Terms of Reference 4. Background 5. Early Childhood Care and Education 5. National Context 5. Outcomes for Children 7. Return of Investment 8

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Terms of Reference 4. Background 5. Early Childhood Care and Education 5. National Context 5. Outcomes for Children 7. Return of Investment 8"

Transcription

1 1

2 Table of Contents SECTION DETAILS PAGE NUMBER Terms of Reference 4 Background 5 Early Childhood Care and Education 5 National Context 5 Outcomes for Children 7 Return of Investment 8 Quality Provision 9 Local Context: County Mayo 11 The HighScope Model 16 Implementation 19 Methodology 20 PQA: A tool for testing Implementation in HighScope settings 21 Sample of Early Years Settings 22 Methods 22 Primary data collection 22 Secondary Data Collection 24 Data analysis 25 Findings 26 Secondary Data 26 Feedback from Training 27 Inspection Reports 29 Primary Data 31 2

3 Adherence 31 Moderators: 32 Findings for Adherence 33 Online Survey 33 Focused Sample - 11 Settings 38 PQA 38 Interviews/Focus Groups 43 Inspirational Stories 57 Stakeholder Responses 57 Discussion 61 Implementation Fidelity 61 Adherence 61 Moderators 62 Responsiveness 62 Organisational Fit 64 Meeting the Policy Agenda 65 Cultural Shifts - Theory of Change 66 Lessons Learned 69 Recommendations 70 3

4 Terms of Reference HighScope Ireland, in conjunction with the Child and Family Agency Mayo Early Years Services, commissioned an Evaluation of HighScope in County Mayo. The purpose of the evaluation is to document the implementation of the HighScope approach in County Mayo, as an evidence based, outcomes focused model for use in early childhood care and education (ECCE) in Ireland. The intention of the Child and Family Agency (formerly HSE West) was to create a range of high quality community based early childhood care and education services that would in turn become the focus for family support services across County Mayo. Since 2007 forty one early years settings and over two hundred early years practitioners have completed the HighScope training and are implementing the model. The evaluation is expected to produce the following outputs: i) Provide a comprehensive account of the initiative HighScope in Mayo ii) Using implementation science, examine the extent to which the HighScope model of practice is embedded in ten early years settings in County Mayo. iii) Identify the barriers to and supports for implementation iv) Document individual inspirational stories v) Make recommendations for further development for both 0-3s and 3-5yrs 4

5 Background Early Childhood Care and Education The profile of early childhood care and education (ECCE) is continuously raised through Government legislation, policy and research. As a policy priority across the UK and Europe, a strong body of evidence recognises that ECCE delivers a wide array of benefits that are social and economic in nature including; better child well-being and learning outcomes; more equitable outcomes and reduction of poverty; increased intergenerational social mobility; higher female labour market participation and gender equality; increased fertility rates; and better social and economic development for society at large 1. The OECD states that the achievement of positive benefits are directly related to the quality of ECCE. However based on international standards Ireland has not reached the high quality standards in early childhood care and education provision compared to its European counterparts. In 2008, UNICEF published a bench mark of ECCE standards for 25 European countries based on 10 ECCE standards. The report stated that Ireland met one of these benchmarks and that 20% of 3 year olds were engaged in ECCE settings. 2 More recently with the development of the Starting Well Index aimed at benchmarking early education across the world, Ireland s overall ranking against other world countries was calculated as 18th out of 46. UK featured higher up the ranking with a placing of 4th following the regularly cited standards of the Nordic countries in early childhood provision. 3 National Context Two significant developments leading to strategic and policy shifts have occurred since the start of 2014 to address these concerns which now shape the provision of services for children and young people in Ireland. The first of these has been the restructuring and formation of the new Child and Family Agency. This emerged from The Minister for Children & Youth Affairs establishing a Task Force to assist her Department in the work of preparing for the establishment of the Child and Family Support Agency on a statutory basis in early UNICEF (2008). Report Card 8. A league table of Early childhood care and education in economically advanced countries. Florence. UNICEF 3 Economic Intelligence Unit (2012). Starting Well: Benchmarking early education across the world. The Economist: Lien Foundation 5

6 The Taskforce made a number or recommendations which have been highlighted in this evaluation to set the contextual background of the study. These include: The service delivery model should be child centred where the best interests of children shall be the primary consideration and children s wishes and feelings should be given due regard. Taking account of their age and understanding children should be consulted and involved in all matters and decisions that may affect their lives The Agency should provide services to and support families at all levels along a continuum from children in need to children in the care of the State. The Hardiker Model is an internationally recognised model for understanding the needs of children within a population. The model must recognise that children have universal needs but they may migrate to higher levels of needs/response, and the need for ongoing family support and further preventive measures continues In the interest of prevention, the Agency makes support services available to all children and families in the community in order to minimise the numbers who move into a position of vulnerability The Agency addresses the need for early intervention ensuring that those in need of targeted services are visible and are responded to in a timely manner with access to multidisciplinary services. The Taskforce report contributed to the formation of The Child and Family Agency in 1st January This is now the dedicated State agency responsible for improving well being and outcomes for children. It represents the most comprehensive reform of child protection, early intervention and family support services ever undertaken in Ireland. 4 In addition the changing climate for ECCE has been driven forward by the introduction of The national policy framework for children & young people ( ); Better Outcomes Brighter Futures. 5 The strategy is suggested to provide a detailed roadmap for the enhancement and coordinated provision of Early Years services and supports. In this the Minister pays specific attention to children s early years and states: Research in Ireland and internationally is increasingly pointing to the returns that can accrue from investing in the early years from supporting children s early cognitive, social and emotional development, to enhancing school readiness and to generating longer term returns to the 4 Child and Family Agency.ie 5 Department of Children and Youth Affairs: Bright Future Better Outcomes: The National Policy Framework for Children and Young People ( ). 6

7 State and society. 6 Through this acknowledgement the Framework seeks to promote a shift in policy toward earlier intervention and to ensure the provision of quality Early Years services and interventions, aimed at promoting best outcomes for children and disrupting the emergence of poor outcomes. Outcomes for Children Development in early childhood is a multidimensional process in which progress in one domain often acts as a catalyst for progress in other domains. The outcomes therefore for children are predictive through life cycle trajectories that are either positively influenced or negatively impacted. 7 Evidence has demonstrated that children s school readiness depends not only on their cognitive skills upon primary school entry, but also on their physical, mental, and emotional health, as well as ability to relate to others. 8 Outcomes are the changes that take place over time. In strategic terms this means better health, fewer crimes, improved academic performance, happier families and less violence. 9 The strategy aims to support the realisation of the five national outcomes for children and young people so they: 1. Are active and healthy, with positive physical and mental wellbeing. 2. Are achieving their full potential in all areas of learning and development. 3. Are safe and protected from harm. 4. Have economic security and opportunity. 5. Are connected, respected and contributing to their world. The policy shifts expected through the implementation of the strategy include early intervention and prevention where; Children s learning and development outcomes will have been assisted through increased access to high-quality, affordable early years education. A focus on health and wellbeing will have permeated throughout society and positive progress will be made, in particular in relation to childhood obesity and youth mental health. Emphasis and resources will have been rebalanced from crisis intervention towards prevention and earlier intervention, while ensuring an effective crisis intervention 6 Ibid 7 Naudeau, S., Kataoka, N., Valerio, A., Neuman, M. & Elder, L. (2011). Investing in Young Children An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation. World Bank. Washington 8 Hair, E., T. Halle, E. Terry-Humen, B. Lavelle, and J. Calkins Children s School Readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to Academic, Health, and Social Outcomes in First Grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 21 (4): Barnardo s (2006). A Guide to Outcomes. Policy and Research Unit UK. 7

8 response at all times. The strategy supports the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified in Ireland in 1992 where participation and active listening to the voices of children are facilitated. By strategically identifying the necessity of a culture that listens to and involves children and young people, it is anticipated actions will be taken to develop: A culture that respects, protects and fulfills the rights of children and young people will be evident and the diversity of children s experiences, abilities, identities and cultures will be respected. The views of children and young people will be sought and will influence decisions about their own lives and wellbeing, service delivery and policy priorities. Ireland s democracy will actively seek the contribution and engagement of young people. In addition, the strategy focuses on Quality services which should be outcomes-driven, effective, efficient and trusted. The translation of this means: Government investment in children will be more outcomes-driven and informed by national and international evidence on the effectiveness of expenditure on childrelated services, with the aim of improving child outcomes and reducing inequalities. Resource allocation within services will be based on evidence of both need and effectiveness, and services that are not working will be decommissioned. Irish education will stand up to international benchmarks and our young people will be leaving school with critical life skills, resilient, confident and adaptable to the changing world. Agencies charged with safeguarding the welfare of children will be trusted and their contribution to improving the lives of children valued. Return of Investment The National Policy Framework for children and young people ( ) recognises the case for public investment in ECCE as a critical contributor to healthy children development from the earliest ages. The Framework articulates the evidential return for investment firstly in terms of preventative spending and then from a deficit perspective. 10 Public spending and investment revealed that: A euro ( 1) spent on pre-school programmes generates a higher return on investment than the same spending on schooling 2.20 return for every 1 invested in youth work 10 Department of Children and Youth Affairs: Bright Future Better Outcomes: The National Policy Framework for Children and Young People ( ). 8

9 7 return for every 1 invested arising from the provision of one year, universal quality pre-school service 3 return for every 1 invested in the Headstrong Jigsaw model of Youth Mental Health services. By contrast not investing would mean in Ireland: The direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity in 2009 were estimated at 1.13 billion; 35% were direct costs (e.g. hospital in-patient, out-patient, GP and drug costs). 6%-15% of the total health budget is spent on treating tobacco-related disease.36 The estimated overall cost to society of problem alcohol use was 3.7 billion in 2007, not including the human or emotional costs involved. The cost of detaining a young person in 2012 was 281,000 per annum, while the cost of detaining an adult prisoner was 65,404 (not including education spend), compared to the cost per person of 2,200 of a Garda Youth Diversion Project. Quality Provision The pathway to improved outcomes starts with ECCE provision. This refers to services for children 0-6 years of age in centre, school and home based environments. In Ireland, the introduction of the universal Free Pre-School Year in 2010 represented a strategic commitment to the recognised return in investment early intervention guarantees. This step was aimed at providing children access to appropriate programme based activities prior to starting primary level education. As the scheme is universally applied, uptake has been almost absolute for all 3-4 year olds, with 97% attendance rate recorded by the Department of Children and Youth Affairs. 11 The ECCE sector has experienced significant developments in relation to quality over the last number of years, including: The publication in 2006 of Síolta: The National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education. The publication in 2009 of Aistear: The National Early Childhood Curriculum Framework. The introduction in 2010 of the Free Pre-school Year for every child between the ages of 3 years 2 months and 4 years and 7 months. 11 Department of Children and Youth Affairs (2012). State of the Nationsʼ Children. Dublin. 9

10 The selective implementation of Síolta and Aistear as well as other initiatives to improve quality in early years through the Prevention and Early Intervention Programme (PEIP) and the National Early Years Access Initiative (NEYAI). The introduction in 2014 of the National Quality Support Service (NQSS) The Síolta Quality Assurance Programme is a 12 step quality improvement process for early years centres; it is supported by mentors with progress and validation based on a portfolio to demonstrate that Síolta standards are being met in each centre. However, a recent study has found that QAP, including its process of validation, is not associated with better child outcomes than NEYAI. Another possible reason is that the central role of reflective practice in this model of quality improvement which requires staff to have appropriate levels of skill and knowledge to help you assess the quality of both your practice and the environment may have presumed that staff already had capacities which the programme was designed to promote. 12 A study of ECCE in 26 pre school settings throughout Ireland found that quality as measured by the ECERS/R scales in terms of good pedagogic practice identified three key components. These were training, management/support and premises. The study revealed in high scoring settings practitioners had trained in and implemented the HighScope approach. This applied to both rural and urban settings. 13 The Effective Provision of PreSchool Education Project found a significant relationship between the quality of a centre and improved outcomes for children. An overlap with the Perry study (longitudinal HighScope research) is clear. In this UK based longitudinal study of impact five key predictors of outcomes for 3-5 year olds were: 14 -The quality of adult child interactions -Staff knowledge and understanding of the curriculum -Knowledge of how young children learn -Adult s skill in supporting children in resolving conflicts -Helping parents to support children s learning in the home 12 McKeown, K. (2014). Evaluation of National Early Years Access Initiative & Síolta Quality Assurance Programme. Child Outcomes in Pre-School. 13 Parish Pedagogies: An Analysis of Irish Pre School Practice and Pedagogy using The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scales (ECERS/R) 14 Department for Education and Skills (2004). Effective Pre School Education. Institute of Education, University of Education London 10

11 Local Context: County Mayo In Mayo there is a considerable history of statutory and voluntary/community sector involvement in the development of early years services as demonstrated in the timeline below. 15 Given the issues associated with rurality in service provision generally there has been a reliance on social capital within communities to create supports for the families that live within them. Early years provision as its known today has emerged from a community development initiative where play groups in local areas often served as the first providers of early care. History of Early Years Services in Mayo 1979 UN Years of the Child-first Playgroups (5) are grant-aided by WHB WHB in Mayo grant aid Irish Pre-School Playgroups Association (IPPA) to appoint Early Years Adviser. Role is to monitor and improve standards and develop new services Report on the Playgroups in Mayo WHB and Irish Pre-school Playgroups Association Review of Voluntary Services for Under 5 s WHB Regional document 1992 Report to the Director of Community Care, Mayo re Family Support Services Parkside, Ballina further to death of 6 month baby IPPA Adviser 1993 WHB funds research into needs of families in Ballina: The View Back There - an Assessment of Need from a Community Perspective. Dr. Emer Smyth and Ms Celia Keenaghan. Policy Research Centre NCIR 1993 WHB/TCD Child Care Act Evaluation Project-Health Board supported playgroup provision in the WHB region Author Robbie Gilligan TCD. The report states that: playgroups represent almost the only feasible vehicle for family support provision in dispersed rural communities 1994 Two regional IPPA Early Years Advisers appointed for WHB Region 1995 Setting up of WHB/IPPA Roscommon Mobile Play Service Regional IPPA/WHB/EU Early Childhood Training Project. Report First Steps-accredited childcare training in the western region. This project hosted a workshop on the HighScope approach for practitioners and senior managers in the WHB. 15 Mayo Early Years Services Prevention and Early Intervention Discussion Document April

12 1999 Development of provision for Early Years Training and Support in WHB region. Proposal to Regional Child Care Management Team Jenny Bernard PPA 2000 Regional Working in the Early Years Arena: A Feasibility Study-John Canavan NUI Galway 1999 Erris Early Years Project: Supporting Families in Erris Carrefour research funded by WHB in Mayo 2000 Growing up in Castlebar. Research report into the needs of families with young children and the views of young people in the Castlebar area Carrefour research funded by WHB 2000 Planning and Designing Spaces for Children Report of Regional Conference. Keynote Speakers Sylda Langford and Mark Dudek 2001 Putting Excellence in to Practice - A Strategic Approach to the Development of High Quality Early Childcare Services in a Rural Context. Regional Proposal for JELR funding 2001 On the Journey to Quality An Examination of Quality and Customer Focus in Early Childcare Services, unpublished MSc Thesis TCD Jenny Bernard This represented a critical stage in the history with the transfer of early years services from IPPA to Early Years Services Departments in the WHB. This resulted in the new posts for development workers relating to Family Support being established. This incorporated inspection and development work Early Childcare Services Western Health Board Common Statement, Principles and Operational Plan Jenny Bernard & Maria Cross HSE Early Years Services Managers Training and awareness raising in anti-bias approach in conjunction with MCCC. Founder member Equality and Diversity in Early childhood National Network (EDENN) 2006 Audit of Provision under Regulation 4, Development of the Child, in the HSE funded early years settings Carol Dine HSE Early Years Development Worker 2007 Report on Social Inclusion and Review of Stepping Stones Protocol HSE Internal report 2007 The E.E.L Project in Mayo Internal Report Nancy Flynn McFadden HSE EYDW 2007 Adoption of the HighScope model of practice in County Mayo 12

