SOUTH SHORE CLEAN CITIES. Natural Gas Vehicles Overview. Carl Lisek. October 8, 2014

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1 SOUTH SHORE CLEAN CITIES Natural Gas Vehicles Overview October 8, 2014 Carl Lisek Executive Director Clean Cities / 1

2 Agenda Natural Gas Basics Vehicles Infrastructure Getting Started Additional Resources Clean Cities / 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Image Gallery #14922 & #23854

3 Basics: What is Natural Gas? Mixture of hydrocarbons, predominantly methane (CH 4 ) Conventional Natural Gas Extracted from gas and oil wells domestically Uses existing pipeline distribution system Renewable Natural Gas Produced from decomposing organic matter, including sewage, animal byproducts, and agricultural, industrial, and municipal solid waste Biogas already being produced is upgraded to a purity standard Images: U.S. Department of Energy, Producing Natural Gas From Shale, NREL Image Gallery #06331 Clean Cities / 3

4 Basics: Benefits and Considerations Benefits Abundant domestic resource High octane rating Nontoxic, noncorrosive, and noncarcinogenic Lower emissions Low and consistent fuel prices Proven and established Considerations Reduced driving range on dedicated vehicles Incremental vehicle or conversion costs Infrastructure availability and costs Image: NREL Image Gallery #28003 Clean Cities / 4

5 Basics: CNG and LNG Compressed Natural Gas Storage Applications Energy Content Stored as a gas in onboard tanks under high pressure Light-, medium-, and heavy-duty 1 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) = 5.66 pounds (lb) or cubic feet Liquefied Natural Gas Stored as a liquid at cold temperatures (-260 F) Heavy-duty 1 GGE = 1.5 gal LNG Stored in doublewall, vacuuminsulated pressure vessels Clean Cities / 5

6 Quadrillion Btu 2012 Dollars per Million Btu Basics: Supply and Price Projections Natural Gas U.S. Production Projections Transportation Fuel Price Projections Motor Gasoline (sales-weighted average, all grades) Diesel Fuel Natural Gas Clean Cities / 6

7 Vehicles: OEMs versus Conversions Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Prepped Vehicles Aftermarket Conversions More OEM models becoming available Aftermarket conversions provide additional options Clean Cities / 7 Must meet federal and state requirements, and be installed by a qualified system retrofitter (QSR) in accordance with National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 52 Vehicles with factory-installed engine prep packages are converted by a qualified vehicle modifier (QVM) before delivery to the customer

8 Vehicles: Categories Category Fuel Benefits Dedicated Natural gas Better performance Lower emissions Increased cargo capacity Bi-fuel Dual-fuel Natural gas or gasoline Natural gas and diesel (for ignition assistance) Fueling flexibility Typically conversions Clean Cities / 8

9 Vehicles: How Do They Work? Fuel Injection System Regulator Gas Fill Valve Tanks Natural Gas Solenoid Valve High- Pressure Fuel Line Master Manual Shut- Off Valve Adapted from Compressed Natural Gas: A Suite of Tutorials. Courtesy of Thomason & Associates, Inc. Clean Cities / 9

10 Vehicles: Applications Light-Duty Passenger cars and light-duty trucks in private and government fleets Personal vehicles Medium-Duty Vans and shuttles Airports and taxi fleets Heavy-Duty Refuse haulers Transit buses School buses Long-haul trucks Street sweepers Snowplows Short-haul delivery trucks Images: NREL Image Gallery #18285, #07351, #17174 Clean Cities / 10

11 Vehicles: Where to Find Available Models? Clean Cities / 11

12 Vehicles: CNG Tanks and Safety Helpful Resource: When properly operated and maintained, natural gas infrastructure and vehicles are unlikely to present any danger to the driver of the vehicle. NFPA 52, the Vehicular Gaseous Fuel Systems Code, spells out specific safety requirements for natural gas vehicles (NGVs) and their fueling facilities. Images: NREL Image Gallery #18210, #00089, #03755 Clean Cities / 12

13 Case Study #1: South Bend Transpo Invests in CNG Buses Replacing 16 of their 60 buses with a transit-style bus with a CNG engine. Also converted three Type A buses to CNG $3.6 million in grant funding for the buses, a fueling station, a mobile refueler, and maintenance facility modifications Just the Numbers CNG School Buses: 50 Fuel Cost Savings: $20,000 to $30,000 per month Petroleum Displacement: 15,000 gallons of diesel fuel per month Clean Cities / 13 Our primary motivation for doing this was fuel costs. They're high, and getting higher, and we're facing budget cuts. Also, CNG is a clean fuel and benefits the environment. ~ George Taylor, Director of Transportation Image and More Information: AFDC Case Study Search, Kansas City Kansas Public Schools Invests in CNG Buses,

14 Case Study #2: Groot Industries Shows Natural Gas Refuse Truck Benefits Independent solid waste management company services 250,000 customers Committed to natural gas due to emissions and noise benefits Purchased refuse trucks with the Cummins ISL-G CNG engine Funded by American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the State of Illinois Just the Numbers CNG Refuse Trucks: 20 Fuel Cost Savings: 40% Simple Payback: 3 to 6.2 years (depending on fuel, vehicle, and infrastructure cost) Clean Cities / 14 Image and More Information: Argonne National Laboratory, Case Study Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets,

