CS 91: Cloud Systems & Datacenter Networks Networks Background

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1 CS 91: Cloud Systems & Datacenter Networks Networks Background

2 Walrus / Bucket

3 Agenda Overview of tradibonal network topologies IntroducBon to soeware- defined networks Layering and terminology

4 Topology Shape and structure of the network Bus Star or Hub and spoke

5 Topology Shape and structure of the network Most common in datacenter. Why? Tree

6 Growth Star or Hub and spoke

7 Growth Tree

8 TradiBonal Datacenter Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

9 TradiBonal Datacenter AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

10 TradiBonal Datacenter Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

11 Recall: OversubscripBon Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

12 OversubscripBon All hosts connected to same switch. Full speed between all of them. (1:1) (e.g., 1 Gbps) Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

13 OversubscripBon If these links are also 1 Gbps, we now have 1/40 th of link capacity for each host. (40:1) Core What might we do to help alleviate this? AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

14 OversubscripBon 10 Gbps gives us a rabo of 4:1. Good enough? Core Highlighted sub- secbon might be OK if: ApplicaBon has good locality VMs assigned intelligently AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

15 OversubscripBon SBll problemabc. Can t increase speed forever. Might wants hosts to have 10 Gbps too! Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

16 OversubscripBon What else can we do to give our network more capacity? Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

17 Redundancy (MulB- rooted Tree) Pro: More capacity! Con: Decision must be made (complexity, reordering) Core AggregaBon Edge 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

18 Redundancy (MulB- rooted Tree) Pro: More capacity! Con: Decision must be made (complexity, reordering) Core? AggregaBon Edge Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers 40 Servers

19 Equal- Cost MulB Path (ECMP) If there s a decision to be made, hash packet? All packets of flow (conversabon) use same path Hash collisions lead to poor ublizabon

20 Paper Preview A Scalable, Commodity Data Center Network Architecture AlternaBve tree redundant tree topology design Hedera: Dynamic Flow Scheduling for Data Center Networks Use live traffic informabon to decide path choice AugmenBng Data Center Networks with MulB- Gigabit Wireless Links

21 Network Hardware Tradi&onal Hardware SDN Hardware You Can t read this, it s too small! Seriously, stop trying to read this, more important things are happening elsewhere! You Can t read this, it s too small! Seriously, stop trying to read this, more important things are happening elsewhere! LeE Right You Can t read this, it s too small! Seriously, stop trying to read this, more important things are happening elsewhere! This sounds great, why mess with a good thing? Datacenter operator might want more control

22 SoEware- Defined Networking (SDN) Tradi&onal Hardware SDN Hardware Mbps Mbps You Can t read this, You it s Can t read this, it s too small! Seriously, too small! Seriously, stop trying to read this, stop trying to read this, more important things more important things are happening are happening elsewhere! elsewhere! Controller

23 Centralized Network Control Not so great on the Internet Failures common Long distances Who would be in charge? Powerful in controlled environment Can express and enforce fine- grained policies

24 Centralized Network Control Treat device as a blank forwarding table. Protocol Src Dst Src_Pt Dst_Pt Output TCP

25 Centralized Network Control Table built from TCAM memory. Protocol Src Dst Src_Pt Dst_Pt Output TCP * * * 2 Wildcard / don t care enbres allowed.

26 Centralized Network Control Table built from TCAM memory. Protocol Src Dst Src_Pt Dst_Pt Output TCP * * * 2 Every row checked in parallel.

27 Paper (& Lab) Preview Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise OpenFlow: Enabling InnovaBon in Campus Networks Extending Networking into the VirtualizaBon Layer Lab: Using SDN (OpenFlow) to implement mulb- path roubng in simulated network

28 Layering Primary network abstracbon: stack of layers Each layer has disbnct responsibilibes Each layer could be replace independently

29 OSI Seven- Layer Model ApplicaBon: the applicabon (e.g., the Web, ) PresentaBon: formanng, encoding, encrypbon Session: sockets, remote procedure call Transport: end- to- end connecbons, reliability Network: roubng Link (data- link): framing, error detecbon Physical: 1 s and 0 s/bits across a medium (copper, the air, fiber)

30 OSI Seven- Layer Model Layer 7 ApplicaBon: the applicabon (e.g., the Web, ) Transport: TCP / UDP Layer 3 Layer 2 Network: IP Link (data- link): Ethernet Physical: Wires

31 Header EncapsulaBon ApplicaBon Data Transport: TCP (payload) Network: IP (payload) Link: Ethernet (payload) This whole chunk of bytes is what goes out on the wire.

32 Header EncapsulaBon Adds reliability informabon. Adds port numbers to disbnguish between apps. Transport: TCP ApplicaBon Data (payload) Network: IP (payload) Link: Ethernet (payload) This whole chunk of bytes is what goes out on the wire.

33 Header EncapsulaBon Adds addresses. Network: IP address Link: MAC address Transport: TCP ApplicaBon Data (payload) Network: IP (payload) Link: Ethernet (payload) This whole chunk of bytes is what goes out on the wire.

34 Addressing Layer 3 / Network / IP addresses: Hierarchical roubng The numerical values say something about the locabon of the node in the network Layer 2 / Data Link / MAC addresses: Just a flat, unique idenbfier Plug- and- play behavior, no locabon info

35 Middlebox (Usually) transparent device that looks at traffic passing through, somebmes modifies it Examples: Firewall: Look at traffic headers. If the wrong machines are communicabng, block it. Load balancer, intrusion detecbon, many more

36 Other terms Please post on Piazza or ask in class if you come across other terms that aren t clear!

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