13 2007 Ballinrobe Childcare and Early Years Family Support Research Project Report HSE funded with Tacu Family Resource Centre, Ballinrobe Josephine Lally and Helen Mortimer Consultant Researchers 2008 Your Early Years in Ballinrobe - A guide to services for young children and their families in Ballinrobe. Early Years Health Promotion Project A Right to Play A study of the Care and Education Needs of Asylum Seeking Children and their Families Ciara Kane Mayo County Childcare Committee HSE, in partnership with Ballyhaunis Community and Family Resource Centre set up integrated early years family support services for Children of Asylum Seeker and Refugee Families in Ballyhaunis Response re proposed cuts to grants to pre-school playgroups Jenny Bernard HSE EYS Internal document 2010 A Comparative Study of Early Years Settings Meeting the Standards set out in Sìolta The National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education Joanne Doherty, unpublished thesis M.A. Family Support NUI Galway What Works Process Centre for Effective Services Separation of Early Years Inspectorate and Early Years Development Work/ Family Support into two teams The Development of Early Years Practice in County Mayo involves the work of the early years development workers. Their work is underpinned by the HighScope model of practice, an evidence-based programme which ensures better outcomes for all children and builds resilience in more vulnerable children. The thirst for quality provision in settings in County Mayo led commissioners and managers of ECCE to build a partnership with HighScope Ireland who have supported the introduction and subsequent introduction of the model into the county. This evidence based approach is also underpinned by key National Frameworks such as the 2006 Pre-School Regulations, Aistear, Siolta and the Numeracy and Literacy Strategy. HighScope Ireland is based in Belfast at Early Years - the organisation for young children. The Institute is one of several HighScope Institutes throughout the world. It is accountable to the HighScope Educational Research Foundation based in Ypsilanti, Michigan, USA. Established in 1999, HighScope Ireland is a non profit-making body. It brings together representatives from the voluntary, statutory, independent and community sectors in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland who wish to enhance the quality of early childhood care and education through the HighScope approach. HighScope Ireland works to support children and adults through shared control in active learning situations. 13

14 HighScope Ireland employs a HighScope Consultant Trainer and a team of HighScope Endorsed Trainers who provide a range of training and support which is responsive to local need throughout Ireland. 16 The credibility of the organisation and its capacity to provide intentional support to the implementation of HighScope in Co-Mayo was fully acknowledged as a critical factor in developing this partnership. Full Service Provision of Early Years Development Workers The work of the Early Years services did not solely focus on HighScope but offered breadth of supports, training and information aimed at improving quality provision in ECCE settings in Co-Mayo includeing; 17 -Supporting best practice using the HighScope model for 0-3s, 3-5s and Childminders -Providing core training for early years staff consisting of one day per month over 12 months. The trainer then carries out a site visit to check for implementation. Following successful completion of the training there is regular on-site support, cluster groups for Continual Professional Development and the possibility of accreditation. In services also offered the HighScope Caring Start programme to 60 parents. Over 200 early years staff have attended the core training and 50 Early Years Services in Mayo have decided to implement the HighScope model of practice. They are at various stages of implementation -Offering general practice support to all the early years sector on room layout, daily routine, planning, observation tools, outdoor areas, buildings and renovations. For example, several early years groups who accessed small scale capital funding were recently helped to plan and redesign their outdoor and indoor play provision. -Supporting Early Years Services to achieve the minimum standards required under Regulation 5 of the 2006 Pre-School Regulations and accept referrals from the HSE Early Years Inspectorate as required. -Currently implementing the National Voluntary Notification System for Childminders with three or less children who fall outside of the legal requirement to notify the HSE. However these childminders can decide to voluntarily notify the HSE. This involves signing up to the National Guidelines for Childminders which includes garda vetting. They receive a home visit(s) from the Childminding Advisory Officer. Childminders are also linked to training and local networks and can apply for small grants. There are 60 childminders in the scheme at Mayo Early Years Services Prevention and Early Intervention Discussion Document April

15 the moment. However many more than that have participated in the scheme over the years. -Providing Keeping Safe Training to all early years practitioners in conjunction with the Children First Information Officer. -Developing and implementing the Guide for Inclusion Planning which supports the full participation of children with a disability in local early years settings working closely with the Early Intervention Team. -Providing training in Equality and Diversity Awareness Raising in line with the National Guidelines. 15

16 The HighScope Model The purpose of the evaluation is to document the implementation of the HighScope approach in County Mayo. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program was an early childhood education program conducted at the Perry Elementary School in Ypsilanti, Michigan, during the early 1960s. Beginning at age three and lasting two years, treatment consisted of a 2.5-hour preschool program on weekdays during the school year, supplemented by weekly home visits by teachers. The curriculum was based on supporting children's cognitive and socio-emotional development through active learning where both teachers and children had major roles in shaping children's learning. Children were encouraged to plan, carry out, and rect on their own activities through a plan-doreview process. Adults observed, supported, and extended children's play as appropriate. They also encouraged children to make choices, problem solve, and engage in activities. Instead of providing lessons, Perry emphasized open-ended questions asked by teachers. Examples are: What happened? How did you make that? Can you show me? Can you help another child? 18 In the original research program children were randomly assigned to treatment and control group status and have been systematically followed through age 40. Information on earnings, employment, education, crime and a variety of other outcomes are collected at various ages of the study participants. A rate of return of and percent to the Perry program has been reported. The longitudinal study examined the lives of 123 children born in poverty and at high risk of failing in school. From , at ages 3 and 4, the subjects were randomly divided into a program group that received a high-quality preschool program based on HighScope's participatory learning approach and a comparison group who received no preschool program. In the study's most recent phase, 97% of the study participants still living were interviewed at age 40. Additional data was gathered from the subjects' school, social services, and arrest records. The study found that adults at age 40 who had the preschool program had higher earnings, were more likely to hold a job, had committed fewer crimes, and were more likely to have graduated from high school than adults who did not have preschool. The graphs provide a visual depiction of outcome across major life domains: 18 Heckman, J. J., S. H. Moon, R. Pinto, P. A. Savalyev, and A. Yavitz The Rate of Return to the High/ Scope Perry Preschool Program. Working Paper , Geary Institute, University College Dublin. 19 Barnett, W. S., Masse, L. N., February Comparative benefit cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications. Economics of Education Review 26 (1), Rolnick, A., Grunewald, R., Early childhood development: Economic development with a high public return. Tech. rep., Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN. 16

17 17

18 The findings from the study informed the development of the programme and structure of implementation which are summarised in the two diagrams below known as the wheel of learning for both the Infant/Toddler and 3-6 year old programme HighScope Infant Toddler Wheel of Learning 21 HighScope Wheel of Learning (Aged 3-6) Ibid 18

19 Implementation The link to implementation science and the evidence based HighScope model leads to a natural choice in evaluation methodologies that are underpinned by Implementation Science principles. Theoretically, implementation has been defined as "the transition period during which targeted organizational members ideally become increasingly skillful, consistent, and committed in their use of an innovation". 23 A deficit has become known as the implementation gap and refers to the difference between the evidence of what works in theory and what is delivered in practice. Fidelity of Implementation has been defined as "the determination of how well an intervention is implemented in comparison with the original program design during an efficacy and/or effectiveness study". 24 Figure 3 provides a conceptual framework to understand the stages of implementation. Figure 3: Stages of Implementation and Sustainability 23 Klein KJ, Sorra JS: The challenge of innovation implementation. Acad Manag Rev 1996, 21: O'Donnell CL: Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K-12 curriculum intervention research. Rev Educ Res 2008, 78:

20 Methodology The methodological design for this evaluation was guided by the principles of Implementation Science. The intent is to understand what, why, and how interventions work in real world settings and to test approaches to improve them. Context plays a central role in implementation research. Context can include the social, cultural, economic, political, legal, and physical environment, as well as the institutional setting, comprising various stakeholders and their interactions, and the demographic and epidemiological conditions. 25 Table 1 provides a a guideline to implementation research and offers descriptions of terms likely to be referenced and used in this evaluation report. Table 1: Implementation Research Terms Implementation outcome Working definition Related terms Acceptability Adoption Appropriateness Feasibility Fidelity The perception among stakeholders (for example, consumers, providers, managers, policy makers) that an intervention is agreeable The intention, initial decision, or action to try to employ a new intervention Factors related to acceptability (for example, comfort, relative advantage, credibility) Uptake, utilisation, intention to try The perceived fit or Relevance, perceived fit, relevance of the intervention compatibility, perceived in a particular setting or for a usefulness or suitability particular target audience (for example, provider or consumer) or problem The extent to which an intervention can be carried out in a particular setting or organisation The degree to which an intervention was implemented as it was designed in an original protocol, plan, or policy Practicality, actual fit, utility, trial ability Adherence, delivery as intended, integrity, quality of programme delivery, intensity or dosage of delivery 25 David, P., Taghreed, A., Olakunle, A., Akua, A. & Nhan, T. (2013). Implementation research: what it is and how to do it. BMJ 2013;347: 20

21 Implementation outcome Working definition Related terms Implementation cost Coverage Sustainability The incremental cost of the implementation strategy (for example, how the services are delivered in a particular setting). The total cost of implementation would also include the cost of the intervention itself The degree to which the population that is eligible to benefit from an intervention actually receives it. The extent to which an intervention is maintained or institutionalised in a given setting Marginal cost, total cost Reach, access, service spread or effective coverage (focusing on those who need an intervention and its delivery at sufficient quality, thus combining coverage and fidelity), penetration (focusing on the degree to which an intervention is integrated in a service setting) Maintenance, continuation, durability, institutionalisation, routinisation, integration, incorporation PQA: A tool for testing Implementation in HighScope settings For the purpose of this evaluation, the implementation research objective is considered descriptive, which means describing the context in which implementation occurs and the main factors influencing implementation in this context. By employing narrative methods such as focus groups, case studies, historical reviews alongside quantitative survey and standardised assessments [Preschool Program Quality Assessment (PQA] there is a convergence of data in the analysis of implementation. A multi method approach combined primary data collection in the form of interviews, focus groups, online questionnaire and documented case studies on film, with secondary data analysis of existing monitoring and evaluation information about HighScope implementation in settings in County Mayo. The rationale for selecting specific methods arises from their relevance and validity to gather evidence based information that will inform the degree to which the HighScope model of practice is embedded in early years settings in County Mayo, identify barriers and highlight potential actions for future development of children between 0 and 5 years of age in Ireland. A core part of this process was accessing the voices of relevant stakeholders who have direct and indirect experience of the HighScope model. This is intended to provide the 21

22 evaluation with a rich source of evidence about the impact of the HighScope approach on families, practitioners, settings and the early years sector in County Mayo. The experiences, views and perceptions of various stakeholders were sought throughout the evaluation process. Stakeholders included: -Parents whose children have attended the HighScope programme in 11 settings who were part of a focused evaluation -Practitioners who had completed HighScope training -HighScope practitioners in the 11 early years settings -Representatives from HighScope Ireland -Trainers from HighScope Ireland -Representatives from The Child and Family Agency -Representatives from other statutory, community/voluntary agencies Sample of Early Years Settings A total of 41 settings have in County Mayo have undertaken HighScope training at some point in the last 10 years. A sampling frame was created from the following identifiers which was used to purposefully select 11 settings to participate in a focused enquiry within the main evaluation study. These variables were: Location - large town/small town/village Management type - community managed/individual managed Age range - 0-3/3-5 Social inclusion/disability - provision/no provision Methods Primary data collection An online questionnaire was distributed to all 41 settings who participated in HighScope training in the last 8 years. An overall breakdown of methods by stakeholder group is provided in Table 2. A more microscopic enquiry involving 11 settings included distribution of the same questionnaire, interviews with practitioners, management committee members and parents through focus groups and interviews. The questions centered on the observations of these stakeholders as a result of implementing or experiencing the HighScope approach, the changes observed, barriers experienced and supports required for implementation. Their views were critical in offering insight on impact of the HighScope programme from various 22

23 perspectives. The triangulation of their observations contributed to an understanding of impact resulting from implementation in the 11 settings. Engaging with other stakeholders outside the settings which included other professionals in the sector from both a policy, practice and planning perspective contributed significantly to the rigour of the evaluation process. Based on the total number of practitioners who completed the IHA, the evaluation engaged 30% of all trained HighScope practitioners from the training programme between Table 2: Breakdown of methods by number and type of stakeholder group Stakeholder Number Method Parents 75 Focus groups in 10 settings with parents whose children attended the HighScope programme Interviews with parents about most significant moments of change as a result of their child attending the HighScope programme to be recorded on film Children 36 With consent, recording of children engaged in HighScope activities in order to produce a DVD of inspirational stories about impact of engaging in the HighScope programme HighScope practitioners Currently undertaking HighScope training Representatives from HighScope Ireland Representatives from The Child and Family Agency, statutory, community and voluntary agencies 62 Focus groups with HighScope practitioners in the 11 settings and inclusion of inspirational stories from their perspective Online Survey to all practitioners trained between Focus groups with HighScope practitioners in the 11 settings and inclusion of inspirational stories from their perspective Online Survey 3 Interview with representatives from HighScope Ireland about implementation of the programme in County Mayo since Total 195 Interviews with representatives from The Child and Family Agency, statutory, community and voluntary agencies such as; Early Years Inspectorate Child Care Manager Early Years Services Manager Early Years Development Team Leader HighScope Trainers Childcare County Council Border Counties Childcare Network Start Strong Early Intervention Team-Western Care 23

24 The documentation of inspirational stories from stakeholders engaged in and benefiting from the HighScope programme provided a visual account of impact from the perspective of parents, children and staff/management committee. The filmed interviews provided a coordinated film of inspirational stories across three varied settings. Secondary Data Collection A review of documentary sources relating to the history of HighScope and its implementation across County Mayo took place which identified inputs and outputs in terms of numbers of settings, types of settings and details on staff participating in the HighScope training. Feedback gathered from participants who completed the Implementing the HighScope Approach (IHA) courses were considered in detail and contributed to question development on the interview schedules used in the primary data collection phase. Finally, data on Programme Quality Assessments (PQAs) conducted by the HighScope trainers during April-May 2014 will contribute to the creation of an implementation point where adherence to the model is calculated at this specific point in time. The Preschool Program Quality Assessment (PQA) is a rating instrument designed to evaluate the quality of early childhood programs and identify staff training needs. The Preschool PQA is reliable and valid and is appropriate for use in all center-based early childhood settings, including but not limited to those using the HighScope educational approach. The Preschool PQA is an all-in-one program evaluation system with the following features: 26 Assesses key aspects of program quality Reflects research-based and field-tested best practices in Early childhood care and education Provides reliable, scientifically validated assessment proven in a wide range of early childhood programs and settings Can be used as a basis for program accreditation, reporting, monitoring, and training

25 Data analysis The research information collected during the project was recorded, collated and prepared for analysis. Examination of data and corresponding analysis formed the core of the evaluation report, offers lessons learned and recommendations. Delivery of each intervention component was discussed, and the level of adherence was determined. The interview and document data were analyzed independently then comparisons between the data formats took place to examine adherence from an externally rated and internal self report perspective. The interview and document data was also analyzed to identify factors affecting fidelity. The Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity was used as a coding scheme for the analysis (Figure 4). The interviews were categorized based on the moderating factors: participant responsiveness, comprehensiveness of policy description/complexity of the programme structure, strategies to facilitate implementation, recruitment, and context. Figure 4: Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity Carroll, C., Patterson, M., Wood, S., Booth, A., Rick, J. and Balain, S. (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity, Implementation Science 2007, 2:40 25

