Computer Network Design - 6

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Computer Network Design - 6"

Transcription

1 opyright Review of fundamentals working concepts ndrea ianco Paolo Giaccone Telecommunication Networks Group Quest opera è protetta dalla licenza reative ommons Noerivs-Nonommercial. Per vedere una copia di questa licenza, consultare oppure inviare una lettera a: reative ommons, 559 Nathan bbott Way, Stanford, alifornia 94305, US. This work is licensed under the reative ommons Noerivs-Nonommercial License. To view a copy of this license, visit: or send a letter to reative ommons, 559 Nathan bbott Way, Stanford, alifornia 94305, US. omputer Network esign - 1 omputer Network esign - 2 Review What is a (modern) telecommunication and computer work? Topologies Multipleing/multiple Switching techniques User (traffic) characterization Properties of telephone and computer works Protocol architectures for computer works Physical layer (multipleing) ata link layer (multiple ) Network layer (routing, congestion) Transport Layer (congestion) pplication Layer (client server, P2P, N, ata enter) omputer Network esign - 3 Networks Focus on modern telecommunication and computer works Telephone and Inter One possible work definition (service oriented view) Infrastructure that provides services to applications: Web, VoIP, , games, e-commerce, social s, phone calls, fa, Inter provides programming interface to apps program to connect to Inter provides service options omputer Network esign - 4 Networks nother work definition: set of nodes and channels that offer a connection among two or more points to make telecommunication possible among users (i.e. move infos (data/flows) among nodes) Represented as a topology (graph) ifferent levels of detail Key issue in works is resource sharing Node is the point where Multipleing /multiple (link sharing) and switching (node sharing) occurs Type of channels Point-to-point channel Only two nodes connected to the channel The channel is used by both nodes (often in the same fashion) Sharing the channel among flows is called multipleing omputer Network esign - 5 omputer Network esign - 6 Pag. 1

2 Type of channels roadcast channel Many T and many R Sometimes one (many) T and many (one) R Single communication channel shared by all nodes This room! The information sent by one node is received by all other nodes (with some delay) Sharing the channel among flows is called multiple hannel properties Many quality indices ttenuation, robusteness to mechanical stress, ease of installation, robusteness to interference, cost, etc, Mainly interested in bit rate [bit/s] lso named bandwidth, throughput, with slightly different meaning delay [s] propagation delay depends on the channel length andwidth delay [bit] channel size how much we can push on the channel omputer Network esign - 7 omputer Network esign - 8 Topologies in TL works The work topology is defined by the relative position of nodes and channels work topology is a graph G=(V,) V = set of vertices (represented as circles - nodes) = set of edges (represented as segments - channels) Edges may be: direct (directed segments (arrow) unidirectional channels) undirect (non directed segments bidirectional channels) bstraction of real works Several levels of abstraction are possible Many topologies Full mesh, mesh, tree, bus, star, E E E E E E E omputer Network esign - 9 omputer Network esign - 10 Physical and logical topology It is important to distinguish between the physical and the logical topology Logical topology: logical interconnection among nodes via logical channels Physical topology: takes into account transmission media constraints Physical topology E.g., satellite work omputer Network esign - 11 omputer Network esign - 12 Pag. 2

3 Logical topology Private work over satellite work Logical topology Router interconnection for an ISP Router Node Router Node Frame Relay or TM work Router Node Virtual ircuits Node Router omputer Network esign - 13 omputer Network esign - 14 Logical topology Logical topology Overlay among peers in a P2P work ISP IXP IXP ISP ISP regional omputer Network esign - 15 omputer Network esign - 16 Logical topology Tier-1 ISP: e.g., Sprint Tier 1 ISP Tier 1 ISP Google IXP Regional ISP IXP Regional ISP IXP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP omputer Network esign - 17 omputer Network esign - 18 Pag. 3

4 Topologies and performance The amount of traffic that can be succesfully transferred (throughput) in a work is for a given channel available capacity inversely proportional to the average distance among node pairs weighted by the amount of traffic echanged between the two node For uniform traffic and regular topologies the average distance on the topology establish the throughput omputer Network esign - 19 Topologies and performance omparison among topologies, with the same number of nodes (4) and (almost) the same number of channels Uniform traffic Every node pair echange bit/s. Total generated traffic is 12. Every unidirectional channel has capacity bit/s. ompute: average distance, work capacity (maimum throughput), maimum channel load,maimum node load omputer Network esign - 20 Topologies and performance apacity: 32=6 verage distance: 20/12=1.66 onsider only traffic from left to right (simmetry) maimum channel load is 4. Thus, <= /4 Node 3 (or 2) must handle 7/4 of traffic unit Uniform traffic, non regular topology, unbalanced channel load, unbalanced node load omputer Network esign - 21 Topologies and performance apacity: 32=6 verage distance: 1.5 onsidering the traffic from node 4. Maimum load on (all) channel is 3. Thus <=/3 The same holds for the other direction Node 4 must handle 3 of traffic unit Uniform traffic, non regular topology, balanced channel load, unbalanced node load omputer Network esign - 22 Topologies and performance apacity: 42=8 verage distance: 1.33 For clockwise traffic the maimum channel load is 2. Thus <= /2. The same holds for counter clock wise traffic Each node must handle 2 unit of traffic Uniform traffic, regular topology, balanced channel load, balanced node load 3/2 /2 hannel, sharing Multipleing and multiple 3/2 /2 3/2 /2 3/2 /2 omputer Network esign - 23 omputer Network esign - 24 Pag. 4

5 Sharing channel resources hannel sharing techniques Sharing of channel resources among data flows comes in two different flavours Multipleing ll flows the channel from a single point Single transmitter scenario entralized problem radio from an antenna (base station in a cellular work, point in a WI-FI work, satellite transmission), an output link in a switch or a router Multiple- Flows the channel from different points Many transmitters are active istributed problems Local area works (if not switched), mobile phones in a cellulare work, P ing via a Wi-FI hot-spot Frequency (FM - FM) Time (TM - TM) ode (M - M) f channel t omputer Network esign - 25 omputer Network esign - 26 Frequency division Each flow is transmitted using different frequency bands Need for band guard f Time division (TM TM) Each flow eploits different time intervals (slots) efine frame over which slot allocations are repeated Need for time guard f t t omputer Network esign - 27 omputer Network esign - 28 ode division (M M) Each flow eploits a different code (waveform with higher frequency than the bit t rate) Need for orthogonal codes c f f ode division (M M) t t omputer Network esign - 29 omputer Network esign - 30 Pag. 5