15 Case Study #3: LNG Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento Replaced 113 side- and rear-loader refuse haulers with LNG Partners: Sacramento Clean Cities, local air district, local fleets, and vehicle and engine manufacturers Reductions in life cycle GHG emissions, maintenance costs, and noise It has never been easier to migrate to NGVs. The network of natural gas fueling stations and the natural gas engine offerings are currently experiencing tremendous growth. ~ Keith Leech, Fleet Manager Just the Numbers LNG Refuse Haulers: 113 LNG Fuel Use: 1 million gallons per year GHG Reductions: 1,900 tons per year (11%) Image and More Information: AFDC Case Study Search, LNG Allows for Cleaner Refuse Collection in Sacramento, Clean Cities / 15

16 Infrastructure: Natural Gas Station Availability CNG and LNG Station Growth Over Time CNG LNG Clean Cities / 16 Source: AFDC Station Locator, May 2014; includes public and private stations

17 Infrastructure: Types Existing, Offsite, Public Access Operated by retailer, utility, or other fleet Fleet may be an anchor fleet or part of a pool of multiple fleets New, Onsite, Private Access Exclusive use by your fleet Fast-fill and/or time-fill New, Onsite, Public Access Built outside of restricted areas Benefit from economy of scale Promotes public use of NGVs Must have fast-fill capabilities for public Helpful Resource: The VICE 2.0: Vehicles and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation Model allows fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their vehicles to run on CNG, including the cost of building a new station. Image: NREL Image Gallery #28496 Clean Cities / 17

18 Infrastructure: Station Ownership and Operation Station Operation Fleet Independent Provider Station Ownership Fleet Independent Provider Fleet owns and operates station Fleet works with vendors on station development Fleet owns the station, but relies on experienced operator Outside development, ownership, and operation Reduces fleet risk Usually a 5-7 year contract Fleet provides demand threshold Long-term price agreement Public access possible Clean Cities / 18

19 Infrastructure: CNG Fueling Good for centrally-based fleets with consistent schedules CNG is dispensed slowly, often overnight Lower cost investment Fueling takes place in minutes Necessary for public-access stations Good for vehicles with little downtime Helpful Resource: AFDC ANIMATION PLACEHOLDER Clean Cities / 19 Images and More Information: AFDC CNG Fueling Stations,

20 Infrastructure: LNG Fueling Containerized: Turn-key solution with standard storage tank, dispensing, metering, and containment equipment Customized: Larger storage tanks, multiple dispensers, other customization Mobile: Tanker truck with metering and dispensing equipment * L/CNG stations convert LNG to CNG on site and allow for CNG or LNG fueling Images and More Information: AFDC Natural Gas Fueling Infrastructure Development, Clean Cities / 20

21 Other Considerations: Return on Investment Tools Clean Cities / 21 afdc.energy.gov/tools

22 Other Considerations: Maintenance Facility Modifications Facility modifications may be necessary NFPA codes and international codes exist; local authorities determine which apply The following must be evaluated: Ventilation system Heating system Lighting system Electrical system Mechanical system Building envelope Internal structure Helpful Resources: The Clean Vehicle Education Foundation s Guideline for Determining Modifications Required for Adding CNG and LNG Vehicles to Existing Maintenance Facilities and Natural Gas Vehicle Institute s Facilities Modification for Natural Gas Vehicles provide a comprehensive overview of codes and standards for maintenance facilities, as well as additional information about evaluations and modifications. Clean Cities / 22

23 Getting Started: Questions to Ask Based on my fleet inventory and replacement schedule, what is the vehicle replacement potential? What vehicle, equipment, and station development vendors exist? Are there fueling stations in my area? Are they public or private? Can I visit? What support can my local Clean Cities coalition provide? How many vehicles will be fueled each day? How much fuel will each vehicle need? When and how often will vehicles need to be fueled? What are the maintenance facility and fueling infrastructure site development requirements? What federal, state, and local incentives are available? Helpful Resource: The AFDC Laws and Incentives Search provides information about available state and federal incentives for NGVs and infrastructure. Image: NREL Image Gallery #28005 Clean Cities / 23

24 More Information Carl Lisek Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) afdc.energy.gov Natural Gas Vehicles for America ngvamerica.org Clean Cities / 24

25 Upcoming Dates and Events 10/8 - Green Commuter Radio Show with Karen Edwards from the United Soybean Board and Jim Evanoff from Yellowstone National 12:05 p.m. CT 10/14 - Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission (NIRPC) 2040 Comprehensive Regional Plan - Public 5:30 pm -7:30 pm, Portage City Hall 10/15 - NIRPC s 2040, 2-4 pm, Valparaiso City Hall 10/16 - NIRPC s 2040, 5-7 pm, Michigan City Hall 10/17 - National Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Day Odyssey 10/22 - Green Commuter Radio Show with David Cangany from South Bend 12:05 pm. CT 10/29 - Green Fleet Conference and Expo 11/5 - Green Commuter Radio Show with Jack and Steve from NIRPC 11/19 - Green Commuter Radio Show 12/9 - Wisconsin Clean Cities Annual Meeting & Smart Fleet Banquet Clean Cities / 25

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