26 Findings Secondary Data Timeline of training and involvement of settings History of training and partnership with HighScope Ireland led to the then HSE development workers completing a trainer of trainers programme which led to County based provision in HighScope training. HighScope Ireland would continue to support the trainers in the form of Endorsed Trainer Days which occur 3 times a year. The record of training reflects the sustainability of knowledge transfer from HighScope Ireland to Early Years Services in County Mayo. Table 2 details the number of participants trained along this timeline of engagement from initiation of HighScope training to the last completed training programme. A total of 227 early years practitioners have trained in HighScope since This has taken place across 13 different training programmes in this time period with the introduction of the Tender Care training (Infant/Toddler) in 2010 (Table 3). Table 2: Timeline of training Date of Training Number Trained Infant/Toddlers Child minders Infant/Toddlers Total 227 Table 3: Breakdown of training carried out Programme Type Number of Participants Number of Courses Child Minders

27 Feedback from Training Based on summative evaluation forms completed by HighScope trained practitioners feedback was gathered about the core elements of the training programme and its potential impact on practice, quality and outcomes. The questions explored how the HighScope training changed or developed the practitioner s thinking about ; Active participatory learning Key developmental indicators The physical learning environment The HighScope daily routine The supportive environment Their style of communication with young children Attachment and its role in child development Continuity of care and its benefits to young children Supporting young children in planning and acting on their choices Supporting young children in a problem solving approach Their relationships with families in settings and wider community Child observation and record keeping Benefits of HighScope principles to children and adults Highlights of the training Further suggestions The responses gathered through the post evaluation form could be grouped under three major themes; 1. Professional knowledge and understanding about early childhood education and child development An increase in awareness, understanding and knowledge about the significance of core elements in childhood education and development featured frequently in participants responses. This was evident in feedback referring to change in understanding the impact of active learning tools, the environment, relationships, routines and assessments in creating opportunities for high quality experiences for children. Improving and developing the knowledge base of practitioners was apparent both in open ended feedback and quantitative rating of the training experience. An average of 5 was returned on a rating scale completed by participants when given the statement I will be able to use the information and/or skills acquired through this course to improve my effectiveness in my work (where 5 is strongly agree). The link between knowledge and confidence in practice was made by respondents who reported feeling a greater sense of confidence in their role based on an increase in capacity and skill developed through information gained during the training. 27

28 Examples of responses given that illustrate this point include; This has made a big difference to my knowledge in terms of understanding how best to create an environment best for children and indeed for staff I wanted to learn more so it would help me in my work and this has gone beyond my expectations I have learned great skills in the training and gained more confidence working with children as a result I feel so much more informed and reminded of the importance of doing some very simple things that make a big difference in the room I feel confident in the fact this curriculum and approach has proven to work 2. The importance of a child based rights approach and child centered learning Equity and respect for children s choices, voices and needs was prominent in the feedback offered by participants. Child directed learning and active participation in the daily experience was recorded as a significant change or improvement in settings as a result of the HighScope training. The input, inclusion and partnering of children with adults in the learning process was described as transformative by practitioners. A less adult dominated approach was often welcomed by respondents who reported that their settings were now calmer, happier, less stressful, more organised and less pressurised. 3. Outcomes for children and professionals A pathway to improved outcomes for children was described in the evaluation which pointed to the impact of a child centred approach to learning involving active methods in an environment created to optimise discovery through play, supported by skilled practitioners rather than driven by adult agendas. The attachments formed through adult child interactions and routines developed to support individual needs, led participants to make connections to better outcomes for children and their family. The use of key developmental indicators and the PQA, helped practitioners work together in a setting to record observations and track the changes in children they were working with. As a result participants highlighted children in their care were more likely to be independent, confident, communicative, active learners, that can resolve conflict. In particular, the conflict resolution approach recommended by the HighScope model was singularly viewed as creating the most significant change in settings and having one of the largest impacts on practice. This was in terms of implementing the approach with children and applying the steps of the model as a professional. When asked what was the highlight of the course?, conflict resolution approach held primacy in the ranking of responses. At a professional level the HighScope approach was recognised as a robust route to professional development and provision of guaranteed quality. This was understood in 28

29 terms of increased knowledge, skill and confidence in their capacity to meet the developmental needs of children by working as co constructors of learning in a child centred setting. Examples of comments provided by practitioners in the end of programme training forms included; I have noticed a huge difference in the children and in staff since completing the course and putting everything we have learned into practice I value family relationships and feel more open to encourage parents to get involved through open communication about our practice here The overall quality of care has improved with greater emphasis on children s rights and helping them realise their potential developmentally because of this way of working I was unsure at first and didn t quite believe this would work but it is actually made my life and more importantly the children s lives better...we are all happier Inspection Reports Regulation 5 (Health, Welfare and Development of Child) The law in Ireland provides for the regulation and inspection of pre-school childcare services. Under the Child Care Act (1991) as amended by the Child and Family Agency Act (2013), the Child and Family Agency (CFA) is charged with ensuring the health, safety and welfare of pre-school children attending services. Specific reference is made here to Regulation 5 and its direct relevance to the role of settings promoting a HighScope pedagogy in maintaining its statutory duty under these regulations. It states: A person carrying on a pre-school service shall ensure that each child's learning, development and well-being is facilitated within the daily life of the service through the provision of the appropriate opportunities, experiences, activities, interaction, materials and equipment, having regard to the age and stage of development of the child and the child's cultural context. 28 The distinct areas regulated by this Act and assessed by the Early Years Inspectorate are; Extent to which the personal care provided meets the basic needs of the infants and children Extent to which relationships around children are supported

30 Extent to which physical and material environment supports children s development Extent to which the programme of activities and its implementation support children s development As part of the evaluation, the most recent Inspectorate Reports were examined with respect of compliance under Regulation 5 for the settings who were sampled in the study. Table 4 gives a summary of when the inspection took place and level of compliance. Table 4: Level of compliance in focused settings for Regulation 5 (Health, Welfare and Development of Child) Setting Date Setting A 14/01/2013 Compliant Setting B 15/10/2012 Compliant Setting C 22/10/2012 Compliant Setting D 27/05/2013 Compliant Setting E 10/10/2013 Compliant Setting F 12/11/2013 Compliant Setting G 06/06/2012 Compliant Setting H 23/05/2013 Compliant Setting I 16/04/2013 Compliant Setting J 15/12/2013 Compliant Setting K 22/10/2012 Compliant 30

31 Primary Data Implementation Fidelity Implementation fidelity is "the degree to which... programs are implemented... as intended by the program developers". 29 It is sometimes termed "integrity". It has been demonstrated that the fidelity with which an intervention is implemented affects how well it succeeds. 30 A Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity put forward suggests that fidelity is influenced by moderating factors as well as adherence indicators. 31 The Framework suggests that different moderating factors might affect, positively or negatively, the implementation process and its fidelity. These factors interact with each other, and the effect of one factor on fidelity might be influenced by another moderating factor. 32 While most implementation fidelity research focuses solely on a fidelity score determined almost exclusively by adherence this conceptualisation provides a potential framework for implementation research. 33 Monitoring of implementation fidelity in this way encourages better evaluation of the actual impact of an intervention on outcomes. It offers evidencebased practitioners a guide to the processes and factors at play when implementing interventions/programmes. This model offered the current evaluation a framework to examine implementation of HighScope in settings in County Mayo taking account of adherence and moderators jointly. Questions focused initially on Adherence and then explored Potential Moderators. These are set out by the model and can be defined as; Adherence Adherence is essentially the bottom-line measurement of implementation fidelity. If an implemented intervention adheres completely to the content, frequency, duration, and coverage prescribed by its designers, then fidelity can be said to be high. Measuring implementation fidelity means evaluating whether the result of the implementation process is an effective realisation of the intervention as planned by its designers. 29 Dane, AV. & Schneider, BH. (1998). Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: are implementation effects out of control? Clinical Psychology Rev Jan; 18(1): Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M. & Hansen, WB. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research Apr; 18(2): Carroll, C., Patterson, M., Wood, S., Boot, A., Rick, J., & Balain, S (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 2007, 2: Ibid 33 Elliott, D.S. & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prev Sci Mar; 5(1):

32 Content: These are the active ingredients, such as details of programme structure, skills required to delivery, action plans, Coverage: Understood in the research by the term dose this refers to degree of implementation of recommended components and attention paid to the model s components Frequency: The degree to which programme content and detail are delivered over time, whether this is daily, weekly, monthly etc Duration: This refers to how long the model is continually implemented, whether this is continuous or sporadic Moderators: Various factors may influence or moderate the degree of fidelity with which an intervention is implemented. These are considered to have a moderating effect on the interaction between programme and delivery. In this conceptual framework they are nominated as; Responsiveness: Individuals receiving the intervention/programme and individuals responsible for delivering it Comprehensiveness of policy description/complexity of intervention: The comprehensiveness and nature of an intervention's description may influence how far the programme successfully adheres to its prescribed details when implemented Strategies to facilitate implementation: Ensure that everyone is receiving the same training and support, with the aim that the delivery of the intervention is as uniform as possible. Examples of strategies might include the provision of manuals, guidelines, training, and monitoring and feedback for those delivering the intervention. It has been suggested the more that is done to help implementation, through monitoring, feedback, and training, the higher the potential level of implementation fidelity achieved. 34 Participant recruitment: Consistency of recruitment procedures among potential participants, reasons for non participation among potential participants and subgroups that were less likely to participate Context: refers to surrounding social systems, such as structures and cultures of organizations and groups, and historical and concurrent events 34 Medical Research Council (2000). A framework for the development and evaluation of RCTs for complex interventions to improve health. London: Medical Research Council 32

33 Findings for Adherence There was a multi method approach to examination of adherence which involved direct observation using an adherence tool [PQA], qualitative self reported by practitioners in terms of content, coverage, frequency and duration and feedback by development workers of site visits to settings to provide support for implementation. Online Survey All settings who took part in HighScope training since its initiation in County Mayo (n=41) were invited to complete an online survey about the training they undertook, adherence to the model and implementation moderators they have experienced and would like support with. The response rate was 32% with replies from 13 settings. Within this, 54% of settings included the focused settings who were purposefully sampled for the study. A total of 51 (25%) practitioners were involved in giving responses to the survey. They had completed training from 2007 to One of the first questions asked were reasons for attending the training and why HighScope was their pedagogy of choice. The reasons given on the survey included: It is fundamental to practitioners engaging the ethos of our service so they understand why we do things the way we do and for the benefit of children A proven curriculum Practitioners were interested High/Scope is a child centred curriculum that is a practical approach for practitioners to ensure children have a developmental appropriate fun learning experience with us The degree of self reported implementation was recorded through the survey. Overall practitioners stated their knowledge of the HighScope Model was high (average of 4.6 out of 5). Participants were asked to rate the degree to which they implemented the various components of the Wheel of Learning and HighScope Curriculum. Table 5 summarises the responses under the key areas; 33

34 Table 5: Degree of self reported implementation 35 Component All of the time Some of the time Wheel of Learning Learning Environment 85% 15% Daily Routine 100% Adult Child Interaction 85% 15% Active Learning 85% 15% Curriculum Content Approaches to Learning 85% 15% Language, Literacy and Communication 92% 8% Social and Emotional Development 92% 8% Physical Development, Health and Wellbeing 100% Arts and Science 85% 15% When asked about their understanding of fidelity practitioners offered explanations which focused on the integrity of implementation. Their descriptions included; We implement high/scope throughout our setting Using PQA for staff to try and improve the learning environment and their own teaching practice of HighScope Being reflective practitioners We are faithful to the approach Being true to the HighScope ethos, philosophy, practice when implementing it in our service Keeping in mind the wheel of learning That you are being true to HighScope that you are implementing it as it is intended to be implemented, in its entirety. Strategies or actions to improve fidelity in settings was explored with practitioners asked to offer suggestions how this might be realised. There was a focus on training, support and inspection; More regular self assessment and support from the Child and Family Agency Get all staff trained 35 These two ratings are presented as no other rating on a scale of five items were used 34

35 Continued support in the form of cluster groups Regular review between practitioners and development workers Practitioners carry out PQA each term Refresher course every 2 years. While 92% reported they were implementing the approach all of the time a number of barriers to implementation were suggested. This information supports the evaluation s efforts to identify future tasks and recommendations based on need reported directly from practitioners. The barriers were; Staff interpretations of what 'quality' childcare is Skilled practitioners Staff who don't full comprehend the importance of the early years environment Time constraints on staff due to running two busy sessions daily Extra hours to cover paperwork and planning Lack of support for managers Financial barriers to allow for planning time Language barrier for children of differing nationalities The need to clear the room completely after each session and set it up again for the next Children with Special Needs sometimes find following the daily routine difficult Large groups of children Ensuring that we always have a varied and exciting programme to follow. Following on from requested input from The Child and Family Agency staff, practitioners were asked to consider what format the support could take. They put forward the following; To include funding for the non contact hours which is required for us as practitioners to carry out the Child Observation Record (COR) on each child and keep up to date with paperwork and planning around small group time and large group time activities More workshops Support workers to link in with services, refreshers courses We feel that they are doing an excellent job, and we have continual support from our development worker with ideas and information Pay us for planning hours and renew funding for us to deliver caring start course - at the moment we are doing it free of charge in the evenings and provide more support for managers trying to motivate staff. The direct observations of practitioners were gathered about outcomes in children in their care. A large range of examples were provided in the survey which highlight the developmental impact of participation in settings promoting and implementing the HighScope model. These included; 35

36 The effect of the conflict resolution has be huge for us, the difference in the children and staff since we implemented is remarkable More confident, improved language and decision making skills. Self pride and longer concentration on activities in work or group times They know the routine and know what to expect Children become competent and confident learners Eager to learn, they show initiative and leadership skills They learn how to problem solve and become mediators themselves. They learn respect for themselves and others Children have more interest, question and solve more, have better independence and social skills Hugely improved- children have become critical thinkers and problem solvers More relaxed, confident and they like to and want to follow the routine More independence, self assured, confidence Independent, creative, resilient, persistent children who have highly developed empathy, self-help, social, numeracy, scientific, language and early literacy skills. Recording the voices of children as active participants in the process of implementation led the evaluation to enquire what practitioners have heard children say themselves about the approach. Examples provided included; Children very familiar with the daily routine, they will tell adults what is next, and a 2.5 year old telling her mother that she solved the problem!!! The teachers talk to us like adults, we're important too We know what happens next because we look at the directions on the wall "Teacher, can I do the planning with the children today" asked one child. "We talk about it when we have a problem, use your own words" Fun, Exciting, Enjoyable They regularly say we have a problem...how can we solve it? Parents form a key part of the developmental and learning experience of children. The survey asked practitioners in what ways they engage parents and the degree to which they believe parents understand the approach. 62% of respondents stated parents in their settings have a good understanding of HighScope while the remainder felt they were unsure about the approach and what it means. However a multitude of ways in which parents are offered information, are engaged in settings and are informed of their child s progress were described by practitioners. There were; Open evenings, Inviting parents into setting during sessions, Information pack starting, Communication inviting them in to look at the room and how it is set up, 36

37 Having informal chats at pick up and drop off time, Sharing Child Observation Records with parents, Parents notice board - display evidence of children s work, anecdotes etc, Home area or dress up area to reflect the home environment, On open evenings a speaker has previously spoken about high scope and how it is implemented in our setting, We hold a 'curriculum' meeting a few weeks into term, post the daily plan on the notice board, share anecdotal observations at the end of the session, Hold parents courses and have formal family feedback meetings at the end of the year Governance of the setting and the input of management committee members was explored with practitioners. Overall respondents in the survey rated management committee members knowledge and understanding of HighScope as very good (65%), good (25%) and the remainder was unsure. The investment and commitment by management was evidenced through the following; Time off for staff to attend training, Money for books and equipment, Owners and management committee taking the training, Continue to attend cluster meetings and road shows, Finally practitioners were asked if they had any other contributions to the evaluation or comments they wanted included. The recurrent theme in this feedback was the request for refresher training, more cluster meetings and ongoing workshops. 37