6 ode division Eample ode word used by user i: oded sequence = information bit code word Information bit: oded sequence: ode multipleing Eample: ode word for user 1: ode word for user 2: ode word for user 3: ode word for user 4: We are interested in receiving data from user 1 Over the channel, transmitted signals sum up (need to equalize power) T of 1+2+3: T of 2+3 (noise): omputer Network esign - 31 omputer Network esign - 32 ode multipleing Reception = correlation with code words Reception of user 1 = scalar product of the received sequence with the code word Everything we receive Transmissions of 1+2+3: orrelation with = 4 The noise Transmissions of 2+3: orrelation with = 0 Multipleing or multiple Time, frequency, code (and space: multiple parallel wires) are all equivalente alternatives Given a channel capacity we can choose one among the above techniques depending on technological constraints ode division permits to increase channel capacity (by allowing more users) if using pseudo-orthogonal codes but degrading the signal to noise ratio at the receiver (increase the bit error rate) omputer Network esign - 33 omputer Network esign - 34 FM TM frequency FM and TM Eample: 4 users time Statistical multipleing Multipleing can be deterministic, fied in time, on the basis of requirements determined at connection setup statistical, variable in time, to adapt to instantaneous traffic requirements 125 ms frequency time omputer Network esign - 35 omputer Network esign - 36 Pag. 6

7 Statistical Multipleing 100 Mb/s Ether statistical multipleing queue of packets waiting for output link 1.5 Mb/s Switching techniques ircuit and packet switching Sequence of & packets does not have fied pattern, bandwidth shared on demand ynamic TM scheme E omputer Network esign - 37 omputer Network esign - 38 Switching techniques ircuit switching Telephone works Packet switching Two flavours (datagram and virtual circuit service) Inter, computer works Three phases Opening ata transfer losing Network transparently forwards user generated data No operation on user data Fied bit rate 64kbit/s ircuit switching U1 N1 N2 U2 t t t t omputer Network esign - 39 omputer Network esign - 40 Space vs time switching U1 N1 N2 U2 125 ms U1 N1 N2 U2 125 ms Switching techniques ircuit switching Resources allocated uniquely to a circuit Physical channel, time-slot in TM frame Resources are shared among connections but are statically allocated to data onnection oriented Need to open (and close) the circuit prior (after) data transmission Store state information on each circuit (stateful approach) ddress (unique for each user in the work) used only when opening the circuit, not carried in data ata unit identified by position Routing (choice of the best route) performed only when opening the circuit one through routing table lookup ata forwarding Through forwarding table look-up (one entry for each active circuit) Static (always the same scheduling, unless circuits are closed or opened) omputer Network esign - 41 omputer Network esign - 42 Pag. 7

8 Packet switching ata transfer over virtual circuits Transmission time Propagation time U1 N1 N2 U2 Processing time TE TE t t t t Forwarding table In Label Out Label omputer Network esign - 43 omputer Network esign - 44 Grouping virtual circuits virtual circuit is logically identified by a label The label may change value over each link Relabeling Label = often a pair of identifiers (VI-VPI in TM) Virtual channel (V): identifies a single connection Virtual path (VP): identifies a group of virtual channels Grouping virtual circuits The grouping allows flow aggregation Eases work management Increases scalability Possible use LN inter-connection to crete a VPN (Virtual Private Network) Multimedia flows (video, audio, data) omputer Network esign - 45 omputer Network esign - 46 Virtual circuits and paths (TM) TM: VP switching VPI 1 VI 1 VI 21 VI 22 VPI 1 VPI 4 VI 23 VI 24 VPI 6 VI 2 VI 3 VI 4 VI 5 VI 23 VI 24 VI 25 VI 24 VPI 2 VPI 5 VPI 3 VPI 8 VP SWITHING VI 25 VI 24 VI 21 VI 22 omputer Network esign - 47 omputer Network esign - 48 Pag. 8

9 VI 23 VI 24 TM: V switching VI 25 VI 25 VPI 4 VI 21 VI 21 VPI 5 VI 23 VPI 2 VI 24 V SWITHING Virtual circuits Switched virtual circuit (SV) Established on-demand, through signaling, in real-time Three phases Virtual circuit opening ata transfer Virtual circuit closing Users (and work) echange signaling packets (over dedicated VI/VPI) to establish a virtual circuit; then, data transfer can occur Permanent virtual circuit (PV) Established through agreement among user and work provider Off-line, through management procedures efine a semi-static work Logical topology Users can immediately echange data, with no delay omputer Network esign - 49 omputer Network esign - 50 Switching techniques Packet switching, with datagram service Shared resources Ideally the full work is available to a single user Resources are continuously shared with all other users at the data level onnectionless Free to send data when available, no need to check work or user availability Stateless approach Each packet must carry the destination (and source) address ata unit identified through source and destination addresses (unique for each pair of users in the work) Routing and forwarding performed independently over each packet Through routing table look-up Switching techniques Packet switching, with virtual circuit service Shared resources Resources are shared with all virtual circuits sharing the same link onnection oriented Need to open (and close) the virtual circuit prior (after) data transmission Permanent virtual circuits available Store state information on each virtual circuit (stateful approach) ddress (unique for each user in the work) used only when opening the virtual circuit, not carried in data ata unit identified through a label (unique for each eisting virtual circuit on each link in the work) Label is unique on each link, but has a local scope, i.e. the value assumed is different on each link for simplicity Routing (choice of the best route) performed only when opening the virtual circuit one through routing table lookup ata forwarding Through forwarding table look-up (one entry for each active virtual circuit) Re-labelling needed omputer Network esign - 51 omputer Network esign - 52 Fundamentals of packet switching ata sent as packets Nodes operate in store&forward (almost always) uffers elay Many operations on data in the work (not in circuit switching) Error detection, error recovery, flow control, routing, forwarding, congestion control, packet inspection.. Need to define a work architecture to organize functionalities (see later) Packet size Packet size P Measured in bit Packet size in time T TX Transmission time measured in s ifferent on every link T TX = P/V TX where V TX is the link bit rate Packet size in meter M on a given link M = Speed of light T TX omputer Network esign - 53 omputer Network esign - 54 Pag. 9

