1 Serena Wadhwa, Psy.D., LCPC, CADC Governors State University
2 What is Addiction?
3 What is Addiction? Substance dependence: Physiological changes and biology Cognitive patterns Behavioral patterns Environmental influences A bio-psycho-social/cultural-spiritual dis-ease
4 DSM IV-TR Substance Abuse Criteria 1. Recurrent use results in failure to fulfill major role obligations (work, school, parenting, etc.); 2. Recurrent use in situations in which is it physically hazardous; 3. Recurrent substance related legal problems 4. Continued use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems Any one in a 12 month period of time can meet criteria for abuse Adapted from the DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
5 DSM-IV-TR Substance Dependence Criteria 1. Tolerance 2. Withdrawal 3. Substance taken in larger amounts or over a longer period of time than intended 4. Unsuccessful attempts to reduce or quit 5. Time spent in activities relating to the substance 6. Important activities are given up or reduced 7. Continued use despite knowledge of the substance use exacerbating or causing a problem Three or more of these in a 12 month period of time Adapted from the DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
6 Specifiers With or without physiologic dependence Subtypes: Full Early partial Sustained Sustained partial Includes indication if the environment is controlled or receiving agonist therapy Adapted from the DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
7 Continuum Substance use needs to be viewed on a continuum Non-problematic use problematic use Where various factors are considered: Family/Peers/Relationships Vocation/Education Health Etc.
8 Causes of Addiction American Medical Association: Chronic, Treatable Disease Progressive Chronic Fatal Treatable Primary Preoccupational
9 Causes of Addiction Addiction as a socially learned coping skill Vicarious learning Environment May include cultural and/or spiritual aspects Cognitive distortions Over learned and or stereotypic cognitive response patterns
10 Brain Disease Causes of Addiction Drugs are more intense than the neurotransmitter they mimic Neurotransmitters control pleasure, pain, emotions, physiological needs When drugs are used over a period of time, the neurotransmitter is no longer made naturally, thus making withdrawal significant when using stops.
11 Causes of Addiction Psychological Low self esteem Lack of maturity Negative affect Impulsiveness Rebelliousness External locus of control Inadequate coping skills Cognitive distortions Over learned and or stereotypic cognitive response patterns
12 Recovery What is recovery? A process of change through which an individual Achieves abstinence and improved health, wellness and quality of life. National Summit on Recovery, 2005
13 Statistics 1) Over 50% of those completing treatment will relapse in the first year 2) The first thirty to ninety days following discharge is the window of greatest vulnerability of relapse after treatment. 3) Between percent of people who complete addiction treatment will be readmitted to treatment within one year, and 50 percent will be readmitted with in five years. 4) Unfortunately most people with Substance abuse, and Alcohol Problems do not seek help through mutual aid or Professional treatment. (Kessler, 1994; Cunningham, 1999; Cunningham & Breslin, 2004)
14 Statistics 5) Recovery is not fully stabilized until 4-5 years of sustained recovery (at this point, risk of life time relapse drops below 15 percent). 6) Relapse following addiction treatment produce higher death rates from accidental poisoning/overdose, AIDS, suicide, homicide, cardiovascular, and liver disease. 7) Without a Recovery Coach 3 out of 4 people relapse in the first year. With a Recovery Coach 3 out of 4 STAY in recovery. (This statistic is based on a pilot study on Recovery Coaching that was done by Hazelden) More and more treatment centers now recommend their clients to have a Recovery Coach before they leave treatment.