38 Focused Sample - 11 Settings PQA This measure examines all aspects of program implementation, from physical characteristics of the setting and the nature of adult-child interaction to program staffing and management. 36 In contrast to compliance measures which tend to permit Yes/No response, quality is defined along a continuum within the PQA. This is intended to facilitate breadth and depth of focus in the measurement of program quality. 37 The psychometric properties of the PQA have confirmed its functionality as a research/evaluation tool 38. Pedagogical practice is observed through the use of the PQA which comprises of four components of measurement rated across a number of defined items that are scored between Level 1, Level 3 and Level 5 indicators. The scale ranges from 1 (not evident to fully evident). Each item receives a summary score which is totaled under the main components and added together to give an overall PQA score. This is then transformed into an average score for that observation period. For the purposes of the evaluation across selected settings in County Mayo, two trainers from HighScope Ireland and one The Child and Family Agency development worker conducted site observations using the PQA to provide a cross sectional indication of the quality of program delivery. Completed PQA were returned to the evaluator and results are presented in this section. Tables 7 and 8 contain a detailed breakdown of the key areas rated in the PQA to provide an implementation score which should be viewed as cross sectional (one point in time). This will offer settings, The Child and Family Agency and HighScope Ireland an insight into level of adherence and degree of implementation across ECCE settings in County Mayo. The PQA results for the Infant/Toddler (0-3) findings in one setting only are presented in Table 7. The aggregated findings for the 10 settings included in the 3-5 year old programme are presented together in Table 8. Averages of PQA scores are listed against each item in which the settings received ratings from the HighScope trainers. The PQA scores awarded by trainers range between 0 and 5 with 5 representing the highest rating awarded for complete adherence. They offer insight into the degree of implementation and fidelity to the HighScope model in settings involved in the evaluation. 36 Epstein, A. (2003). Holding your Program Accountable: Introducing HighScope s New Preschool Program Quality Assessment (PQA). HighScope Resource, A Magazine for Educators. HighScope Press. 37 Ibid 38 Jurkiewicz, T. (2003). The Revised Preschool PQA: Report on Psychometric Properties. Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Education Research Foundation. 38

39 The evaluation was able to explore and discuss the moderators and influencers of implementation through focus groups and interviews with practitioners from the settings and development workers supporting those settings. These are discussed in other sections of the report and drill down into the findings at this point in the implementation journey. Table 6 begins with the overall classroom score and associated mean for both programmes. This is a combined score across all PQA items on the scoring manual. It should be noted that one 0-3 year old programme was included in the evaluation when considering the findings. With this caution in mind, a total classroom score of 88 (X=4.19) was recorded during the HighScope trainer s visit. Examination of the 4 individual components of the PQA for this age group suggested low variance in total averages with a range recorded between (Table 7). Closer inspection of each component highlighted areas that would need greater attention and support based on the lowest rating received within the given component. For Learning Environment this referred to Accessible, safe and outdoor spaces (X=2.00). Within Daily Routine there was very little distinction between scores with trainers awarding either a 4 or 5 to each item. This pattern continued for both Adult Child Interaction and Curriculum Planning and Assessment. Given the larger number of settings included in the evaluation of 3-5 year old programmes a greater degree of variance between rated items was observed (Figure 5). Overall there was a very small distinction in total average scores across the four quadrants of the PQA (Table 8). Curriculum Planning and Assessment received the lowest mean scores (X=3.74) while Daily Routine was awarded the highest (X=3.90). Within Learning Environment the lowest rating was given to Diversity related materials (X=3.30) while Outdoor space, equipment and materials received the highest average (X=4.5). For Daily Routine settings rated lowest for Large group time (X=3.30) compared to Snack or meal time (X=4.60). Scoring for Adult Child Interaction found the lowest average emerged for Conflict resolution (X=2.83). It should be noted that in 4 settings examples of conflict resolution in practice were not observed and therefore not scored. The average was calculated from the remaining 5 settings. A full score of 5 was given to Meeting basic physical needs across all settings. The last section of indicators on the PQA grouped under Curriculum Planning and Child Observation points to low levels of implementation for Use of child observation records (X=2.40) compared to the highest average score given to Team teaching (X=4.40). 39

40 Table 6: PQA scores for 3-5 year old programme in April/May 2014 Type of programme Total classroom score Current mean classroom score 0-3 year olds year olds Table 7: PQA Infant Toddler (0-3 Year Olds) Indicators PQA score (2014) Learning environment A. Safe and healthy environment B. Space for sleeping, eating and bodily care C. Space for play and movement D. Accessible sensory materials E. Childrenʼs photos, creations F. Accessible, safe, outdoor space Total Average Daily Routine A. Flexible, predictable schedule B. Comfortable arrivals, departures C. Child initiated choice times D. Bodily care choices E. Smooth transitions F. Child centered feedings, meals G. Fluid, dynamic group times H. Nature based outside times I. Individualised nap time Total Average Adult Child Interaction A. Long-term adult child relationships B. Child-adult trust C. Child-adult partnerships D. Childrenʼs intentions E. Childrenʼs social relationships F. Toddler conflict resolution Total Average Curriculum Planning and Assessment A. Curriculum model B. Team teaching C. Comprehensive child records D. Anecdotal note taking by staff E. Use of child observation record Total Average

41 Figure 5: Total PQA scores across settings in April/May 2014 Total PQA score evaluation across settings " " " " " " Settings Table 8: PQA 3-5 Year Olds Indicators PQA Mean Score Learning environment A. Safe and healthy environment B. Defined interest areas C. Logically located interest areas D. Outdoor space, equipment and materials E. Organisation and labeling of materials F. Varied and open ended materials G. Plentiful materials H. Diversity related materials I. Displays of child initiated work Total Average

42 Indicators PQA Mean Score Daily Routine A. Consistent daily routine B. Parts of the day C. Appropriate time for each part of day D. Time for child planning E. Time for child initiated activities F. Time for child recall G. Small group time H. Large group time I. Choices during transition time J. Cleanup time with reasonable choices K. Snack or meal time L. Outside time Total Average Adult Child Interaction A. Meeting basic physical needs B. Handling separation from home C. Warm and caring atmosphere D. Support for child communication E. Support for non English speakers F. Adults as partners in play G. Encouragement of child initiatives H. Support for child learning at group times I. Opportunities for child efforts J. Acknowledgement of child efforts K. Encouragement of child efforts L. Independent problem solving M. Conflict resolution Total Average Curriculum Planning and Assessment A. Curriculum model B. Team teaching C. Comprehensive child records D. Anecdotal note taking by staff E. Use of child observation measure Total Average

43 Interviews/Focus Groups Practitioners The analysis of practitioner responses is based on a total of 36 HighScope trained and 3 participants currently in training. In order to explore adherence to implementation and fidelity of implementation a conceptual framework described below guided the evaluation process and analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. Staff discussions through focus group interviews were structured around the key components of the model and analysis is grouped under the headings of adherence and moderators. Practitioner Self Reports Using the HighScope Wheel of Learning to examine adherence in implementation research, each component of the model was discussed to establish degree of adherence to implementation. The responses of participants were quantified for degree of implementation ranging from implement all of the time, some of the time through to none of the time. The responses are presented graphically in this section to illustrate the levels of implementation to the HighScope model. The responses represent a summative account for all settings. Staff within each setting agreed the response before being recorded. Inspection of the graphs reveal all practitioners stated they were implementing the HighScope model either all or some of the time. At no point did any practitioner in the settings state they did not implement components of the model. The part of the model most likely to be fully implemented was the learning environment followed by the daily routine and active learning. Practitioners struggled the most with implementing the assessment part of the model. There was a recurring theme in responses explaining the difficulties with implementation in this regard which was time awarded to completing child assessment, taking daily anecdotal notes, and planning. Teamwork was the remaining item in this section of the model which practitioners did not find challenging. In the majority of cases (85%), capacity to complete the assessment portion of the HighScope approach was not questioned or raised as a concern. 43

44 Figure 6: Adult Child Interaction Degree of implementation All of the time Some of the time None of the time Figure 7: Learning Environment Degree of implementation Figure 8: Daily Routine All of the time Some of the time None of the time Degree of implementation All of the time Some of the time None of the time 44

45 Figure 9: Assessment Degree of implementation All of the time Some of the time None of the time Figure 10: Active Learning Degree of implementation All of the time Some of the time None of the time When asked to discuss how adherence and fidelity to the HighScope model is promoted and maintained a number of different systems and protocols were put forward. The most frequently cited was that of support offered by the The Child and Family Agency development workers. They were viewed highly positively by practitioners who valued their input, advice, guidance and support provided since completing the HighScope training programme. Settings offered numerous examples of actions taken by the development workers to improve fidelity. These occurred during planned and unplanned visits where guidance was requested from the setting and/or the development worker s observations 45

46 led to recommendations to improve fidelity and implementation. This ranged from labeling parts of the learning environment, changing materials offered to children, supporting planning and assessment, guidance on taking effective anecdotal notes, ideas for small and large group time, support when implementing the problem solving approach. The suggested changes or amendments made by practitioners following guidance given led to positive impacts on practice and subsequently improved quality provision for children. A practitioners summarised this by saying; just a little advice and a few small changes made a remarkable difference to the staff on a daily basis and of course we could see how this made everything better for the children. Teamwork was nominated as a method for promoting fidelity and a checking system in terms of implementation. Colleagues using the HighScope approach offered support and guidance with many settings seeing teamwork as essential for quality practice. The daily routine itself created a structure that all members of staff had to follow and could not be altered by diversions from one staff member. Practitioners stated they would ensure everyone in the room was adopting the HighScope approach and if not this would be challenged after the session and at team meetings. However, the unified approach led some staff to conclude; either everyone is following it or no one is following it. If challenges arose then team meetings, formal and information problem solving would take place to address the issues and changes would be made accordingly. Communication and peer support therefore was vital to maintain implementation and promote fidelity. Fidelity and implementation were daily considerations for setting staff who had a shared and vested interest in quality practice. Peer support and learning was a constant feature in the feedback from practitioners with specific reference to cluster group meetings. These occurred three or four times a year and were warmly welcomed and appreciated by practitioners. They viewed these meetings as unique opportunities to discuss, compare and improve practice by gaining further knowledge and awareness about HighScope activities implemented in other settings. The meetings themselves took place in a setting where external practitioners to that setting could visit and learn in situ about a selected topic arranged and delivered by the development worker. Responses in the evaluation awarded high value to these meetings due to the experiences gained, knowledge acquired and peer support offered. One practitioner spoke of: The cluster meetings are so important and vital to maintaining a high quality of practice as you learn from other experienced practitioners who have so much to share...the ideas I have got from these meetings have made such a different, I look forward to everyone. Children themselves were as frequently reported as being informal monitors of adherence to implementation. This was apparent when children checked why plans were changed or amended, the order of the programme was not followed, the problem solving approach not 46

47 being used to resolve conflict, steps being missed out, terms not fully used and pointing out when other children were not following the programme. When practitioners were asked about adherence they concurred that children in their setting would question why the programme was amended or would remind staff what was coming next. They believed this provided valuable evidence of impact in terms of responsiveness to the programme, as children wanted the programme and expressed ownership of the process which they did not want altered. The response of children to the programme through their high level of engagement and willingness to participate in a meaningful way provided staff affirmed the choice made to adopt HighScope and invest in its implementation. A recurrent experience reported by practitioners highlighted this point; Children wanted to be in the programme, became directors of their own learning and engaged in ways that were surprising to me after 20 years in childcare. A similar statement was recorded; To see children actively follow the programme and tell you what you need to do to get ready for next part makes you realise this is good for them and for us. Observations of The Child and Family Agency Development Workers The multitudinous role of development workers within The Child and Family Agency has served primarily to support, guide and mentor practitioners in settings implementing and not implementing HighScope. Settings are not precluded from their responsibilities on the basis of management type with both private and community based organisations receiving support. For the purposes of this evaluation, references to their work focused on their role in supporting the implementation of HighScope. In this regard, development workers spoke of having a tiered approach to their work which involved; A. Working with individual groups Practitioners in settings would receive mentoring and guidance to support their transition from training to practice and the transfer of knowledge into daily activities and quality practice. Providing assistance in the implementation of HighScope was viewed as essential by the development worker who built relationships with staff so they would be comfortable with onsite observations and constructive discussions about practice. The most frequently cited issues addressed by development workers in their role with individual settings was around the use of observations and their application to practice. This included; how to take observations in a meaningful way, understanding why they were being taken, how to use them to inform planning and to inform parents of their child s development. An associated task was supporting settings to understand how the HighScope key development indicators (KDIs) could meet all the standards of the national frameworks of Siolta and Aistear. 47

48 Changing practice and attitudes of staff regarding early childhood care was noted by development workers. This primarily focused on the move to child centered rather than adult driven practice. One development workers stated: It can be a significant challenge at first when adopting the HighScope model as settings have traditionally facilitated the needs of adults not children but we have to ask ourselves what impact is this having on children. Helping practitioners and the whole setting understand and practically implement this way of working involves a transformative process that takes time. Supporting them to do this was reported as essential in ensuring the ethos and principles of the HighScope approach is embedded in the setting which in turn leads to greater levels of fidelity and predicted outcomes. B. Facilitating peer learning Input into settings was always tailored to take account of practitioner capacity, knowledge and experience, however peer learning facilitated by the development workers through cluster meetings offered additional rewards. This was primarily in the form of social and professional development through mutual respect and shared practice. One development worker considered this to offer huge benefits to HighScope practitioners; When another setting hosted the cluster meeting the learning taken from that evening was always extremely positive...they could visually learn from the setting itself and gain new ideas and lessons from peers in other settings, either about the curriculum, the activities, the routine etc. The development workers strove to create a participatory experience where practitioners determined the agenda, the issues to be covered and the setting to be visited. In doing this ownership was fostered and the events became an essential part of the HighScope implementation structure. Another development worker believed the cluster groups were; a really important part of the journey after training. C. Supporting groups to support parents Understanding relationships and taking account of individual circumstances when considering options to improve engagement formed a core part of the activities. The development workers encouraged practitioners to consider how best to introduce potentially new and novel concepts to parents. These included; concepts such as child initiated activities, open ended activities, using the home learning environment, steps to conflict resolution. These could be communicated in settings using a parent workshop, parent information board, newsletters, child journals, informal discussions, pictorial story boards. Development workers reported that settings ranged in the ways they interacted with parents but with their support realised that short, simple and repetitive pieces of information offered an effective vehicle for awareness raising and knowledge transfer. 48