10 urstiness omputer Network esign Review elays elays suffered by each packet from source to destination node In each link Transmission (and reception) delay It is a funciton of the packet size in bit and of the link bit rate Propagation delay It is a function of the link length in meters In each switching node Processing time Function of the processing speed and of the compleity of the eecuted procedures on the packet header Normally negligible with respect to transmission time Queuing delays epend on the traffic generated by all users Highly variable omputer Network esign - 55 Traffic characterization and QoS Provisioning omputer Network esign - 56 User traffic characterization Need to know user behaviour to design a work Traffic sources R (onstant it Rate) VR (Variable it Rate) haracterized by their rate [bit/s] User traffic characterization R (onstant it Rate) sources: Rate (bit/s) Perfectly known all duration (s) all generation process Only statistically known omputer Network esign - 57 omputer Network esign - 58 User traffic characterization VR sources: verage rate (bit/s) Known? Over which period? Peak rate (bit/s) or urstiness (Peak rate/ average rate) Known (worst case) urst duration Known? all duration (s) all generation process Only statistically known User traffic characterization low speed data urstiness= Peak rate/ verage rate alphanumeric terminals connectionless LN alta velocità immagini data graphical terminal transmission compressed VIEO non compressed supercomputer interconnection HTV LN voice audio Peak rate [bit/s] omputer Network esign - 59 omputer Network esign - 60 Pag. 10

11 Integrated vs dedicated works Telecommunications works were traditionally defined to provide a specific service one service one work paradigm Telephone work for the interactive human voice transportation service Inter for data echange among computers TV or radio distribution for the TV or radio system Integrated works one work for any service narrowband ISN o N-ISN broadband ISN o -ISN Integrated vs dedicated works edicated works Easier to optimize for the specific service Optimal engineering solutions for the specific requirements of the service Integrated works advantages No need to create an independent infrastructure for each service Supporting different requirements implies sub/optimal choices Integrated works trade fleibility and infrastructure cost reduction with perfomance and increased control compleity omputer Network esign - 61 omputer Network esign - 62 Quality of service provided by works Networks used as eamples Fied telephone work: POTS Inter -ISN escribe in an informal way the quality of service provided by these works omputer Network esign - 63 POTS haracteristics R source completely known (generated by the work) ircuit switching onstant, dedicated bit rate no congestion Minimum possible delay (only propagation): order of tens of ms (real time) Zero loss probability Requirements Error probability smaller than few % Small or negligible blocking probability QoS largely independent of other users (apart from blocking probability) Network utilization can be really low, user satisfaction very high omputer Network esign - 64 Inter haracteristics Source behavior unknown Packet switching with datagram service omplete sharing of work resources it rate and delay unknown Possible congestion Loss probability may be significant Requirements Error probability negligible in wired works Zero blocking probability QoS largely dependent of other users Network utilization can be very high, user satisfaction can be very low omputer Network esign ISN Intermediate situation Source known (either deterministically or statistically) Packet switching with virtual circuit service May introduce algorithms to control work resources sharing it rate and delay negotiable Loss probability negotiable Requirements locking probability reasonably small Error probability negligible QoS dependent of other user behavior and of algorithms used to manage work resources Trade work utilization and user satisfaction omputer Network esign - 66 Pag. 11

12 Network design esign problem Given: Network topology (nodes, link speed) Traffic characterization Jointly obtain: Guarantee some sort of QoS for user connection High work utilization Without the objective of high work utilization, the problem becomes trivial overprovisioning (power line or water distribution works) omputer Network esign - 67 Network design Several flavour Running at different time scale (with different level of compleity) Mainly focus on work design and planning (resource deployment) On the basis of traffic estimates and cost constraints Eploits routing criteria and traffic engineering Other eamples Network management (running a work) Measurements Fault management (protection and restoration) Includes re-design and re-planning onnection management ata unit transport omputer Network esign - 68 esign to obtain QoS ifferent time scale (with different level of compleity) Network design and planning (resource deployment) On the basis of traffic estimates and cost constraints Eploits routing criteria and traffic engineering Network management (running a work) Measurements Fault management (protection and restoration) Includes re-design and re-planning onnection management ata unit transport omputer Network esign - 69 Our definition of QoS ssume that a work has been designed and is properly managed vailable resources are given Mainly study algorithms operating at the following timescale: onnection management ata unit transport lso named traffic control problem Must define what is meant by connection. lso named data classification problem. Two different traffic control principles: Preventive control : mainly eecuted at work ingress, with fairly tight traffic control to avoid congestion insurgence in the work Reactive control: react when congestion situation occur, to reduce or eliminate congestion negative effects omputer Network esign - 70 Traffic control: essential elements onnection oriented work User-work service interface Traffic characterization QoS negotiation Resource allocation (bit rate and buffer) lgorithms for traffic control (onnection dmission ontrol) and routing Scheduling and buffer management (allocation, discard) in switching nodes onformance verification (policing or UP: Usage Parameter ontrol) Traffic shaping to adapt it to a given model ongestion control Traffic control: connection oriented work The connection oriented paradigm permits to know which are the work elements over which traffic control algorithms must be eecuted (path known) ircuit switching Packet switching with virtual circuit service If high utilization is a major objective: Packet switching s such, the most suited switching technique to obtain QOS is packet switching with virtual circuit service omputer Network esign - 71 omputer Network esign - 72 Pag. 12