15 Recovery Guiding Principles of Recovery There are many pathways to recovery. Paths to recovery are as individualized as people are. Recovery for some individuals may not involve treatment. Recovery is a change process that leads an individual to make healthy choices and improve the quality of his or her life. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
16 Recovery Recovery is self-directed and empowering. The person in recovery has the ability to make choices and decisions based on personal wants, needs, desires, and goals. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
17 Recovery Recovery involves a personal recognition of the need for change and transformation. Acceptance that use is problematic and that change is necessary. Motivation for this recognition and implementing change is a necessary element for this process. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
18 Recovery Recovery is holistic. It involves achieving balance at integrating the mind, body, spirit and environmental factors in relation to each other. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
19 Recovery Recovery has cultural dimensions Treatment providers need to develop awareness, knowledge and skills appropriate to their clients cultures. Without cultural competence, there are challenges in compliance, premature termination, inaccurate screenings or care, misunderstandings, lack of access to care NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
20 Recovery Recovery exists on a continuum of improved health and wellness Recovery is not a linear process. There are ebbs and flows. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
21 Recovery Recovery emerges from hope and gratitude Seeing where others are or have been provides hope and encouragement. There is evidence that people can move through obstacles and find opportunities. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
22 Recovery Recovery involves a process of healing and self redefinition There is meaning and benefits in recovery that help individuals NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
23 Recovery Recovery involves addressing discrimination and transcending shame and stigma Recovery involves advocating for oneself and others NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
24 Recovery Recovery is supported by peers and allies These include peers, family members and others that provide a supportive network. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
25 Recovery Recovery involves (re)joining and (re)building a life in the community A claim to normalcy NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
26 Recovery Recovery is a reality Recovery support services are non-clinical services that assist in removing barriers, providing resources and support through the process. NFATTC, October 2007 Newsletter
27 Recovery Pathways 12-step recovery Secular recovery No Higher Power recovery: (Rational Recovery) Quantum change. Overnight transformation. I felt the presence of God, and I no longer had the urge to use drugs. Religious recovery. Faith-based drug ministries Shifting allegiance. Moving from one style of recovery to another. Many African American women begin their recovery in traditional 12-step meetings, and by the fifth year of their recovery, often shift from 12-step group attendance to church attendance (Project Safe research).
28 Recovery Pathways Partial recovery. Giving up all drugs except one. Occasional use. Going from daily use to occasional use. Medication assisted. Methadone maintenance, buphenorphine. Cultural pathways. Native American Welbriety Movement, Nation of Islam. Disengaged style. Totally discontinuing involvement in a mutual aid group.
29 Recovery Pathways Total Abstinence (AMA/AA/Majority of treatment centers define recovery as completely abstaining from all illicit (and licit) substances and alcohol. Some also include prescription medication). Temporary drug substitution. With this style of recovery, the client substitutes a drug such as marijuana or alcohol for other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, etc. The client s goal is to use the substituted drug for a time frame in order to wean off the original drug. Virtual recovery. 70% of those recovering online are women. The Hazelden Foundation provides text-message-based recovery support for adolescents leaving treatment. Telephonic recovery support. In Connecticut, Phil Valentine has organized 150 recovering volunteers to provide telephonic recovery support for 90 days following discharge from residential treatment. Research reveals that 80% of individuals enrolled in this program remain sober at the 90-day period (Source: ATTC Monograph, How Visionary Leaders are Shaping Addictions Treatment). Treatment-assisted recovery
30 Recovery Pathways Harm reduction. Reducing the harm connected to the substance use. This approach also includes the following: Any positive Change Use of a less harmful substance instead Reduced Use Controlled Use Psychopharmacological treatments Abstinence Gender pathways. (Women for Sobriety)
31 Recovery To live a sober lifestyle, a person may need to change aspects of their life including: Hobbies/Leisure/Fun Friendships Occupation Religious practices Relationships Certain routines Values
32 Recovery Oriented Systems of What are these? Guiding principles Elements of these systems Care hitepaper.pdf
33 Resources Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2007) National Summit on Recovery: Conference Report. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Tilly, J & Wiener, J (2000). Consumer-Directed Home and Community Services Programs in Eight States: Policy Issues for Older People and Government. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Tilly, J & Wiener, J (2001). Consumer-Directed Home and Community Services: Policy Issues. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. McMillen, C, et al (2001). Positive By-Products of the Struggle With Chemical Dependency. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Vol. 20, pages Perlick, DA (2001). Special Section On Stigma As A Barrier To Recovery: Introduction. Psychiatric Services, Vol. 52, pages Jason, AL et al (2001). Oxford House: A Review Of Research And Implications For Substance Abuse Recovery And Community Research. Journal of Drug Education, Vol. 31, pages Northwest Frontier Addiction Technology Transfer CenterOCTOBER 2007 VOLUME 10, ISSUE 10
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