49 Development workers informed practitioners it was their role to initiate interaction and sell the work of the setting so parents could understand the impact of the programme on their child s development. While it was acknowledged by development workers that doing this was capped often by time and responsibilities, a one way interaction from parents to staff should not be relied upon or always expected. Moderators Time awarded by management to complete assessment and paper work was a pertinent theme in the feedback. The dominant experience was described as significant amounts of time spent at home planning, reviewing, researching and writing for their daily practice. While practitioners acknowledged this was unfair, they equally admitted it was necessary if the quality of work and fidelity to implementation was to be sustained. One practitioner explained; I can spend two hours a night sometimes staying on top of the work and making sure there is a good plan in place following what the children are interested in and bringing ideas to small and large group time. Another commented on the unfairness of this; There is so little time and then to be expected to do this on your own time unpaid seems belittling of our skill. Although a number of settings set aside paid time per week for teams to meet, plan and review (50%), these settings still believed that an hour or half hour per week could not provide enough time to reflect, review, plan and discuss. Balancing the implementation of HighScope with the national standards and frameworks (Siolta and Aistear) were viewed as adding pressure to an existing time pressed situation. When considering factors that affect implementation, staff identified language barriers with non-english speaking children and their parents, ideas for activities such as small and large group time and maintaining the approach when stressful situations arose. These were infrequent responses in the evaluation feedback gathered from practitioners with the exception of the interference of stressful or unforeseen circumstances arising. As one practitioner stated; It can be difficult to stick to the plan or to know what to do when something you don t expect happens and you are juggling lots of things, another said; I am a bit uncertain what to do when we have to go off the plan for some reason or what it means in terms of our quality. This led practitioners to seek assurances during the evaluation and confess they wanted to be delivering HighScope in the way its intended and hoped they were. In this regard there was some uncertainty expressed what is accepted by HighScope as acceptable levels of adherence for the five adherence dimensions. Time lapsed from initial training was noted frequently as an issue affecting confidence in implementation. Practitioners trained more than 3 years ago pointed to the duration since they were first trained and believed this could affect quality where support was less 49

50 frequent and opportunities to maintain quality practice were absent. This concerned some (45%) but not all practitioners. In contrast, there was a correlation between confidence in practice, knowledge of HighScope and time invested by team in planning, assessment and review. Practitioners who were assured in their knowledge were equally confident in their practice and reported high levels of team support and excellent leadership within the setting. The settings sharing these characteristics fully implemented all components of the HighScope model, embedded the ethos throughout the professional work and exemplified the principles through their engagement with children and parents. A practitioner from one of these settings spoke about HighScope as a community driven approach which they try to filter into all of their interactions and ways of engaging; We don t just see HighScope as something that happens with children in these rooms, we practice the spirit, principles and ethos in all that we do and try to help parents bring this into their homes and parent using the HighScope approach. The Child and Family Agency Development Workers view on moderators One of the distinguishable differences noted by development workers is the capacity, skill and confidence of the practitioner in implementing HighScope, interacting with children and involving parents in the setting. The proficiencies of practitioners led to evidence of embedded practice being observed by development workers. This translated into motivated children, empowered children, engaged parents, motivated staff and high quality provision. One development worker recalls being present when children were having lunch; children were sharing the bowls of food, asking each other had they tried this, what did they think, did they enjoy their lunch. She commented on the idea of three year children breaking bread together and the importance of this for their social development. The capacity and confidence of practitioners was particularly noted in relation to parental engagement. Practitioners who previously found it easy to build relationships with parents naturally made the adjustment to the HighScope approach and utilised many opportunities to get the buy in of parents. Development workers reported that this part of their work often concentrated on helping settings communicate effectively and simply with parents about the HighScope model. The dynamic context in which implementation occurs was viewed by development workers as critical to understanding its impact on fidelity to the model. Every September it was likely that a new group of children would attend the setting with no previous knowledge of the approach. This was viewed as a potential moderator as practitioners are implementing at a time of flux where children are settling in, parents are transferring responsibility and 50

51 relationships are being built. In this respect, responsiveness of the children is a key moderator at this time. The development workers have advised practitioners on the formation of relationships through secure attachments where children are encouraged to explore and learn from a secure base. They proposed that the learning environment, the daily routine and the adult-child interactions all serve as an elastic band to facilitate the transition into nursery. Practitioners in the evaluation all commented on this transition and knowledge of the HighScope approach being embedded by children very quickly, usually between 4-6 weeks. Supports required When asked to offer suggestions about how the moderators identified by practitioners could be addressed, a number of suggestion were put forward. These were most commonly linked to support and training. This took the form of wanting more cluster meetings, more frequent individualised support, refresher training, visits to other HighScope settings in Mayo and in Northern Ireland, and specific support with assessments. Practitioners did acknowledge the support they had received from the development workers had been invaluable but felt a network could be created involving HighScope practitioners who could also meet to offer advice, guidance and share experience. The involvement of parents and awareness raising about the HighScope approach was identified by some (55%) but not all settings. The experience of settings with parents ranged from very engaged to not at all engaged with practitioners reporting they struggled to attract parents interest in their work at the setting and help them understand the HighScope approach being followed by their child/children. The key determinants identified by settings with positive involvement of parents were good relationships and open communication. These settings admitted this takes time, effort and trust when building relationships and creating channels of communication. Communication took multiple formats and did not rely on direct verbal feedback between staff and parent. Involving parents at greeting time, having family information boards on site, parent newsletters, parent diaries, report forms, informal chats, coffee mornings, parent/teacher meetings were examples of how practitioners engaged parents. One practitioner admitted; it is not just about having single conversation, like their children, they have many languages and ways of interacting which we must use to help them understand what happens here with their child and what it means to them. Support with linking the HighScope indicators and assessment tools with Aistear and Siolta was raised by practitioners who found it challenging in terms of skill and time to be able to read across these frameworks. This was raised in 35% of settings who were also more 51

52 likely to report challenges with adherence. The settings who reported that linking the three frameworks as straightforward demonstrated higher levels of adherence and were more likely to have protocols to promote fidelity. General capacity building around child observation records and note taking were requested by practitioners. Their self reported acknowledgement of required support is triangulated through observations and comments made by the development workers and the current inspectorate who found low rates of record keeping across all settings in the previous round of inspections and expressed difficulties by practitioners of note taking and use of observational tools. This surprised the inspector in particular given her understanding that a core part of HighScope implementation was based around assessment, daily note taking and planning. Curriculum planning was found by the inspectorate to be almost absent or very sparse which again raised questions regarding adherence to the model from their perspective. However she did note that these issues were not necessarily exclusive to HighScope settings but to childcare settings generally. The surprise arose in relation to practice where components of the HighScope model should increase the likelihood of adherence to this practice rather than reduce it. 52

53 Parents A total of 75 parents across 9 out of 11 settings participated in focus groups for the purpose of the evaluation. The timeline of change in terms of transformation from beginning nursery (September 2013) to near the end of term (April 2014) was a significant feature in the experiences of parents in the evaluation. This was often accompanied with a range of emotions expressed by parents such as; delight, surprise, relief, shock, gratefulness and happiness. Knowledge/awareness of HighScope Approach Parents ability to explain components of the HighScope model, its key principles and ethos and provide examples of activities promoted through the HighScope curriculum was very evident (90%). Descriptions offered by parents included; play through learning, child centered approach, use of daily routines and planning, plan-do-review, small group time and large group time. The most frequently cited component of the approach offered by parents was conflict resolution. Parents were very familiar (87%) of the problem solving methodology adopted by HighScope practitioners. In the vast majority of cases (76%) had experienced the use of the steps or attempted use by their own children. As one parent stated: This is now used in our house as standard and has made life so much less stressful. Another reinforced this sentiment by saying: I cannot believe how different things are because of this approach...what would have caused a huge battle lasting forever, is now resolved in a matter of minutes...i feel this is a gift handed to us I will not forget. Through the focus groups parents held discussions and shared experiences with their peers about the HighScope approach and their child s experience of the setting. Parents learning about such activities or practices were always positive in response to these revelations and keen to hear more about it. There was no consistency across settings in terms of parents knowing more or less about HighScope. All parents interviewed experienced some level of communication regarding the practices, methodology and activities in the setting whether through written formats, open days, child journals/diaries and or direct verbal communication with setting staff. Despite this within settings some parents held a greater knowledge of HighScope than others in the same setting. Involvement in setting When asked about their role as a parent and first educator, parents were in the main happy to know what took place in the setting but not always eager to actively participate in the setting community. While some parents (59%) stated they would be curious about attending a session to observe HighScope in action and be alongside their child, a small number had direct experience of this (11%). In one setting parents were encouraged to attend two sessions. The first as an observer in a session their own child did not attend 53

54 and the second as an observer in the session involving their child. As a way of creating a community of learning, the setting recommended parents would have a fuller understanding of the HighScope approach through direct experience. The practitioners and parents reported this offered a unique and valuable insight into the pedagogy operating in the setting and eased communication between parent and staff when supporting parents as co educators in the home. Changes observed in child as a result of attending setting As primary witnesses to children s development, parents in the focus groups were asked to describe changes they observed in their child/children since attending the HighScope setting. A collective experience of impact was recorded which could be grouped as social, emotional and relational developments. Parents echoed how similar their children s response to nursery was, particularly in their expression of willingness to attend sessions, the warmth of their feelings for their facilitators and motivation to replay activities that take place in session. Parents affirmed the experience of their child wanting the practitioner s approval, consent or affirmation to do things, including not attending when ill. One parent stated; I had to drive my son to nursery so Teresa could tell him he was too sick to come in and then he was happy not to go. Examples of the types of changes suggested by parents include their child being: Confident Caring Independent Happy Communicative Friendly Talkative Able to share Able to express feelings Willing Figure things out Playful Wanting to plan Able to listen Capable of calming himself Able to try new foods Able to make friends Able to solve problems Wanting to go to nursery 54

55 Bringing practices home Transferring practices and activities from the HighScope setting to the home environment was a shared experience reported by parents. A very small number (7%) stated they had not seen evidence of setting activities carried into the home setting. In contrast, the majority of parents (93%) gave multiple examples which were common to many suggesting there is a strong desire for children to continue the practices learned at the setting and activities completed there in their own home environment. One parent shared in detail her daily routine when her daughter returned from nursery which was an exact replica of the routine followed in the setting. Parents in the main recognised the importance of this continuity and had often facilitated the transfer by getting support from practitioners, purchasing associated products (egg timer for conflict resolution) and developed skills to actively play and learn with their child. Suggestions for future involvement of parents Varied responses were recorded by parents about how the settings might engage parents in the future beyond what is being implemented currently. The experiences of parents differed from setting to setting and within settings where the same protocols were applied. For example, parents in one setting were invited to sit in and observe sessions while others did not know this was an option. Parents had received booklets from a setting but other parents stated they had not been given information from the same setting. Overall, parents agreed they would benefit from more formal meetings about their child/children where feedback and diaries could be shared. 70% of parents attended a parent meeting once a year, when the school year was completed. The remaining 30% experienced two parent meetings during the year. Parents in this latter group tended to report greater knowledge of progress in relation to their child compared to parents who had only one meeting. However, all parents expressed their satisfaction with continuous and informal feedback offered by practitioners before or after sessions. This type of communication was favoured by parents who felt this approach encouraged a two way relationship and facilitated sharing about the session and home life of the child. Parents clearly stated: I know I can always talk to Mary no matter what and she tells me things about the day which mean a lot to me, I feel like I am being listened to and what I have to say is important, it makes me feel valued, Being involved makes all the difference to me and my child, Having a chat at the door in a relaxed way really helps me trust what I am being told and I can see how much care is given to the children. When asked as a final question what three words would they use to describe the HighScope approach a bank of adjectives emerged which captured the views of parents in terms of their own direct experience, their observation of their children and perception of the approach. Parents offered recommendations and suggestions of how they would describe the approach to prospective parents. 55

56 The descriptions and adjectives interlinked and overlapped across all parent groups to include; Playful Learning through play Structured Interactive Child directed learning Engaging Participatory Child friendly Empowering Fun Purposeful Supportive Caring Plan-do-review Professional 56

57 Inspirational Stories Through the evaluation process examples of inspirational stories emerged which were documented on film involving children, practitioners, parents, management committee and The Child and Family Agency staff. Together these unique stories of critical change offer insight into a transformational journey in early years education and care in three settings in County Mayo. The DVD link is on HighScope Ireland website; highscope/ Stakeholder Responses Experience of the HighScope Approach The experiences among stakeholders included direct practice knowledge to strategic awareness of the fit of HighScope as an evidence based quality assured programme. The degree of experience was directly related to understanding of its role in improving outcomes for children. For those who reported direct experience of the HighScope model, their feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Examples of direct impact and critical change in practice and strategy exemplified these experiences; The HighScope training and practice has changed the way we work completely and has totally inspired us to the point we ask ourselves what were we doing before? The needs of the child should come first not the what the service wants and we feel HighScope follows the agenda of the child putting them at the centre of the learning experience. A contrasting viewpoint raised concerns about the nature of provision in HighScope settings where a la carte approach to implementation was observed. This resulted in cherry picking parts of the HighScope model rather than fully committing to its implementation which led this stakeholder to question whether settings are able to adopt a pure model of implementation. The mitigating factors from their perspective were linked to level of qualification of practitioners and staff, educational ability to understand a complex intervention or programme and having good leadership supporting the approach and enforcing fidelity to the model. Knowledge of the HighScope Approach When asked to provide a description of the HighScope approach all stakeholders were able to demonstrate a level of knowledge about at least one or more components of the model. This was in terms of the role of practitioners, its evidence base, its international status and its role in improving quality. It was clear that stakeholders were not denying that 57

58 HighScope was one example of a quality approach but it emerged from a rigorous evidence base. Data from a 40 year longitudinal study provided the backdrop in which impact and longterm outcomes could be guaranteed. In addition, stakeholders recognised that HighScope doesn t just support education outcomes, but supports health and wellbeing outcomes for families. In this respect, the interactional effect of HighScope on a number of domains leading to the ongoing dilemma within the ECCE sector of where it belongs, whether health, education or family support. Interviewees believed that wherever ECCE is placed, it is a sound financial investment considering the number of impacts it achieves in a policy context. The impacts suggested included; Promoting health Promoting education Preventing problems early Providing family support Developing communities Examples of comments made by stakeholders in their responses to this question were; Staff who have engaged in HighScope training are better equipped to deliver a quality service, particularly in relation to curriculum matters It is a very practical training programme, especially good for experienced practitioners who may be stuck in a bit of a rut. Really helps them to make significant changes to both provision and practice It is a model of quality that is universally recognised The HighScope model has been contextualised to the Irish context It s an educational model. Multidisciplinary working The emerging value of HighScope training was reported as a significant outcome in investing in practitioner s who have become confident and expertly professionals and can link with other professionals to advice on the development of children in their care and provide valuable assistance to more vulnerable children. In particular this was viewed making a beneficial contribution to the development of local area pathways. This led stakeholders to say; 58

59 We now have an accessible community based service that offers a great start to children and parents. As a preventative strategy, one stakeholder could provide evidence through case work of families who were receiving support through HighScope settings. The family support being provided was a whole family model, building relationship skills and resilience for children and parents. They believed the scaffolding offered by the HighScope practitioners were making significant inputs into addressing disadvantage and preventing child protection issues from occurring or escalating. Prior to HighScope a greater level of support was required in terms of number of staff in settings but after HighScope this has moved to targeted support possibly one hour per session so children are learning on their own and with other children...this is leading to greater inclusion and shared learning so children are not isolated or treated differently. (Early Intervention Specialist) Barriers preventing implementation fidelity While there are shared commonalities across ECCE settings in County Mayo, the idiosyncrasies characterising each individual journey on the HighScope path contributes to the variance identified in the evaluation. However, the variance can be accounted for through interaction of pertinent variables nominated through stakeholder interviews. These include time for planning and assessment, staff capacity, organisational ethos, management support and good leadership as. Recognition of the moderators that challenge implementation such as these described above can inform action planning and identify resource implications to reduce the impact of the moderators and improve adherence to implementation. Examples of stakeholders points about barriers raised in the evaluation were; I think if settings are allowed the time, space and information to select a quality approach that they feel best suits their setting, and if this decision is well informed, based on reason and sound information then I think the implementation will be very rich. I think if settings begin to implement any quality approach, not just HighScope, without having given time to gaining a clear understanding of its methods, rational and reasoning, then I feel the fidelity of the programmes implementation can be compromised The potential removal of support currently offered by the development workers and early years team was perceived to be completely detrimental and ultimately lead to the obliteration of the HighScope pedagogy. Without this input, stakeholders were firm in their belief all settings could not sustain their commitment, implement with fidelity and maintain the skills developed through supervisory support from the development workers. It was acknowledged that there are a small number of settings who have fully embedded the 59