13 Traffic control: user-work service interface The capability to control the work increases with the knowledge of user traffic. Limiting factor is the compleity. Over the service interface Traffic characterization QoS parameters negotiation an be defined on a call basis or on a contract basis POTS: implicit, on a contract basis Inter: not eisting Frame relay: negotiable, normally on a contract basis -ISN: negotiable with traffic contract on both contract and call basis Inter etended to support QoS: negotiable through a SL (Service Level greement) mainly on a contract basis omputer Network esign - 73 Traffic control: resource allocation Main resources: it rate over transmission links uffer Resources can be allocated On a contract basis (booking) On a call basis Packet by packet llocation Eclusive (dedicated resource) Shared omputer Network esign - 74 lgorithms: and routing Routing QoS based path selection to router a connection etermine whether to accept a connection or not, depending on The path chosen by the routing algorithm Traffic characterization QoS requests Network status onstraints It is not acceptable to destroy or even reduce the quality of service guaranteed to already accepted connections an be relinquished onnection must be refused to avoid work overload or congestion Preventive control (but can become reactive) lgorithms: scheduling and buffer management Scheduling hoice of the data unit to be transmitted among data unit stored in the switch uffer management llocation (partial/total, eclusive/shared) of memories in the switch ropping policies Mandatory in an heterogeneous environment to support different QOS requests FIFO (First In First Out) or FFS (First ame First Served) policy with drop-tail discard is optimal in a homogeneous environment ounter for less than 10 pieces at supermarket Preventive and reactive omputer Network esign - 75 omputer Network esign - 76 lgorithms: policing e shaping Policing (traffic verification) Network control of user behavior to guarantee conformance to traffic characterization Shaping (traffic conditioning) User/work adaptation of data traffic to make it conformant to a given characterization Mandatory to control user honesty and to adapt traffic which is difficult to generate as conformant a priori Where algorithms must be eecuted? Only at work edge, i.e., when user work? Multipleing point modify traffic shape oth at work and internally to the work Mainly preventive, but they can become reactive if QoS level may change over time omputer Network esign - 77 lgorithms: congestion control ongestion Traffic ecess over a given channel (link) an occur due to Short term traffic variability llocation policies that share resources to increase work utilization ongestion effects: uffer occupancy increase elay increase ata loss Needed to obtain high link utilization Must eecute at work edge, within the work or.? Reactive omputer Network esign - 78 Pag. 13

14 Protocol architectures omputer Network esign - 79 rchitectures and protocols ommunication requires cooperation One abstract description of the communication paradigm between two or more users requires the definition of a reference model specifying a work architecture work architecture defines the communication process the relation among objects used in communication the functionalities to support the communication Layered architectures! omputer Network esign - 80 Layered architectures Layered architectures are used because of simple design simple management simple standardization separation among functions pplication Presentation Session Transport Network ata Link Physical OSI User Netw. ppl. Session End to End Routing ata Link Physical ENET pplication Service Interwork Network RP Transaction Service Presentation Service ata Flow Trans. ontrol SN Manag. Service Virtual Route Eplicit Route Transm. Group ata Link Physical omputer Network esign - 81 half session path control host 3 Separation among functions: Inter host 4 sub 4 sub 1 router 1 router 2 sub 3 host 2 router 3 host 1 sub 2 applications error control routing packet transfer omputer Network esign ISN Management plane ontrol plane User plane High layers High layers L TM Physical omputer Network esign - 83 Protocols Formal definition of the procedures adopted to guarantee the communication between two or more objects on the same hierarchical level to eecute a specific function Protocol definition: semantics set of commands and answers synta structure of commands and answers timing temporal sequence of commands and answers omputer Network esign - 84 Pag. 14

15 Layer and entities ctive elements in a subsystem Run the functions of the layer (eploiting service provided by lower layers) Interact (cooperate) within the same layer (N) - layer System (N) - entity System Services service can be: connection-oriented (O): a preliminary agreement (connection) is established between the work and the communication end-points, then the data is transferred and finally the connection is released connectionless (L): data is sent to the work without any preliminary agreement and is treated independently from each other transmission media omputer Network esign - 85 omputer Network esign - 86 Services Services (N) - service (N-1) - service N+1 N+1 N N N (N) service provider N N-1 (N-1) service provider N-1 lack-bo for the (N+1) - entity lack-bo for the (N) - entity omputer Network esign - 87 omputer Network esign - 88 PU creation Information transfer (N) - PU (N) - layer (N-1) - SU Transmitter Receiver interface (N-1) - layer (N-1) - PI SP (N-1) - SU pplication Presentation Session Transport Network ata link Physical data PI SU PPI PSU SPI SSU TPI TSU NPI NSU LPI LSU bit or symbols pplication Presentation Session Transport Network ata link Physical (N-1) - PU omputer Network esign - 89 omputer Network esign - 90 Pag. 15

16 The seven OSI layers application presentation session transport work data link physical pplication protocol Presentation protocol Session protocol Transport protocol Network protocol ata link protocol Physical layer protocol transmission media application presentation session transport work data link physical Functions (OSI-like) Physical layer: allows to transfer binary digits echanged among the data link entities deals with bits or symbols defines transmission codes, connectors, voltage levels, etc ata link layer error detection and error correction flow control data unit (packet, cell, datagram) delimitation addressing omputer Network esign - 91 omputer Network esign - 92 Functions Network layer routing congestion control (moved to layer 4 in the Inter) pricing addressing Transport layer error control sequence control flow control (end to end) congestion control (Inter) Functions (OSI) Session layer provides synchronization points to recover for interruption of the transport layer Presentation layer eals with data representation pplication layer provides the application processes with the means to the OSI environment Often merged in a single layer in the Inter omputer Network esign - 93 omputer Network esign - 94 Pag. 16

Introduction to Quality of Service. Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.

