TURKISH LIGNITE SECTOR and RESTRUCTURING of TKI

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1 TURKISH LIGNITE SECTOR and RESTRUCTURING of TKI Mücella ERSOY Turkish Coal Enterprises 7 th Session of Ad Hoc Meeting of Experts on Coal in Sustainable Development 7-8 December 2004, Geneva

2 CONTENT General Overview of Turkish Lignite Sector Brief History of Restucturing of Coal Sector Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Additional Indicators Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Conclusion

3 TURKISH ENERGY SECTOR- Position of Lignite General Energy Consumption in Turkey (x1000 TEP) Others Hydraulic N.Gas Oil Asphaltite Lignite Hardcoal in MTEP Lignite : 12% Hardcoal: 13% (12.5% of 13% imported Hardcoal)

4 TURKISH ENERGY SECTOR- Position of Lignite (x1000 TEP) Primary Energy Production in Turkey Others Hydraulic N.Gas Oil Asphaltite Lignite Hardcoal in MTEP Lignite: 42% Hardcoal: 4%

5 Lignite Reserves 2 Bt (Private Sect) 2,5 Bt (TKI) Turkey: Total lignite reserve: 9.3 Billion ton TKI: 27% 4,8 Bt (EUAS) Exploration campaign in 2005

6 TURKISH LIGNITE SECTOR- Lignite Quality Kcal/kg %5,1 %3, Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Kcal/kg Low Quality 68% : Kcal/kg %23,5 >4000 Kcal/kg %56 %12

7 TURKISH LIGNITE SECTOR- Lignite Production( ) (x1000 ton) State% Private% Imported lignite: negligible in amount

8 TURKISH ENERGY SECTOR- Position of Lignite Consumption of the Lignites by the Sectors in 2003 Household 9% Consumption of lignite mainly for electricity generation Industry 15% Power 76% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% In total electricity generation Share of domestic lignite in 2003 : 17% Share of Lignite in Total Electricity Generation

9 Lignite Projects Realized by TKI to Feed Power Plants Project Name Afsin-Elbistan A Ankara-Cayirhan Sivas-Kangal Bursa-Orhaneli Canakkale-Can Kütahya-Seyitomer Kutahya- Tuncbilek Manisa-Soma Mugla-Husamlar Mugla-Milas-Sekkoy Consumption Capacity(x1000 t/y) Installed Capacity (MW) Mugla-Yatagan+Tınaz TOTAL Source: ENERGY/GE.1/2001/4 6705

10 Lignite Projects to Feed Power Plants Elbistan- B Power Plant having 4x360 MW electricity generation capacity will start operation total installed capacity will be (lignite fired) 8,145 MW

11 Lignite Fields Suitable for Electricity Generation in the Future Project name Reserve (1000 tonnes) Lignite Consumption Capacity (t/y) Installed Capacity (MW) TKI Adana-Tufanbeyli 214,000 7, Bingol-Karliova 26,000 1, Bolu-Goynuk 39,000 1, Bursa-Keles-Davutlar 67,000 1, Cankiri- Orta 51,000 1, Şırnak-Silopi (leased) 50, Tekirdag-Saray 129,000 2, Kütahya- Derin Sahalar 100,000 2, Manisa-Eynez 100,000 3, TOTAL 776,000 20,

12 Lignite Fields Suitable for Electricity Generation in the Future Project name Reserve (1000 tonnes) Lignite Consumption Cap.(1000 t/y) Installed Capacity (MW) EUAS Cayirhan ,000 2, Elbistan 2,818,000 86,400 6,650 TOTAL 2,893,000 88,900 6,970 Private Sector Adana-Tufanbeyli n.a. n.a. 320 Konya-Ilgin 152,000 3, Adiyaman-Golbasi 49,000 1, TOTAL 201,000 4, General TOTAL 3,870, ,265 10,325

13 Projected Coal Demand (x1000 ton) Hard coal Lignite

14 Environmental measures All coal-fired power plants: ESP 6 of power plants: FGD Plants Advanced & environmental friendly tech: like Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion tech. (Çan Power Plant)

15 Environmental measures for Household and Industry 10 million tons/year washing capacity for usage of industry and household sectors 3 more Washing Plants will be in operation in 2005 Coal washing capacity will reach 18 million tons/year. Rehabilitation studies for 2 Washing Plants Lignite packaging plants Compulsory for supplying coal to household sector by Soma briquetting plant(in operation)