60 HighScope approach and are highly capable of full implementation. They maybe able to act as mentors but again interval input from development workers would benefit the settings, continue professional development and act as a further check for fidelity monitoring. HighScope in the future in Mayo in early childcare provision The organisational context of ECCE provision featured heavily in the responses of stakeholders. The reformation of the HSE into The Child and Family Agency led respondents to express a concern about the positioning of HighScope in terms of the future responsibilities of development workers in the early years services team. This debate almost overshadowed the lens in which the evaluation was being conducted and shifted the question to where did HighScope belong in The Child and Family Agency? instead of what level of quality was being provided by HighScope settings and the impact of this on outcomes for children. As one stakeholder said; The model is not being questioned but where it belongs is really what needs to be decided above anything else. Following from this, an answer to this question led the stakeholder to say; If we decide to support the continuation of HighScope under the remit of this department then it must be fully supported...its all or nothing. Despite a substantial portion of time paid to the current contextual system in which HighScope provision sits, there was a divide between stakeholders who took previous accomplishments into account when considering the potential impact on outcomes for children using HighScope and those who did not. The majority of stakeholders (82%) believed firmly that HighScope had a significant contribution to make to quality provision in County Mayo settings. Professionals need to see this approach in action to really see the possibilities through HighScope and potential outcomes that can be achieved. The inspectorate clearly identified a role for their office in supporting implementation by enforcing Regulation 5 which closely aligned to the HighScope model. Good, rigorous inspection where implementation was taken seriously due to very real consequences arising from inspection could lend itself to ensuring settings serious about the approach committed to the fidelity on which the model is built and is most likely to achieve the proposed evidence based outcomes, while motivating staff to stay true to the intended practices of the HighScope approach. I think it is invaluable in supporting practitioners to provide child centred, play based programmes to support all areas of their development It s here to stay 60

61 Discussion Implementation Fidelity The conceptual framework for implementation which guided the evaluation process is multifaceted, encompassing both the intervention and its delivery. Adherence relates to the content and dose of the intervention, i.e., has the content of the intervention its 'active ingredients' been received by the participants as often and for as long as it should have been. However, the degree to which full adherence, i.e., high implementation fidelity, is achieved, may be moderated by factors affecting the delivery process, such as facilitation strategies, quality of delivery, and participant responsiveness. 39 The different moderating factors in the Conceptual Framework for Implementation Fidelity can all affect fidelity in a complex, interrelated way. The effects of the moderating factors on fidelity are likely to change over time, which further illustrates the challenges of evaluating impact of factors influencing fidelity. This evaluation of HighScope approach in County Mayo suggests there is a strong level of adherence achieved in selected early years settings. The moderators diluting and impacting on fidelity are put forward from the evidence gathered during the evaluation process. Adherence Taking account of the implementation findings the evaluation suggests that settings selected for inclusion in the purposeful sample showed an emerging level of effective implementation (average rating of 3.8 out of 5). The variance across settings should be considered as it will have an impact on the overall averages. Scores ranging between 2.67 to 4.68 for PQA total averages across all classroom items were recorded. The exploration of implementation through interviews with practitioners and observations of development workers supported this finding and pointed to differential role of moderators in diluting fidelity of implementation across settings. In terms of self reported adherence from practitioners who completed the online survey, 85% of respondents stated they were implementing the HighScope approach consistently all of the time. This applied to the Wheel of Learning and Curriculum Content. 39 Carroll, C., Patterson, M., Wood, S., Boot, A., Rick, J., & Balain, S (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 2007, 2:40. 61

62 Moderators Based on discussions with the development workers and their manager it was clear that HighScope offered a framework for quality which took their role and the perception of their role onto a new level. The credibility of an evidence based model transferrable to practice with a clear implementation structure marked a critical change point in early years provision in County Mayo. Prior to this the development workers talked about offering professional recommendations based on observations in settings and guided decision making regarding provision. However they viewed this has not necessarily having the same weight as an evidenced model with external validity and longitudinal impacts. In a way the introduction of HighScope was welcomed by development workers who suggested it created a professional distancing that improved relationships in the longterm. Their advice was now directly informed by the model, the training protocols and the comprehensive evidence linked to the approach. There were external consultants from HighScope Ireland and the international parenting from the HighScope Foundation that brought a new layer of expertise, skill and practices for early childhood provision. Quality was understand in terms of the establishment of daily routines, changes in room layout, child initiated learning and relationships between children and children, children and adults and adult and adults. The significant transformations in settings led development workers to report observing; Very inspiring practice where the learning environment was one of shared control and mutual respect. Surprise was expressed by development workers in the evaluation about the lack of personal recognition on the part of practitioners of their role in the outcomes achieved in the setting. They believed practitioners needed support and recognition for the investment made by them and how this impacted positively on children s development. An example of a response made during the interviews goes towards explaining the reason for this; Practitioners are asked to go above and beyond their role on a daily basis but are not paid for this. There are huge expectations but investment in quality provision does not reflect this. The need for quality and responsibility on practitioners to deliver high quality provision was not reflected in policy where greater contact time is needed for staff in settings according to development workers. They agreed that quality costs but no incentive is given to early years practitioners to ensure quality and when they do deliver this there is not enough recognition. Responsiveness This refers to the response of individuals receiving the intervention [HighScope approach] and those delivering it. The evaluation found that feedback from parents about the changes in their children and experience of the setting confirmed practitioner s 62

63 observations that children responded very positively to the approach and evidenced developmental progress as measured by the key development indicators. The observations of parents concurred that their children were happy, motivated, confident, independent and capable since attending the HighScope sessions. The positive experience was set against a time line of change recorded since first coming to the setting. In some cases (19%) parents had moved their child from another setting and could markedly see the difference in their child, the practitioners way of working and their own experience. Being able to make a comparison between settings was always linked to the pedagogy implemented in the new setting and the differences this created. The response of practitioners themselves was characterised by critical change in practice and attitude. The evaluation found that in settings where staff members were highly engaged in their work, they believed that the intervention was relevant and that it had potential for reaching good outcomes for children and families. Staff received positive feedback from the children and their families, which gave them further assurance that their work was valuable. A transformative effect was reported by practitioners who reported increased job satisfaction, confidence interacting with other professionals and contributing to case conferences, mutual respect generated among their colleagues through cluster meetings and knowledge their practice is of high quality and is evidence informed. A recurrent theme in the responses of practitioners was the attitudinal shift they experienced between training and implementation. This was characterised by thoughts of disbelief and doubt about the HighScope principles, practices and activities. Two parts of the model were repeatedly questioned at the training stage in terms of effective implementation; child centred learning/child initiated activities and conflict resolution. However their doubts were completely transfigured when their knowledge of HighScope and the components were put into practice in their settings. The responses of the children were described as overwhelmingly positive, life changing, powerful, inspiring and convincing. This led staff to report significant change in their own thoughts, feelings and actions as a result of the response by children to the activities. Development workers suggested practitioners in County Mayo were still in a transition period with HighScope implementation. While the past has focused on changing the learning environment and building HighScope routines, the development workers believed practitioners were now in the process of embedding adult-child interactions fully into their practice and investing time to do this in a meaningful and valuable way. 63

64 Organisational Fit The placement of the HighScope approach within The Child and Family Agency s agenda and operating objectives falls under early intervention and family support. The recommendations of the task force are consistent with available evidence about the importance of prevention and early intervention which states that supporting families within the community and working to prevent children from entering the child protection system is essential requiring an emphasis on early intervention community based services. 40 However, implementation of this service model will present challenges given the tendency for urgent interventions at levels 3 4 to take precedence over important interventions at levels Supporting parents is one of the transformational goals in the National Policy Framework for Children & Young People ( ) which also contains a commitment to a policy statement on Parenting and Family Support. It has been suggested in recent evaluations of the Siolta and NEYAI that supporting parents requires both a narrow perspective (on the parent-child relationship) and a wide perspective (on the social ecology of this relationship). 42 Moving forward it was clearly expressed through evaluation interviews that the role of development workers needed to fit within the system of Local Area Pathways. This is a co-ordinated, multi-disciplinary and multi-agency approach to delivering services across all level. LAP is the means of delivering services to children and families in one cohesive support system. The natural fit is in terms of addressing the 5 National Outcomes for Children. The development workers and their team leader already support staff working with families and children to be involved in LAP. The positives are likely to be; Coordinates information flow and planning for working with a family, gives a sense of support for individual staff members, staff/organisations can work to their own strengths in the knowledge that it s part of a bigger work plan. However challenges take the form of all agencies are working with reduced resources already, staff are unsure of the future work context, more meetings and greater clarity is needed about the implications for each staff team. 40 Statham, J., & Smith, M. (2010). Issues in earlier intervention: Identifying and supporting children with additional needs. Retrieved from 41 Task Force on the Child and Family Support Agency, (2012). Report of the Task Force on the Child and Family Support Agency. 42 McKeown, K. (2014). Evaluation of National Early Years Access Initiative & Síolta Quality Assurance Programme. Child Outcomes in Pre-School. 64

65 The current involvement of HighScope practitioners in multi agency and multi disciplinary work was evidenced in terms of their confident and expertly contributions at child protection meetings and working with other professionals to support vulnerable children and those with higher support needs. Key stakeholders gave specific examples of the involvement of HighScope practitioners at these meetings and spoke of the impact for family support services when practitioners worked with child and parent to support their needs in a child centred way that facilitated family empowerment; To hear HighScope practitioners participate at an equally professional level with others around the table was a key indicator for me of the success of this approach...but more impressive was their attitude to the mother and child assuring them that all three would work together to find solutions. The task as this stakeholder seen it was helping others in the organisation to understand the impact support of this kind can have at an early age and offering all 0-5 year olds in these situations support from a HighScope setting or practitioner. Their role in family support was set out within a national strategic context as one of the transformational goals in the National Policy Framework for Children & Young People ( ) is supporting parents. The current operating model of the early years team is believed to add value to key services, organisations and people. It also takes into account the child welfare/family support model of Local Area Pathways and Local Area Networks currently under consideration by the Children and Family Support Agency. It demonstrates how Early Years Services has a key role to play in child welfare, family support, the promotion of health and well-being and learning and development. Meeting the Policy Agenda The advent of the National Framework for children and young people and formation of The Child and Family Agency brings to the forefront the imperative role of ECCE in leading to positive outcomes for children. The specific contribution of the HighScope scope approach in this context can easily be aligned through shared principles and objectives. These include: Children s rights: The rights of children as outlined by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) are recognised and child-centred-approaches are adopted. Family-orientated: The family is recognised as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and wellbeing of children. Equality: The diversity of children s experiences, abilities, identities and cultures is acknowledged, and reducing inequalities is promoted throughout the Framework as a means of improving outcomes and achieving greater social inclusion. Evidence-informed and outcomes-focused: To be effective, policies and services must be supported by evidence and focused on the achievement of agreed outcomes. 65

66 Accountability and resource efficiency: Clear implementation, monitoring and accountability mechanisms and lines of responsibility for delivery are in place to drive timely and effective policy implementation. Under the Transformational Goals set out by the National Framework there is clear read across between these national strategic intentions and HighScope focus on quality provision. The framework document identifies the six transformational goals as core ensuring services are made more effective and achieve better outcomes. This evaluation found that HighScope settings in County Mayo share this intention and have a rigorous evidence based programme embedded within a demonstrable pedagogical philosophy. Together the national goals and HighScope aim to: Support parents Earlier intervention and prevention Listen to and involve young children Ensure quality services Strengthen transitions Cross Government and interagency collaboration and coordination Cultural Shifts - Theory of Change Understanding the complexities of organizational culture in terms of embedding new knowledge such as the HighScope approach is important as the knowledge must penetrate and be absorbed by at least three layers of culture before it can inspire and create change. These include the following: 43 Culture of the system in which policymakers create and enforce the rules that govern the activities of service organizations and the funding or payment of services Culture of the organization, which holds together relationships among community stakeholders, administrators, managers, supervisors, and team leaders of programs that make services available Culture of direct practice, which inevitably influences the relationships between those who provide help and those who receive the services The cultural shift in direct practice was most often observed in this evaluation with pockets of organisational change being reported within specific jurisdictions of The Child and Family Agency. The recent restructuring and division between family support and early years inspectorate led key stakeholders to express a concern the vulnerability of the development team and the settings they support. This was set in the historical where a 43 Prochaska, J., Prochaska, J.M. & Levesque, D. (2001). A Transtheroetical Approach to changing organisations: Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services, 28: 4, p

67 shift from a dominant child protection agenda through to a focus on quality provision and preventative spending has seen a return to the presiding role of inspectorate in the current climate. The task of creating change will be difficult given that health-care systems in particular are recognised internationally as being the most resistant to change. 44 Despite substantial investment and commitment at an organisational level from 2006 in training and support to settings undertaking the HighScope training and adoption of the approach, stakeholders reported feeling unsettled about the foresight of the organisation in recognising the return of investment to date. Moving forward the spend was viewed as minimal in terms of supporting development workers in their role, where settings have had capital investment, The Child and Family Agency staff have become completed the TOT for HighScope and provide locally based expertise to train practitioners and support implementation and a number of practitioners are delivering high quality evidence based provision using the HighScope approach. However, the very real possibility of loosing the expertise of both trainers and practitioners was highlighted as a major worry to key stakeholders in this evaluation. One participant described the reality of this potential outcome; In 5 years without champions, strong leadership, the development workers and calculating staff turn over, HighScope will become extinct. Instead it was hoped that recognition of investment date and the evidence associated with preventative spending in early years would inform The Child and Family Agency s decision to fully support the continued implementation of HighScope as a flagship programme for quality provision. It was suggested in the evaluation that this part of the evolution process should focus on credibility building of settings using HighScope and demonstrating high fidelity while concentrating on improving implementation adherence and integrity in other settings. Thinking about change specifically and viewing it as a process rather than a set of linear steps might help explain the journey individual settings have been on to date and where they need to go. Consider for example Lewin s approach to change in which the phases of unfreeze, transition and refreeze describe the change an organisation experiences when new programmes, policies or ideas are being embedded. To understand how change takes place Lewin described a force field analysis which identifies the driving forces and restraining forces to change. He argued that; "An issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces - those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces)" (Figure 11). In this respect organisations will have driving forces that make change attractive to people, and restraining forces that work to keep things as they are. Lewin proposes that successful change is achieved by either strengthening the driving forces or weakening the restraining forces. 44 Coiera, E. (2011). Why system inertia makes health reform so difficult. British Medical Journal, 342,

68 Figure 11: Lewin s Force Field Analysis In the current context of implementing HighScope in County Mayo settings, the evaluation has pointed to driving forces such as key facilitators and key moderators of implementation. These are described under lessons learned. Restraining forces were identified as the opposite of drivers in most cases and often included; -Lack of time awarded to planning outside daily practice -Poor leadership -Commitment to sustaining change -Level of skills for implementing HighScope 68

The Development of Early Years Services in Ireland

The Development of Early Years Services in Ireland The Development of Early Years Services in Ireland Jim Breslin Secretary General Department of Children and Youth Affairs, Ireland Models of Early Childhood Services Conference Montreal 6 June 2012 Overview

More information

NEVER STOP LEARNING FAMILY CHILD EARLY YEARS PRACTICE CHILDCARE- STUDIES DE DEVELOPMENT MASTER OF ARTS

NEVER STOP LEARNING FAMILY CHILD EARLY YEARS PRACTICE CHILDCARE- STUDIES DE DEVELOPMENT MASTER OF ARTS NEVER STOP LEARNING FAMILY CHILD EARLY YEARS PRACTICE CHILDCARE- STUDIES DE DEVELOPMENT MASTER OF ARTS (Early Childhood Studies) Course Overview The Masters of Arts (Early Childhood Studies) has been developed