Introduction to Quality of Service. Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito. Introduction to Quality of Service Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ QoS Issues in Telecommunication Networks - 1 Quality of service

More information

COMPUTER NETWORKS Protocol architectures

COMPUTER NETWORKS Protocol architectures OMPUTR NTWORKS Protocol architectures Protocol architectures ruppo Reti TL name.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ rchitectures and protocols TT definition ommunication: transfer of information

More information

Infrastructure Components: Hub & Repeater. Network Infrastructure. Switch: Realization. Infrastructure Components: Switch

Infrastructure Components: Hub & Repeater. Network Infrastructure. Switch: Realization. Infrastructure Components: Switch Network Infrastructure or building computer networks more complex than e.g. a short bus, some additional components are needed. They can be arranged hierarchically regarding their functionality: Repeater

More information

COMPUTER NETWORKS - LAN Interconnection

COMPUTER NETWORKS - LAN Interconnection LAN interconnection Telecommunication s Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ COMPUTER NETWORKS - LAN interconnection- 1 Copyright Quest opera è protetta dalla licenza Creative

More information

Copyright. Transport networks. Physical layer Transport and access networks. Pag. 1

Copyright. Transport networks. Physical layer Transport and access networks. Pag. 1 Physical layer Transport and access networks Gruppo Reti TLC nome.cognome@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ COMPUTER NETWORK DESIGN Physical layer review - 1 Copyright Quest opera è protetta dalla

More information

28 Networks and Communication Protocols

28 Networks and Communication Protocols 113 28 Networks and ommunication Protocols Trend in computer systems: personal computing. Reasons why: ost: economies of scale. lso, avoids large initial investment in timesharing system. Performance:

More information

Review of Networking Concepts. Part 1: Switching Networks

Review of Networking Concepts. Part 1: Switching Networks Review of Networking oncepts Part 1: Switching Networks The first few lectures of this course cover basic, but important, concepts of computer networking Summary of Topics Taxonomy of switching networks

More information

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Communication Networks MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Network basic mechanisms Introduction to Communications Networks Communications networks Communications networks are used to transport information (data)

More information

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM CHAPTER 2 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 22 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 2.1 INTRODUCTION As the main emphasis of the present research work is on achieving QoS in routing, hence this

More information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information

Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information Introduction Computer Network. Interconnected collection of autonomous computers that are able to exchange information No master/slave relationship between the computers in the network Data Communications.

More information

QoS issues in Voice over IP

QoS issues in Voice over IP COMP9333 Advance Computer Networks Mini Conference QoS issues in Voice over IP Student ID: 3058224 Student ID: 3043237 Student ID: 3036281 Student ID: 3025715 QoS issues in Voice over IP Abstract: This

More information

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com

WAN Technology. Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com WAN Technology Heng Sovannarith heng_sovannarith@yahoo.com Introduction A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and often uses transmission facilities provided

More information

Congestion Control Overview

Congestion Control Overview Congestion Control Overview Problem: When too many packets are transmitted through a network, congestion occurs t very high traffic, performance collapses completely, and almost no packets are delivered

More information

Copyright. Network and Protocol Simulation. What is simulation? What is simulation? What is simulation? What is simulation?

Copyright. Network and Protocol Simulation. What is simulation? What is simulation? What is simulation? What is simulation? Copyright Network and Protocol Simulation Michela Meo Maurizio M. Munafò Michela.Meo@polito.it Maurizio.Munafo@polito.it Quest opera è protetta dalla licenza Creative Commons NoDerivs-NonCommercial. Per

More information

What s a protocol? What s a protocol? A closer look at network structure: What s the Internet? What s the Internet? What s the Internet?

What s a protocol? What s a protocol? A closer look at network structure: What s the Internet? What s the Internet? What s the Internet? What s the Internet? PC server laptop cellular handheld access points wired s connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running apps communication s fiber, copper, radio transmission rate = bandwidth

More information

Network management and QoS provisioning - QoS in the Internet

Network management and QoS provisioning - QoS in the Internet QoS in the Internet Inernet approach is based on datagram service (best effort), so provide QoS was not a purpose for developers. Mainly problems are:. recognizing flows;. manage the issue that packets

More information

CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008

CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008 CSCI 491-01 Topics: Internet Programming Fall 2008 Introduction Derek Leonard Hendrix College September 3, 2008 Original slides copyright 1996-2007 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Our

More information

Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service

Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service 2009 International Symposium on Computing, Communication, and Control (ISCCC 2009) Proc.of CSIT vol.1 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Analysis of IP Network for different Quality of Service Ajith

More information

VoIP QoS. Version 1.0. September 4, 2006. AdvancedVoIP.com. sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com. Phone: +1 213 341 1431

VoIP QoS. Version 1.0. September 4, 2006. AdvancedVoIP.com. sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com. Phone: +1 213 341 1431 VoIP QoS Version 1.0 September 4, 2006 AdvancedVoIP.com sales@advancedvoip.com support@advancedvoip.com Phone: +1 213 341 1431 Copyright AdvancedVoIP.com, 1999-2006. All Rights Reserved. No part of this

More information

White Paper Abstract Disclaimer

White Paper Abstract Disclaimer White Paper Synopsis of the Data Streaming Logical Specification (Phase I) Based on: RapidIO Specification Part X: Data Streaming Logical Specification Rev. 1.2, 08/2004 Abstract The Data Streaming specification

More information

QoS Parameters. Quality of Service in the Internet. Traffic Shaping: Congestion Control. Keeping the QoS

QoS Parameters. Quality of Service in the Internet. Traffic Shaping: Congestion Control. Keeping the QoS Quality of Service in the Internet Problem today: IP is packet switched, therefore no guarantees on a transmission is given (throughput, transmission delay, ): the Internet transmits data Best Effort But:

More information

Introduction to LAN/WAN. Network Layer

Introduction to LAN/WAN. Network Layer Introduction to LAN/WAN Network Layer Topics Introduction (5-5.1) Routing (5.2) (The core) Internetworking (5.5) Congestion Control (5.3) Network Layer Design Isues Store-and-Forward Packet Switching Services

More information

IP-Telephony Quality of Service (QoS)

IP-Telephony Quality of Service (QoS) IP-Telephony Quality of Service (QoS) Bernard Hammer Siemens AG, Munich Siemens AG 2001 1 Presentation Outline End-to-end OoS of VoIP services Quality of speech codecs Network-QoS IntServ RSVP DiffServ

More information

1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications

1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications 1 Introduction to mobile telecommunications Mobile phones were first introduced in the early 1980s. In the succeeding years, the underlying technology has gone through three phases, known as generations.