16 CONTENT General Overview of Turkish Lignite Sector Brief History of Restucturing of Coal Sector Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Additional Indicators Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Conclusion

17 1957 TKI Lignite + Hardcoal production 1983 TTK Hardcoal production TKI Lignite production Sivas-Kangal Dep.+ Afşin-Elbistan Dep.+ Ankara-Çayırhan Dep. EÜAŞ Electricity Generation & Lignite production Sivas-Kangal Deposit Ankara-Çayırhan Deposit & Çayırhan Power Plant Afşin-Elbistan Deposit & Elbistan A Power Station Private Sector- Lignite Production Private Sector- Lign. Prod. & Elect.gen. EÜAŞ Lign. Prod. & Elect.gen.

18 ESTABLISHMENTS OF TURKISH COAL ENTERPRISES Müessese SARAY Saray İşletme Kontr ol Müdür lüğü TEKİRDAĞ ÇANAKKALE Çan BOLU Göynük BURSA BAKMd Keles Orhaneli Tavşanlı ELİ GLİ SLİ Seyitömer KÜTAHYA Soma TKİ ANKARA Dodurga DAKMd ÇORUM Aşkale Oltu MANİSA ERZURUM Ilgın Milas KONYA GELİ Yatağan MUĞLA SKMd ŞIRNAK Silopi ELİ Aegean Lignite Establishment SOMA / MANİSA Çan Lignite Production Management ÇAN / ÇANAKKALE GELİ South Aegean Lignite Establishment YATAĞAN / MUĞLA Yeniköy Lignite Production Management- MİLAS / MUĞLA GLİ West Lignite Establishment TAVŞANLI / KÜTAHYA Ilgın Lignite Production Management ILGIN / KONYA SLİ Seyitömer Lignite Establishment SEYİTÖMER / KÜTAHYA Bursa Lignites Production Management- ORHANELİ / BURSA Doğu Anatolian Control Management West Anatolian Control Management Silopi Control Management DODURGA / ÇORUM HİMMETOĞLU / BOLU SİLOPİ / ŞIRNAK

19 CONTENT Brief History of Restucturing of Coal Sector Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Additional Indicators Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Conclusion

20 Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring Coal Production Number of Mine/Pits Employees State Subsidies Productivity Growth Investment Source: ENERGY/GE.1/2001/4

21 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Coal Production of TKI ( ) (1000 tonne s ) (October) 19.9 Mt % opencast coal demand depending on natural gas usage. Elbistan Lignite deposit was given to EUAS

22 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Number of Mines ( ) (December) Opencast Underground Opencast +Underground Total Total # of the deposits...: 56 Operated by TKI...: 13 Leased to privated sector: 15 Inactive mines...: 28 Production activities of 6 mines has been stopped

23 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Number of Establishments ( ) Establishments decentralisation

24 ESTABLISHMENTS OF TURKISH COAL ENTERPRISES-2004 Müessese SARAY Saray İşletme Kontr ol Müdür lüğü TEKİRDAĞ ÇANAKKALE Çan BOLU Göynük BURSA BAKMd Keles Orhaneli Tavşanlı ELİ GLİ SLİ Seyitömer KÜTAHYA Soma TKİ ANKARA Dodurga DAKMd ÇORUM Aşkale Oltu MANİSA ERZURUM Ilgın Milas KONYA GELİ Yatağan MUĞLA SKMd ŞIRNAK Silopi ELİ Aegean Lignite Establishment SOMA / MANİSA Çan Lignite Production Management ÇAN / ÇANAKKALE GELİ South Aegean Lignite Establishment YATAĞAN / MUĞLA Yeniköy Lignite Production Management- MİLAS / MUĞLA GLİ West Lignite Establishment TAVŞANLI / KÜTAHYA Ilgın Lignite Production Management ILGIN / KONYA SLİ Seyitömer Lignite Establishment SEYİTÖMER / KÜTAHYA Bursa Lignites Production Management- ORHANELİ / BURSA Doğu Anatolian Control Management West Anatolian Control Management Silopi Control Management DODURGA / ÇORUM HİMMETOĞLU / BOLU SİLOPİ / ŞIRNAK