More information

HEALTH SYSTEM. Introduction. The. jurisdictions and we. Health Protection. Health Improvement. Health Services. Academic Public

HEALTH SYSTEM. Introduction. The. jurisdictions and we. Health Protection. Health Improvement. Health Services. Academic Public FUNCTIONS OF THE LOCAL PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM Introduction This document sets out the local PH function in England. It was originally drafted by a working group led by Maggie Rae, FPH Local Board Member

More information

National Strategic Plan 2011-2013. Early Childhood Care and Education Programmes

National Strategic Plan 2011-2013. Early Childhood Care and Education Programmes National Strategic Plan 2011-2013 Early Childhood Care and Education Programmes Mission Statement The City and County Childcare Committees (CCCs) and the Voluntary Childcare Organisations (VCOs), led by

More information

National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare

National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare June 2012 About the Health Information and Quality Authority The (HIQA) is the independent Authority established to drive continuous improvement in Ireland

More information

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH ROLE PROFILE

DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH ROLE PROFILE Appendix A DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH ROLE PROFILE Title: Employing Organisation: Accountable to: Hours: Work base: Key Relationships Director of Public Health London Borough of Tower Hamlets Professionally

More information

WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP FOR QUALITY HEALTHCARE IN HAWKE S BAY

WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP FOR QUALITY HEALTHCARE IN HAWKE S BAY WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP FOR QUALITY HEALTHCARE IN HAWKE S BAY A QUALITY IMPROVEMENT & SAFETY FRAMEWORK DECEMBER 2013 2 1 IMAGE NEEDED CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 WHAT DO WE WANT TO ACCOMPLISH 4 QUALITY HEALTH

More information

Certificate in Inclusive Care and Education (0-6yrs) Level 6 Special Purpose Award

Certificate in Inclusive Care and Education (0-6yrs) Level 6 Special Purpose Award Certificate in Inclusive Care and Education (0-6yrs) Level 6 Special Purpose Award Background: This one year part-time programme has been developed on foot of a demand within the ECCE sector for training

More information

Job Description. Director of Corporate Services. Staff: Head of Customer Services, Head of Libraries plus staff group of c.

Job Description. Director of Corporate Services. Staff: Head of Customer Services, Head of Libraries plus staff group of c. Job Description Job Title: Reports to: Assistant Director Customer Services Director of Corporate Services Staff: Head of Customer Services, Head of Libraries plus staff group of c. 200+ Budget: 11 million

More information

National Occupational Standards. National Occupational Standards for Youth Work

National Occupational Standards. National Occupational Standards for Youth Work National Occupational Standards National Occupational Standards for Youth Work Contents Introduction 5 Section 1 S1.1.1 Enable young people to use their learning to enhance their future development 6 S1.1.2

More information

SERVICE SPECIFICATION

SERVICE SPECIFICATION SERVICE SPECIFICATION Provision of a Service for Young Carers Wokingham Borough Council OFFICIAL - SENSITIVE Page 1 1. Introduction This is the service specification for the provision of a Young Carers

More information

WHAT WORKS IN INNOVATION AND EDUCATION IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR ADULTS WITH BASIC SKILL NEEDS THROUGH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT STUDY OUTLINE

WHAT WORKS IN INNOVATION AND EDUCATION IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR ADULTS WITH BASIC SKILL NEEDS THROUGH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT STUDY OUTLINE WHAT WORKS IN INNOVATION AND EDUCATION IMPROVING TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR ADULTS WITH BASIC SKILL NEEDS THROUGH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT STUDY OUTLINE The OECD s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

More information

Please see the full job description at the end of this document for full details on the Qualifications and Experience required for this role.

Please see the full job description at the end of this document for full details on the Qualifications and Experience required for this role. Title of Post Research Manager Location Christchurch Square, Dublin 8. Employment Type Fulltime (37 hrs) and Permanent Salary 50,209-65,505 Contact Person Helena Nolan 01 4530355 To apply, email application

More information

Australian ssociation

Australian ssociation Australian ssociation Practice Standards for Social Workers: Achieving Outcomes of Social Workers Australian Association of Social Workers September 2003 Contents Page Introduction... 3 Format of the Standards...

More information

STATEMENT OF STRATEGY 2015-2017 AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS AGUS SCILEANNA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS 2015-2017

STATEMENT OF STRATEGY 2015-2017 AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS AGUS SCILEANNA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS 2015-2017 STATEMENT OF STRATEGY 2015-2017 AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS AGUS SCILEANNA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS Foreword by the Minister I welcome the publication of the Statement of Strategy which sets out the

More information

The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people

The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people Copyright 1997 ISBN 0 642 27200 X This work is copyright. It may be reproduced

More information

Evaluation of National Early Years Access Initiative & Síolta Quality Assurance Programme:

Evaluation of National Early Years Access Initiative & Síolta Quality Assurance Programme: Evaluation of National Early Years Access Initiative & Síolta Quality Assurance Programme: A Study of Child Outcomes in Pre-School Main Report May 2014 Evaluation Team: Kieran McKeown Social & Economic

More information

Participation and Engagement Strategy for Children and Young People

Participation and Engagement Strategy for Children and Young People Participation and Engagement Strategy for Children and Young People Ensuring children and young people s voices are embedded in the work of the Northamptonshire County Council Children, Families and Education

More information

NES/11/111. Dorothy Wright Director HR & OD Christine McCole, Depute Director HR Tom Power, OD Business Partner (Leadership & Performance Management)

NES/11/111. Dorothy Wright Director HR & OD Christine McCole, Depute Director HR Tom Power, OD Business Partner (Leadership & Performance Management) NES Item 8d December 2011 NES/11/111 (Enclosure) NHS Education for Scotland Board Paper Summary 1. Title of Paper People & Organisational Development Strategy 2. Author(s) of Paper Dorothy Wright Director

More information

Haringey Council Commissioning & Funding Framework Guide for the Voluntary Sector

Haringey Council Commissioning & Funding Framework Guide for the Voluntary Sector Haringey Council Commissioning & Funding Framework Guide for the Voluntary Sector Sustainability moving towards a commissioning model Document control Document details Document name Commissioning & Funding

More information

Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings

Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings The Local Authority s Anti-Bullying Strategy November 2009 Tackling Bullying in Bedford Borough Schools and Settings 1 Contents: Page A. Context...

More information

Communications Plan. June 2008

Communications Plan. June 2008 Plan June 2008 1 HSE Plan June 2008 Communication aims for the HSE 1. Informed, trusted, authoritative source of information on health and social care matters 2. To have a positive, proactive, open and

More information

Submission to the Senate Select Committee on Health Public Hearing on Big Data and Data Linkage

Submission to the Senate Select Committee on Health Public Hearing on Big Data and Data Linkage Submission to the Senate Select Committee on Health Public Hearing on Big Data and Data Linkage Australia s health system is world class, supporting universal and affordable access to high quality medical,

More information

Dublin City Childcare Committee. Feedback to Consultation Document on developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector

Dublin City Childcare Committee. Feedback to Consultation Document on developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector Dublin City Childcare Committee Feedback to Consultation Document on developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector Changing practice environments Current and future policy commitments

More information

LEICESTER S EARLY HELP & PREVENTION STRATEGY

LEICESTER S EARLY HELP & PREVENTION STRATEGY LEICESTER S EARLY HELP & PREVENTION STRATEGY 2013-15 1. Introduction 1.1. Whilst the majority of our children and young people in Leicester grow up in a supportive environment that enables them to have

More information

Promoting Child Development by Supporting Parents: Learning from the Evaluation of the Preparing for Life Home Visiting Programme

Promoting Child Development by Supporting Parents: Learning from the Evaluation of the Preparing for Life Home Visiting Programme Promoting Child Development by Supporting Parents: Learning from the Evaluation of the Preparing for Life Home Visiting Programme The evaluation of the Preparing for Life programme demonstrated significant

More information

Job Description. BRANCH Integrated Services GRADE JM2

Job Description. BRANCH Integrated Services GRADE JM2 DIRECTORATE People and Communities JOB TITLE Consultant Social Work Practitioner Job Description BRANCH Integrated Services GRADE JM2 SECTION Community Family Service Main Purpose of the Job To operate

More information

Developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector Consultation document

Developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector Consultation document Developing the workforce in the early childhood care and education sector Consultation document Copyright Minister for Education and Science, 2009 Department of Education and Science Marlborough Street

More information

NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR RURAL AND REMOTE EDUCATION

NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR RURAL AND REMOTE EDUCATION NATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR RURAL AND REMOTE EDUCATION DEVELOPED BY THE MCEETYA TASK FORCE ON RURAL AND REMOTE EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT AND CHILDREN S SERVICES 1 CONTENTS Introduction... 3 Purpose...

More information

Framework and Resources for Early Childhood Education Reviews

Framework and Resources for Early Childhood Education Reviews Framework and Resources for Early Childhood Education Reviews Education Reviews in Early Childhood Education Services Contents 1 Introduction 1 The purpose of this framework ERO s approach to early childhood

More information

Job Description Deputy Head Teacher The Deputy Head Teacher is responsible to the Head Teacher in all aspects of school life and will be the first

Job Description Deputy Head Teacher The Deputy Head Teacher is responsible to the Head Teacher in all aspects of school life and will be the first Job Description Deputy Head Teacher The Deputy Head Teacher is responsible to the Head Teacher in all aspects of school life and will be the first point of contact in the Head Teacher s absence. You are

More information

Community education, long term unemployment and the labour market

Community education, long term unemployment and the labour market Community education, long term unemployment and the labour market Action Plan for Jobs 2014 Submission to the Department of Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation, and Forfás On behalf of AONTAS, the National

More information

(Financial Accounting Team)

(Financial Accounting Team) Job Title: Accounting Technician (Financial Accounting Team) Job Grade: Band 3 Band 4 Directorate: Finance Job Reference Number: P02279 The Role As part of the Financial Compliance Team, you will report

More information

COMMUNICATION AND ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY 2013-2015

COMMUNICATION AND ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY 2013-2015 COMMUNICATION AND ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY 2013-2015 NWAS Communication and Engagement Strategy 2013-2015 Page: 1 Of 16 Recommended by Executive Management Team Communities Committee Approved by Board of Directors

More information

How Good is Our Community Learning and Development? Self-evaluation for quality improvement

How Good is Our Community Learning and Development? Self-evaluation for quality improvement How Good is Our Community Learning and Development? Self-evaluation for quality improvement How Good is Our Community Learning and Development? Self-evaluation for quality improvement HM Inspectorate of

More information

Honours Degree (top-up) Business Abbreviated Programme Specification Containing Both Core + Supplementary Information

Honours Degree (top-up) Business Abbreviated Programme Specification Containing Both Core + Supplementary Information Honours Degree (top-up) Business Abbreviated Programme Specification Containing Both Core + Supplementary Information 1 Awarding Institution / body: Lancaster University 2a Teaching institution: University

More information

Knowledge and Skills Statement for Social Workers in Adult Services

Knowledge and Skills Statement for Social Workers in Adult Services Knowledge and Skills Statement for Social Workers in Adult Services Table of contents 1. Statement overview 2. The role of social workers working with adults 3. Person-centred practice 4. Safeguarding

More information

RHODES AVENUE PRIMARY SCHOOL

RHODES AVENUE PRIMARY SCHOOL RHODES AVENUE PRIMARY SCHOOL HEADTEACHER CANDIDATE INFORMATION Rhodes Avenue School: A Vision for the Future Our children are at the heart of all we do. We aim to instil a love of learning in all our children

More information

National Standards for the Protection and Welfare of Children

National Standards for the Protection and Welfare of Children National Standards for the Protection and Welfare of Children For Health Service Executive Children and Family Services July 2012 About the Health Information and Quality Authority The (HIQA) is the independent

More information

Suite Overview...2. Glossary...8. Functional Map.11. List of Standards..15. Youth Work Standards 16. Signposting to other Standards...

Suite Overview...2. Glossary...8. Functional Map.11. List of Standards..15. Youth Work Standards 16. Signposting to other Standards... LSI YW00 Youth Work National Occupational Standards Introduction Youth Work National Occupational Standards Introduction Contents: Suite Overview...2 Glossary......8 Functional Map.11 List of Standards..15

More information

Process Mapping Tool for Evaluation SW UK Partnership

Process Mapping Tool for Evaluation SW UK Partnership Process Mapping Tool for Evaluation SW UK Partnership There are three areas of Recommendation developed by the work of the SW UK partnership. These are set out in the SW UK published Policy Analysis. They

More information

A LIFELONG LEARNING STRATEGY FOR THE SPORT ANDACTIVELEISURESECTOR

A LIFELONG LEARNING STRATEGY FOR THE SPORT ANDACTIVELEISURESECTOR A LIFELONG LEARNING STRATEGY FOR THE SPORT ANDACTIVELEISURESECTOR 1 THE NEED FOR CHANGE The Sport and Active Leisure sector has the potential to make a huge impact on the economy, the health of a nation

More information

MAKING YOUR ORGANISATION S INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL IMPLEMENTING THE GUIDELINES FOR ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION

MAKING YOUR ORGANISATION S INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL IMPLEMENTING THE GUIDELINES FOR ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION MAKING YOUR ORGANISATION S INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL IMPLEMENTING THE GUIDELINES FOR ACCESSIBLE INFORMATION project has been funded with support from the European Union. publication reflects the views

More information

Standards of Proficiency and Practice Placement Criteria

Standards of Proficiency and Practice Placement Criteria Social Workers Registration Board Standards of Proficiency and Practice Placement Criteria Bord Clárchúcháin na noibrithe Sóisialta Social Workers Registration Board Issued: January 2014 Contents Page

More information

Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan

Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan ST0184/AP03 1. Introduction and Overview The Relationship Manager (Banking) is an apprenticeship that takes 3-4 years to complete and is at a Level 6. It

More information

Roles and Responsibilities: Building Positive Schools Climate and Providing Learning Supports for Students

Roles and Responsibilities: Building Positive Schools Climate and Providing Learning Supports for Students Roles and Responsibilities: Building Positive Schools Climate and Providing Learning Supports for Students Clearly delineating roles and responsibilities represents an essential step that can build capacity

More information

JOB DESCRIPTION. Contract Management and Business Intelligence

JOB DESCRIPTION. Contract Management and Business Intelligence JOB DESCRIPTION DIRECTORATE: DEPARTMENT: JOB TITLE: Contract Management and Business Intelligence Business Intelligence Business Insight Manager BAND: 7 BASE: REPORTS TO: Various Business Intelligence

More information

Procurement Strategy

Procurement Strategy Procurement Strategy 2014-15 www.gwynedd.gov.uk Table of content 1. Introduction 1.1 Procurement in Gwynedd 1.2 What we have achieved 2. Local Benefit from Procurement Spend 2.1 Category management 2.2

More information

Title of Post Research Assistant Finglas, Dublin 11.