More information

System Interconnect Architectures. Goals and Analysis. Network Properties and Routing. Terminology - 2. Terminology - 1

System Interconnect Architectures. Goals and Analysis. Network Properties and Routing. Terminology - 2. Terminology - 1 System Interconnect Architectures CSCI 8150 Advanced Computer Architecture Hwang, Chapter 2 Program and Network Properties 2.4 System Interconnect Architectures Direct networks for static connections Indirect

More information

Star topology. Ethernet. Ethernet Frame Structure (more) Ethernet Frame Structure. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Unreliable, connectionless service

Star topology. Ethernet. Ethernet Frame Structure (more) Ethernet Frame Structure. Ethernet uses CSMA/CD. Unreliable, connectionless service thernet dominant wired LN technology: cheap $0 for 00Mbs! first widely used LN technology Simpler, cheaper than token LNs and TM Kept up with speed race: 0 Mbps 0 bps Star topology us topology popular

More information

Transport Layer Protocols

Transport Layer Protocols Transport Layer Protocols Version. Transport layer performs two main tasks for the application layer by using the network layer. It provides end to end communication between two applications, and implements

More information

Congestion Control Review. 15-441 Computer Networking. Resource Management Approaches. Traffic and Resource Management. What is congestion control?

Congestion Control Review. 15-441 Computer Networking. Resource Management Approaches. Traffic and Resource Management. What is congestion control? Congestion Control Review What is congestion control? 15-441 Computer Networking What is the principle of TCP? Lecture 22 Queue Management and QoS 2 Traffic and Resource Management Resource Management

More information

Quality of Service in the Internet. QoS Parameters. Keeping the QoS. Traffic Shaping: Leaky Bucket Algorithm

Quality of Service in the Internet. QoS Parameters. Keeping the QoS. Traffic Shaping: Leaky Bucket Algorithm Quality of Service in the Internet Problem today: IP is packet switched, therefore no guarantees on a transmission is given (throughput, transmission delay, ): the Internet transmits data Best Effort But:

More information

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks

CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 4: Medium Access Control October 5, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Medium Access Control Schemes: FDMA TDMA

More information

Computer Networks Vs. Distributed Systems

Computer Networks Vs. Distributed Systems Computer Networks Vs. Distributed Systems Computer Networks: A computer network is an interconnected collection of autonomous computers able to exchange information. A computer network usually require

More information

Network Edge and Network Core

Network Edge and Network Core Computer Networks Network Edge and Network Core Based on Computer Networking, 4 th Edition by Kurose and Ross What s s the Internet: Nuts and Bolts View PC server wireless laptop cellular handheld access

More information

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol?

R2. The word protocol is often used to describe diplomatic relations. How does Wikipedia describe diplomatic protocol? Chapter 1 Review Questions R1. What is the difference between a host and an end system? List several different types of end systems. Is a Web server an end system? 1. There is no difference. Throughout

More information

Chapter 3 ATM and Multimedia Traffic

Chapter 3 ATM and Multimedia Traffic In the middle of the 1980, the telecommunications world started the design of a network technology that could act as a great unifier to support all digital services, including low-speed telephony and very

More information

Basic principles of Voice over IP

Basic principles of Voice over IP Basic principles of Voice over IP Dr. Peter Počta {pocta@fel.uniza.sk} Department of Telecommunications and Multimedia Faculty of Electrical Engineering University of Žilina, Slovakia Outline VoIP Transmission

More information

Capacity planning and.

Capacity planning and. Some economical principles Hints on capacity planning (and other approaches) Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ Assume users have

More information

Introduction. Abusayeed Saifullah. CS 5600 Computer Networks. These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross

Introduction. Abusayeed Saifullah. CS 5600 Computer Networks. These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross Introduction Abusayeed Saifullah CS 5600 Computer Networks These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross Roadmap 1.1 what is the Inter? 1.2 work edge end systems, works, links 1.3 work core packet switching,

More information

Internet Routing. Review of Networking Principles

Internet Routing. Review of Networking Principles Internet Routing Review of Networking Principles 1 Principles of the Internet Edge vs. core (end-systems vs. routers) Dumb Intelligence at the end-systems Different communication paradigms Connection oriented

More information

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012 Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Review Questions ٢ Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION 19.1 List

More information

QoS in IP networks. Computer Science Department University of Crete HY536 - Network Technology Lab II 2000-2001. IETF Integrated Services (IntServ)

QoS in IP networks. Computer Science Department University of Crete HY536 - Network Technology Lab II 2000-2001. IETF Integrated Services (IntServ) QoS in IP networks Computer Science Department University of Crete HY536 - Network Technology Lab II 2000-2001 IETF Integrated Services (IntServ) Connection-oriented solution (end-to-end) QoS guarantees

More information

Performance Analysis of AQM Schemes in Wired and Wireless Networks based on TCP flow

Performance Analysis of AQM Schemes in Wired and Wireless Networks based on TCP flow International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) Performance Analysis of AQM Schemes in Wired and Wireless Networks based on TCP flow Abdullah Al Masud, Hossain Md. Shamim, Amina Akhter

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR QUALITY OF SERVICE IN VOICE OVER IP

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR QUALITY OF SERVICE IN VOICE OVER IP Scientific Bulletin of the Electrical Engineering Faculty Year 11 No. 2 (16) ISSN 1843-6188 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR QUALITY OF SERVICE IN VOICE OVER IP Emil DIACONU 1, Gabriel PREDUŞCĂ 2, Denisa CÎRCIUMĂRESCU

More information

Clearing the Way for VoIP

Clearing the Way for VoIP Gen2 Ventures White Paper Clearing the Way for VoIP An Alternative to Expensive WAN Upgrades Executive Overview Enterprises have traditionally maintained separate networks for their voice and data traffic.

