex environments Human olfactory system e-nose: array of non-specific, cross-reactive sensors combined with an information processing system Literature examples PC2: 24.5% Principal component analysis 4 2 Cyclohexanon 0 Q6 Q3 Q2 Anisole -2 Toluene Q4 Propanol Q7 Q8 Q PC1: 64.6% Q1 2

3 Many Applications For e-noses State of the art commercial e-noses Gas Chromatography + polymer coated SAW Response time 10 sec Listed price $14,950 Miniaturization is needed for truly portable e-noses!!! 7100 znose Electronic Sensor Technology (California) 32 polymer sensors Response time of 10 sec Weight ~1 kg (<2 pounds) Listed price is $7,995 Cyranose 320 Cyrano Science (Pasadena)

4 Sensor Grand Challenges State-of-the-art of e-nose Sensors Most Disadvantages Rule These Sensors Out for Handheld e-nose Applications Sensors 2009,

5 MEMS-based e-nose For Organic Vapor Analysis Vision Low-power electronic nose for organic vapors and metabolites Advantages compared to state-of-the-art Small molecule detection possible - Not only heavy bio-molecules also smaller vapors and gas molecules - Enabled by combining well known mass effect with novel stress effect Low-power sensing - No power consuming optical read-out required (piezo-electrics) Easily scalable - No bulky optical instrumentation - imec CMORE compatible fabrication Easy fabrication of sensor arrays - Solves the intrinsic lack of selectivity in vapor detection - Small form factor - Multiple coatings using cheap mature inkjet printing Single technology - Cheap L/h Si 100 h Poly ~ 2h Si L ~ 100 µm w ~ 6-10 µm

6 The working principle Beam Vapors σ σ polymer Adsorption Swelling Extra mass Stress Lower Frequency f n m α n σ Amplitude of Motion Frequency 6

7 From vision to reality Die = 8.8 mm x 8.8 mm, 160 resonators 7

8 Resonators Array Chip Die = 8.8 mm x 8.8 mm, 160 resonators 8

9 Ink Jet Printing Of Polymers On Suspended Beams Backside printing Using commercial printer Custom prepared ink containing the specific polymer 50 Viscosity η [cp] Concentration c [g/l] PMMA Coated Uncoated 9

10 Benchmarking Commercial w = 100 µm L = 500 µm h = 8 µm Coating: PMMA Detection: Optical Beam Power = 2 mw times more power efficient w = 65 µm L = 750 µm h = 500 nm Coating: PMMA Transduction: Piezoelectric actuation/detection Power = mw (170 nw) 100 ml/min flow in 6 ml chamber Ethanol sensing Frequency Shift f [khz] ppm 500 ppm 200 ppm 1000 ppm 1-10 l/min flow in 1.5 l chamber N 2 N 2 N 2 N Time [min] 10-5 frequency shift / %EtOH frequency shift / %EtOH 260 times responsivity increase 10

11 Co-optimization MEMS and IC Design First results MEMS resonator Co-optimized 11

12 First demonstrator Resonators with integrated transducers Oscillator based read-out Integrated transduction Enhanced sensitivity by 200x ~ 7 Hz/ppm ppm detection capability Testing the demonstrator Resonance mode tracking 12

13 SELECTIVITY BY COATING CHEMISTRY 0 Separation of alcohol and water vapors Response to Ethanol 0 Response to Humidity Resonance Frequency Shift (%) PMMA-coated -1.5 PVA-coated Concentration /ppm Resonance Frequency Shift (%) Identical resonators and operation modes PMMA-coated PVA-coated Humidity /%RH < 13

14 SENSITIVITY & SELECTIVITY TESTING Automated testing setup now operational Multi-device Multi-mode Multi-flow conditions Allows for a lot measurements <14

15 < 15 TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION Business case Cost calculations Packaging Total MEMS area: 1.8 mm 2 Oscillator circuit area: 2.6 mm 2 Transferability of fabrication concept Si Al AlN c-si oxide SiC Failure mechanisms analysis

16 e-nose Applications Scenarios in Mobile Phones Air quality monitoring and indoor air quality control (pollution, malodor emission, toxic gasses..) CO 2 high levels Ripeness, Food contamination (spoilage, self live..) Consumer fraud prevention (ingredient confirmation, content standards..) Taste, smell characteristics (off flavors, product variety assessment..) Pathogen identification (patient treatment selection, prognosis..) Physiological condition (nutritional status, organ failure..) Personnel and population security (biological and chemical weapons...)

17 The future is coming Future: Year 2020? NASA adapt iphone to smell chemicals (Nov 17, 2009) NTT DoCoMo A Cell Phone that spots Bad Breath Nokia EcoSensor Concept Wearable sensor unit to sense (environment, health..), and a dedicated mobile phone (not an e-nose yet) Nokia Scentsory Concept e-nose samples the odor of caller environment and transmit to recipient electronically Other concepts: Health conscious phone that smells food properties

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