Title of Post Research Assistant Finglas, Dublin 11. Title of Post Research Assistant Finglas, Dublin 11. Location Finglas, Dublin 11. Employment Type Part Time (20 hrs per week) and Fixed Term contract to end of September 2017. There is flexibility on how

More information

Barnardo s Scotland response to the Welfare Reform Committee call for evidence on the Future Delivery of Social Security in Scotland

Barnardo s Scotland response to the Welfare Reform Committee call for evidence on the Future Delivery of Social Security in Scotland Barnardo s Scotland response to the Welfare Reform Committee call for evidence on the Future Delivery of Social Security in Scotland 28 th August 2015 Introduction 1.1 Impact of welfare reforms on families

More information

City of Edinburgh Community Learning and Development Plan /4/2015

City of Edinburgh Community Learning and Development Plan /4/2015 City of Edinburgh Community Learning and Development Plan 2015 2018 8/4/2015 1 City of Edinburgh Community Learning and Development Plan 2015 2018 What is our vision for CLD in Edinburgh? The vision for

More information

The Standards for Leadership and Management: supporting leadership and management development December 2012

The Standards for Leadership and Management: supporting leadership and management development December 2012 DRIVING FORWARD PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS The Standards for Leadership and Management: supporting leadership and management development December 2012 Contents Page The Standards for Leadership

More information

Environment Sustainability and Highways

Environment Sustainability and Highways Job Title: Marketing Intelligence Officer Job Grade: Band 4 Directorate: Environment Sustainability and Highways Job Reference Number: P01851 The Role The Marketing Intelligence Officer will: Devise intelligence

More information

Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan

Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan 1. Introduction and Overview Relationship Manager (Banking) Assessment Plan The Relationship Manager (Banking) is an apprenticeship that takes 3-4 years to complete and is at a Level 6. It forms a key

More information

Blended Learning CPD for Vocational Teachers

Blended Learning CPD for Vocational Teachers Blended Learning CPD for Vocational Teachers Commissioning brief December 2014 Blended Learning CPD for Vocational Teachers 1 Introduction UFI Charitable Trust was set up to improve access to vocational

More information

A Vision for Young Londoners to 2025

A Vision for Young Londoners to 2025 A Vision for Young Londoners to 2025 Invest in young Londoners, young Londoners will in turn invest in London Young people in London are 25% of the population, but 100% of its future A Vision for Young

More information

Self Assessment Tool for Principals and Vice-Principals

Self Assessment Tool for Principals and Vice-Principals The Institute for Education Leadership (IEL) brings together representatives from the principals' associations, the supervisory officers' associations, councils of directors of education and the Ministry

More information

Sure Start children s centres statutory guidance. For local authorities, commissioners of local health services and Jobcentre Plus

Sure Start children s centres statutory guidance. For local authorities, commissioners of local health services and Jobcentre Plus Sure Start children s centres statutory guidance For local authorities, commissioners of local health services and Jobcentre Plus April 2013 Contents Summary 3 Sure Start children s centres statutory guidance

More information

Guidelines for Validated Self-Evaluation. Support and challenge for educational psychology services in driving improvement

Guidelines for Validated Self-Evaluation. Support and challenge for educational psychology services in driving improvement Guidelines for Validated Self-Evaluation Support and challenge for educational psychology services in driving improvement April 2015 Contents 01 Abbreviations 02 Vision 02 Aims and objectives of the VSE

More information

Spire Healthcare Clinical Job Descriptions

Spire Healthcare Clinical Job Descriptions Spire Healthcare Clinical Job Descriptions 1 Job Title / Code Physiotherapy Manager (00145) 2 Reports To Matron / Clinical Services Manager / General Manager 3 Department Spire Hospital 4 Job Purpose To

More information

Services for children and young people in North Ayrshire 28 October 2013. Report of a pilot joint inspection

Services for children and young people in North Ayrshire 28 October 2013. Report of a pilot joint inspection Services for children and young people in North Ayrshire 28 October 2013 Report of a pilot joint inspection Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Background 1 3. The Community Planning Partnership area 2 4. Particular

More information

DECS IMPROVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK RESOURCES GUIDE TO SELF REVIEW

DECS IMPROVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK RESOURCES GUIDE TO SELF REVIEW DECS IMPROVEMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK RESOURCES GUIDE TO SELF REVIEW Reflect... Improve... Achieve GUIDE TO SELF REVIEW The purpose of Self Review Effective organisations regularly monitor and

More information

If yes, in what capacity? Have you worked together before? Yes

If yes, in what capacity? Have you worked together before? Yes Regional adoption agencies 2015-16 Expression of Interest Form If you have any problems editing this form, please email adoption.reform@education.gsi.gov.uk 1.1 Contact details Section 1 Lead contact TBC

More information

IQ Level 4 Certificate in Education and Training (QCF) Specification

IQ Level 4 Certificate in Education and Training (QCF) Specification Quality Management System 601/1733/3 Specification IQ Level 4 Certificate in Education and Training (QCF) Specification Regulation No: 601/1733/3 Page 1 of 142 IQB/0.2/212 Version 1.0 13/01/2014 Author

More information

Step Up / Step Down Practice Guidance

Step Up / Step Down Practice Guidance Children s Services Better Together for Children Step Up / Step Down Practice Guidance This guidance is aimed at all practitioners who are supporting children and their families. This guidance aims to:

More information

Leadership, Governance and Management ACUTE HOSPITAL SERVICES. Supporting services to deliver quality healthcare JUNE 2013

Leadership, Governance and Management ACUTE HOSPITAL SERVICES. Supporting services to deliver quality healthcare JUNE 2013 QUALITY ASSESSMENT & IMPROVEMENT ACUTE HOSPITAL SERVICES JUNE 2013 Leadership, Governance and Management Supporting services to deliver quality healthcare Effective Care and Support Safe Care and Support

More information

GUIDELINES FOR PILOT INTERVENTIONS. www.ewaproject.eu ewa@gencat.cat

GUIDELINES FOR PILOT INTERVENTIONS. www.ewaproject.eu ewa@gencat.cat GUIDELINES FOR PILOT INTERVENTIONS www.ewaproject.eu ewa@gencat.cat Project Lead: GENCAT CONTENTS A Introduction 2 1 Purpose of the Document 2 2 Background and Context 2 3 Overview of the Pilot Interventions

More information

SLSCB Agenda Item: 10. Date: 19 May 2016 Subject: Early help Operating Model. Purpose

SLSCB Agenda Item: 10. Date: 19 May 2016 Subject: Early help Operating Model. Purpose Date: 19 May 2016 Subject: Early help Operating Model SLSCB Agenda Item: 10 Purpose 1. This report sets out a proposed new approach to early help in Stockton. 2. A range of reports have been presented

More information

Hartlepool & Stockton on Tees LSCBs Joint Training & Development Group

Hartlepool & Stockton on Tees LSCBs Joint Training & Development Group Hartlepool & Stockton on Tees LSCBs Joint Training & Development Group Multi Agency Training Strategy 2016 / 2018 Agreed by: Hartlepool LSCB Stockton-on-Tees LSCB Date 26.07.16 Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...

More information

Achievement for All: Characteristics of effective inclusive leadership a discussion document

Achievement for All: Characteristics of effective inclusive leadership a discussion document The National College for Leadership of Schools and Children s Services is committed to excellence and dedicated to inclusiveness. We exist to develop and inspire great leaders of schools, early years settings

More information

The Standard for Residential Child Care in Scotland. January 2013

The Standard for Residential Child Care in Scotland. January 2013 10 The Standard for Residential Child Care in Scotland January 2013 Part one: Guidelines for programmes leading to a degree level award in Residential Child Care in Scotland 1 Purpose of these guidelines

More information

Right to Read Campaign. Supporting Literacy in the Local Authority

Right to Read Campaign. Supporting Literacy in the Local Authority Right to Read Campaign Supporting Literacy in the Local Authority Department of the Environment, Community and Local Government 2014 ISBN: 978-0-9927947-2-9 Right to Read Campaign Supporting Literacy in

More information

TOOL D14 Monitoring and evaluation: a framework

TOOL D14 Monitoring and evaluation: a framework TOOL D14 Monitoring and evaluation: a framework 159 TOOL D14 Monitoring and evaluation: a framework TOOL D14 For: About: Purpose: Use: Resource: Commissioners in primary care trusts (PCTs) and local authorities

More information

PUBLIC HEALTH LIMITED OPEN CALL SCHEME (LOCS) PHA202 RESEARCH BRIEFING

PUBLIC HEALTH LIMITED OPEN CALL SCHEME (LOCS) PHA202 RESEARCH BRIEFING Introduction PUBLIC HEALTH LIMITED OPEN CALL SCHEME (LOCS) PHA202 RESEARCH BRIEFING Following publication of its new national health research strategy Best Research for Best Health (DH 2006a), the Department

More information

Speech by. Jan O Sullivan, T.D. Minister for Education and Skills. at the. Start Strong Conference. Royal College of Physicians

Speech by. Jan O Sullivan, T.D. Minister for Education and Skills. at the. Start Strong Conference. Royal College of Physicians Speech by Jan O Sullivan, T.D. Minister for Education and Skills at the Start Strong Conference Wednesday 3 rd December 2014 Royal College of Physicians Introduction / Importance of Early Years Thanks

More information

Success for every learner. Special education working group report

Success for every learner. Special education working group report Success for every learner Special education working group report May 2015 1 2 Success for every learner Making education inclusive improves outcomes for all children and young people 1 Inclusive education

More information

Board of Member States ERN implementation strategies

Board of Member States ERN implementation strategies Board of Member States ERN implementation strategies January 2016 As a result of discussions at the Board of Member States (BoMS) meeting in Lisbon on 7 October 2015, the BoMS set up a Strategy Working

More information

Aylesbury College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy

Aylesbury College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy Aylesbury College Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy 2013-14 Responsible Officer: Vice Principal Learning and Quality Date Reviewed: August 2013 Next Review date: August 2014 Procedure available:

More information

Together Towards Improvement

Together Towards Improvement Department of Education Together Towards Improvement A Process for Self-Evaluation Pre-School CONTENTS Page Foreword by Chief Inspector, Mr Stanley Goudie Terms used in this Document 1-2 3 1. Introduction

More information

Early Childhood Education Study

Early Childhood Education Study Early Childhood Education Study Sarah Maughan and Caroline Sharp National Foundation for Educational Research IEA General Assembly October 2012 Study team National Foundation for Educational Research (parent

More information

This is Barnardos Children s Budget 2007

This is Barnardos Children s Budget 2007 This is Barnardos Children s Budget 2007 Barnardos is putting forward a Children s Budget for 2007. This budget submission prioritises the key factors that determine the quality of children s lives - household

More information

DRAFT National Medical Card Unit Strategic Plan

DRAFT National Medical Card Unit Strategic Plan DRAFT National Medical Card Unit Strategic Plan 2016-2018 1 Contents Acknowledgement 3 Foreword 4 1. Introduction and Background 5 2. Strategic Context 6 3. Vision and Mission 9 4. Goals and Strategic

More information

BIRTH THROUGH AGE EIGHT STATE POLICY FRAMEWORK

BIRTH THROUGH AGE EIGHT STATE POLICY FRAMEWORK BIRTH THROUGH AGE EIGHT STATE POLICY FRAMEWORK The Birth Through Eight State Policy Framework is a tool, or roadmap, that anyone can use to guide policy in ways that will improve the health, learning,

More information

How good is our school?

How good is our school? How good is our school? 4th EDITION LOOKING INWARDS: knowing ourselves inside out through effective self-evaluation LOOKING FORWARDS: exploring what the future might hold for today s learners and planning

More information

2. To increase participation levels in competitive sport and healthy activity of pupils, and maintain these into adolescence.

2. To increase participation levels in competitive sport and healthy activity of pupils, and maintain these into adolescence. The Use of Sports Coaches in Schools The introduction of the Primary PE and Sport Premium by the department for Education last year provides a wonderful opportunity to create a step change in the wellbeing

More information

LONDON SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. Programme Specifications for the. Cardiff Metropolitan University. MSc in International Hospitality Management

LONDON SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. Programme Specifications for the. Cardiff Metropolitan University. MSc in International Hospitality Management LONDON SCHOOL OF COMMERCE Programme Specifications for the Cardiff Metropolitan University MSc in International Hospitality Management 1 Contents Programme Aims and Objectives 3 Programme Learning Outcomes

More information

Principal Job Description

Principal Job Description Anfield School Anfield International Kindergarten Anfield International Kindergarten & Nursery Principal Job Description RESPONSIBLE TO: The School Board INTRODUCTION: This job description is based on

More information

A Health and Wellbeing Strategy for Bexley Listening to you, working for you

A Health and Wellbeing Strategy for Bexley Listening to you, working for you A Health and Wellbeing Strategy for Bexley Listening to you, working for you www.bexley.gov.uk Introduction FOREWORD Health and wellbeing is everybody s business, and our joint aim is to improve the health

More information

Careers and the world of work: roles and responsibilities

Careers and the world of work: roles and responsibilities Careers and the world of work: roles and responsibilities Careers and the world of work: roles and responsibilities Audience Headteachers, principals, governing bodies, management committees, careers and

More information

Getting it right for every child: Where are we now?

Getting it right for every child: Where are we now? Getting it right for every child: Where are we now? A report on the readiness of the education system to fully implement Getting it right for every child Contents Page Introduction 1 Where are we now with

More information

Helping children get the care experience they need. Independent advocacy for children and young people in care

Helping children get the care experience they need. Independent advocacy for children and young people in care Helping children get the care experience they need Independent advocacy for children and young people in care May 2016 Introduction Professionals are often required to make lifechanging decisions for children

More information

Early Years as Preparation for Life: Lessons from research. Edward Melhuish University of London & University of Oxford.

Early Years as Preparation for Life: Lessons from research. Edward Melhuish University of London & University of Oxford. Early Years as Preparation for Life: Lessons from research Edward Melhuish University of London & University of Oxford e.melhuish@bbk.ac.uk Nordic Day, 2012 Social & economic context By 2050 the EU working

More information

Officer Information Pack for the Implementation of the New. Childcare Programme for Community Employment

Officer Information Pack for the Implementation of the New. Childcare Programme for Community Employment Officer Information Pack for the Implementation of the New Childcare Programme for Community Employment 11 April 2014 Table of Contents 1. The Department of Social Protection s Childcare Programme for

More information

Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence. Strategic Vision Key Principles

Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence. Strategic Vision Key Principles Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence Strategic Vision Key Principles Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence Strategic Vision and Key Principles Cabinet Secretary s Foreword Curriculum for Excellence

More information

CORPORATE MANAGEMENT PLAN

CORPORATE MANAGEMENT PLAN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION Keeping a clear focus When Belfast Trust was established in 2007, five key corporate objectives were agreed. Everything we do on behalf of the people we serve is

More information

Programme Specification and Curriculum Map for BA (Hons) Social Work

Programme Specification and Curriculum Map for BA (Hons) Social Work Programme Specification and Curriculum Map for BA (Hons) Social Work 1. Awarding institution Middlesex University 2. Teaching institution Middlesex University 3. Programme accredited by The General Social

More information

Resources for Promoting Well-Being in Primary Schools

Resources for Promoting Well-Being in Primary Schools Resources for Promoting Well-Being in Primary Schools 1 Contents: 1. Social Personal and Health Education Curriculum 3 2. DES Programmes which support implementation of the SPHE curriculum 4 Stay Safe

More information

GLASGOW KELVIN COLLEGE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT STRATEGY

GLASGOW KELVIN COLLEGE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT STRATEGY GLASGOW KELVIN COLLEGE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT STRATEGY 2014-15 1. Introduction Glasgow Kelvin College strives to provide learning which is inclusive, respects learners, is

More information

A Foundation Apprenticeship in Social Services and Healthcare at SCQF level 6

A Foundation Apprenticeship in Social Services and Healthcare at SCQF level 6 A Foundation Apprenticeship in Social Services and Healthcare at SCQF level 6 This document provides you with information you will require to deliver a Foundation Apprenticeship in Social Services and

More information

JOINT DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH JOB DESCRIPTION

JOINT DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH JOB DESCRIPTION JOINT DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH JOB DESCRIPTION Employing organisation: London Borough Waltham Forest Grade/Salary: 88-98,000 (permanent). Interim Daily Rate 910. Responsible to: Deputy Chief Executive

More information