More information

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction

Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction Wireless Physical Layer Q1. Is it possible to transmit a digital signal, e.g., coded as square wave as used inside a computer, using radio transmission without any loss? Why? It is not possible to transmit

More information

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Real-Time Voice in a Best-Effort IP Internetwork This topic lists problems associated with implementation of real-time voice traffic in a best-effort IP internetwork.

More information

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark. 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0 3-11 Enterprise Campus and Data Center Design Review Analyze organizational requirements: Type of applications, traffic volume, and traffic pattern

More information

Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks

Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks Faiz Ahmed Electronic Engineering Institute of Communication Technologies, PTCL

More information

STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT

STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT STANDPOINT FOR QUALITY-OF-SERVICE MEASUREMENT 1. TIMING ACCURACY The accurate multi-point measurements require accurate synchronization of clocks of the measurement devices. If for example time stamps

More information

4 Internet QoS Management

4 Internet QoS Management 4 Internet QoS Management Rolf Stadler School of Electrical Engineering KTH Royal Institute of Technology stadler@ee.kth.se September 2008 Overview Network Management Performance Mgt QoS Mgt Resource Control

More information

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Asynchronous Transfer Mode CHAPTER 15 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Background Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology is based on the efforts of the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector

More information

CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies

CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Autumn Semester 2014 CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Instructor: Prof. Kannan Srinivasan 08/28/2014 Announcement Drop before Friday evening! k. srinivasan Presentation A 2

More information

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services

WAN. Introduction. Services used by WAN. Circuit Switched Services. Architecture of Switch Services WAN Introduction Wide area networks (WANs) Connect BNs and LANs across longer distances, often hundreds of miles or more Typically built by using leased circuits from common carriers such as AT&T Most

More information

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Computer Engineering g Dept

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Computer Engineering g Dept King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Computer Engineering g Dept COE 543 Mobile and Wireless Networks Term 111 Dr. Ashraf S. Hasan Mahmoud Rm 22-148-3 Ext. 1724 Email: ashraf@kfupm.edu.sa 12/24/2011

More information

Computer Networks and the Internet

Computer Networks and the Internet ? Computer the IMT2431 - Data Communication and Network Security January 7, 2008 ? Teachers are Lasse Øverlier and http://www.hig.no/~erikh Lectures and Lab in A126/A115 Course webpage http://www.hig.no/imt/in/emnesider/imt2431

More information

Solving the Big Dilemma of Big Data

Solving the Big Dilemma of Big Data shaping tomorrow with you Our thirst for information and communication is, it seems, insatiable. This is particularly apparent in the online world, where data sets are getting steadily larger. These massive

More information

Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks

Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks Dr. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 76 Founder & Director, Vegayan

More information

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks

CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks Lecture 11: ISDN & ATM CS 5516 Computer Architecture Networks VA Tech Prof. Roy M. Wnek History of ISDN Traditionally, local loop connectivity has been with an analog signal on copper Inefficient, prone

More information

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN)

Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Region 10 Videoconference Network (R10VN) Network Considerations & Guidelines 1 What Causes A Poor Video Call? There are several factors that can affect a videoconference call. The two biggest culprits

More information

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71

Chapter 7 outline. 7.5 providing multiple classes of service 7.6 providing QoS guarantees RTP, RTCP, SIP. 7: Multimedia Networking 7-71 Chapter 7 outline 7.1 multimedia networking applications 7.2 streaming stored audio and video 7.3 making the best out of best effort service 7.4 protocols for real-time interactive applications RTP, RTCP,

More information

A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows. Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman

A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows. Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman A Preferred Service Architecture for Payload Data Flows Ray Gilstrap, Thom Stone, Ken Freeman NASA Research and Engineering Network NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division NASA Ames Research Center Outline

More information

SPEAKEASY QUALITY OF SERVICE: VQ TECHNOLOGY

SPEAKEASY QUALITY OF SERVICE: VQ TECHNOLOGY SPEAKEASY QUALITY OF SERVICE: VQ TECHNOLOGY August 2005 Formoreinformation,contactSpeakeasyPartnerITS at630.420.2550orvisitwww.teamits.com. www.speakeasy.net 800-556-5829 1201 Western Ave Seattle, WA 98101

More information

IP Networking. Overview. Networks Impact Daily Life. IP Networking - Part 1. How Networks Impact Daily Life. How Networks Impact Daily Life

IP Networking. Overview. Networks Impact Daily Life. IP Networking - Part 1. How Networks Impact Daily Life. How Networks Impact Daily Life Overview Dipl.-Ing. Peter Schrotter Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications Graz University of Technology, Austria Fundamentals of Communicating over the Network Application Layer

More information

Introduction Chapter 1. Uses of Computer Networks

Introduction Chapter 1. Uses of Computer Networks Introduction Chapter 1 Uses of Computer Networks Network Hardware Network Software Reference Models Example Networks Network Standardization Metric Units Revised: August 2011 Uses of Computer Networks

More information

MAC Addresses and ARP. Mac Addressing, Ethernet, and Interconnections. LAN Addresses and ARP. LAN Address (more) ARP protocol: Same LAN (network)

MAC Addresses and ARP. Mac Addressing, Ethernet, and Interconnections. LAN Addresses and ARP. LAN Address (more) ARP protocol: Same LAN (network) M ddresses and RP Mac ddressing, thernet, and Interconnections 32-bit IP address: network-layer address used to get datagram to destination IP subnet M (or LN or physical or thernet) address: used to get

More information

Need for Signaling and Call Control

Need for Signaling and Call Control Need for Signaling and Call Control VoIP Signaling In a traditional voice network, call establishment, progress, and termination are managed by interpreting and propagating signals. Transporting voice

More information

VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE

VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE POZNAN UNIVE RSITY OF TE CHNOLOGY ACADE MIC JOURNALS No 80 Electrical Engineering 2014 Assaid O. SHAROUN* VOICE OVER IP AND NETWORK CONVERGENCE As the IP network was primarily designed to carry data, it