25 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Employee of TKI ( ) (October) Employee: WORKER Officer Size of employee has decreased 60% No new employee appointed to replace retired ones

26 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Subsidies ( ) No Subsidies

27 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Investments of TKI ( ) (Oct) 12 Million $ (M illion $) Investment (Million $) 42,46 24,97 42,09 21,83 4,15 4,62 11,70 22,63 14,83 3,70 6,85 4,67 5,82 9,17

28 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Total Changes in per cent ( ) Indicator Total Change in per cent ( ) Coal Production in million tonnes (Mt) -23,51 Number of Active Mines /Pits -36,00 of which (i) Opencast -13,33 (ii) Underground -87,50 (iii) Opencast+Underground 0,00 Number of Employees (thousands) -20,25 Level of State Subsides (1990=100) Total Productivity Growth (1990=100) none na Investment (thousands US$) 96,46 Source: ENERGY/GE.1/2001/4

29 CONTENT Brief History of Restucturing of Coal Sector Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Additional Indicators Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Conclusion

30 Additional Indicators on Labour Productivity and Investment Coal Production/employee/year Labour Productivity Investment per Produced Coal Source: ENERGY/GE.1/2001/4

31 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Lignite Production/employee/year ( ) (Oct.) 1578 ton/employee/year ton/employee/year ton/empl/year

32 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Labor Productivity ( ) 200,0 150,0 100,0 50,0 1990=100 0, Labor Productivity 100,0 108,0 125,1 120,7 143,8 125,7 139,5 157,3 170,7 175,8 196,7 179,0 183,4 172,6

33 Major Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Investment per ton ( ) ($/ton) 20,00 18,00 16,00 14,00 12,00 10,00 8,00 6,00 4,00 2,00 0, Pr. Series1 10,22 19,33 11,53 11,63 10,31 11,13 9,63 3,88 2,18 0,53 1,15 0,66 0,99 0,56 0,10 0,14 0,34 0,62 0,39 0,17 0,17 0,14 0,19 0,36 0,67

34 Additional Indicators of the Coal Industry Restructuring- Total Changes in per cent ( ) Additional Indicators Total Change in per cent Coal Production, ton/employee/year 72,60 Labor Productivity, 1990=100 72,60 Investment per Mt of Produced coal -69,01

35 CONTENT Brief History of Restucturing of Coal Sector Major Indicators of Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Additional Indicators Coal Industry Restructuring (TKI) Conclusion

36 CONCLUSION Lignite is major energy source of Turkey About 75% of produced coal is stated owned Progress in restructuring on coal industry is slow and uneven since middle of 1980s Coal sector was affected directly from uncertainties / changes in electricity sector Favoring gas-fired power stations have affected seriously to coal demand for the last 3 years and will continue to affect.

37 CONCLUSION Number of mines have decreased from 25 to 13 between the years In 2002, 6 mines which were uneconomic and in loss were closed and leased to private sector. This policy is being considered to apply for the mines already not in operation An exploration campaign will be initiated in Increase in use of domestic lignite resources are under agenda. But main concern how to realize new coal and coal related projects Investments have declined sharply. Financial resources are also needed for renew machinery and qualified person for the existing mines

38 ESTABLISHMENTS Re se rve(1000 Ton) Che mical Prope rtie s Poss. Probable Proved Ready To ta l Moi(%) Ash(%) S (%) V.M.% Cal.(Kcal/kg) TKI s Lignite Reserves GELİ Es kihis a r Tınaz , Bağyaka , Ta ş ke s ik Bayır , GELİ Turgut , Tota l Se kköy , İkiz köy YLİ Hüs a mla r , Karacahisar , Tota l To tal SLİ Seyitömer , SLİ BLİ Orhaneli Ke le s , Davutlar , Tota l To tal GLİ GLİ ILİ Tunçbilek , Ilgın , ELİ ELİ To tal Soma , De niş , Eynez , Toplam ÇLİ Çan , To tal Adana-Tufanbeyli , Konya-Beyş ehir , Çankırı-Orta , Te kirda ğ-saray , Others Bolu-Göynük , Bingöl-Karlıova , Ma rdin-s ilopi(as fa ltit) Şırnak (Asfaltit) , Other small deposits Total T K İ (Tota l)

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