More information

CS 78 Computer Networks. Internet Protocol (IP) our focus. The Network Layer. Interplay between routing and forwarding

CS 78 Computer Networks. Internet Protocol (IP) our focus. The Network Layer. Interplay between routing and forwarding CS 78 Computer Networks Internet Protocol (IP) Andrew T. Campbell campbell@cs.dartmouth.edu our focus What we will lean What s inside a router IP forwarding Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) IP

More information

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features By: Brian Roth, Product Marketing Engineer April 1, 2014 April 2014 Optimizing

More information

Wireless Home Networks based on a Hierarchical Bluetooth Scatternet Architecture

Wireless Home Networks based on a Hierarchical Bluetooth Scatternet Architecture Wireless Home Networks based on a Hierarchical Bluetooth Scatternet Architecture W. Lilakiatsakun'. 2, A. Seneviratne' I School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunication University of New South Wales,

More information

Computer Networks CS321

Computer Networks CS321 Computer Networks CS321 Dr. Ramana I.I.T Jodhpur Dr. Ramana ( I.I.T Jodhpur ) Computer Networks CS321 1 / 22 Outline of the Lectures 1 Introduction OSI Reference Model Internet Protocol Performance Metrics

More information

Traffic Characterization and Perceptual Quality Assessment for VoIP at Pakistan Internet Exchange-PIE. M. Amir Mehmood

Traffic Characterization and Perceptual Quality Assessment for VoIP at Pakistan Internet Exchange-PIE. M. Amir Mehmood Traffic Characterization and Perceptual Quality Assessment for VoIP at Pakistan Internet Exchange-PIE M. Amir Mehmood Outline Background Pakistan Internet Exchange - PIE Motivation Preliminaries Our Work

More information

DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LSR OF THE MPLS NETWORK USING VHDL

DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LSR OF THE MPLS NETWORK USING VHDL IJVD: 3(1), 2012, pp. 15-20 DESIGN AND VERIFICATION OF LSR OF THE MPLS NETWORK USING VHDL Suvarna A. Jadhav 1 and U.L. Bombale 2 1,2 Department of Technology Shivaji university, Kolhapur, 1 E-mail: suvarna_jadhav@rediffmail.com

More information

Internet Protocol: IP packet headers. vendredi 18 octobre 13

Internet Protocol: IP packet headers. vendredi 18 octobre 13 Internet Protocol: IP packet headers 1 IPv4 header V L TOS Total Length Identification F Frag TTL Proto Checksum Options Source address Destination address Data (payload) Padding V: Version (IPv4 ; IPv6)

More information

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 5. Broadcast Communication Networks. Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur Module 5 Broadcast Communication Networks Lesson 1 Network Topology Specific Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students will be able to: Specify what is meant by network topology

More information

Wide Area Networks. Learning Objectives. LAN and WAN. School of Business Eastern Illinois University. (Week 11, Thursday 3/22/2007)

Wide Area Networks. Learning Objectives. LAN and WAN. School of Business Eastern Illinois University. (Week 11, Thursday 3/22/2007) School of Business Eastern Illinois University Wide Area Networks (Week 11, Thursday 3/22/2007) Abdou Illia, Spring 2007 Learning Objectives 2 Distinguish between LAN and WAN Distinguish between Circuit

More information

White paper. Reliable and Scalable TETRA networks

White paper. Reliable and Scalable TETRA networks Abstract The evolution of TETRA networks towards an all- IP architecture is now a reality and has been accepted by even the most demanding users of TETRA technology. Although circuit switch based TETRA

More information

SDH and WDM: a look at the physical layer

SDH and WDM: a look at the physical layer SDH and WDM: a look at the physical SDH and WDM A look at the physical Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ Network management and

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF QUALITY OF SERVICE COMPUTER NETWORK

AN OVERVIEW OF QUALITY OF SERVICE COMPUTER NETWORK Abstract AN OVERVIEW OF QUALITY OF SERVICE COMPUTER NETWORK Mrs. Amandeep Kaur, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Application, Apeejay Institute of Management, Ramamandi, Jalandhar-144001, Punjab,

More information

Analog vs. Digital Transmission

Analog vs. Digital Transmission Analog vs. Digital Transmission Compare at two levels: 1. Data continuous (audio) vs. discrete (text) 2. Signaling continuously varying electromagnetic wave vs. sequence of voltage pulses. Also Transmission

More information

Protocols and Architecture. Protocol Architecture.

Protocols and Architecture. Protocol Architecture. Protocols and Architecture Protocol Architecture. Layered structure of hardware and software to support exchange of data between systems/distributed applications Set of rules for transmission of data between

More information

1 Which network type is a specifically designed configuration of computers and other devices located within a confined area? A Peer-to-peer network

1 Which network type is a specifically designed configuration of computers and other devices located within a confined area? A Peer-to-peer network Review questions 1 Which network type is a specifically designed configuration of computers and other devices located within a confined area? A Peer-to-peer network B Local area network C Client/server

More information

10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II

10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II QUESTION BANK 10CS64: COMPUTER NETWORKS - II Part A Unit 1 & 2: Packet-Switching Networks 1 and Packet-Switching Networks 2 1. Mention different types of network services? Explain the same. 2. Difference

More information

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs November 2013 S P E C I A L R E P O R T Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs Table of Contents Introduction... 3 What Are VPNs?... 4 What Are MPLS VPNs?... 5 What Are the Benefits of MPLS VPNs?... 8 How Do

More information

Interconnection Network Design

Interconnection Network Design Interconnection Network Design Vida Vukašinović 1 Introduction Parallel computer networks are interesting topic, but they are also difficult to understand in an overall sense. The topological structure

More information

PART III. OPS-based wide area networks

PART III. OPS-based wide area networks PART III OPS-based wide area networks Chapter 7 Introduction to the OPS-based wide area network 7.1 State-of-the-art In this thesis, we consider the general switch architecture with full connectivity

More information

Overview. Communication Networks. Nodes and Links. Nodes and Links. Topology. Topology. Telecommunications 1 P. Mathys

Overview. Communication Networks. Nodes and Links. Nodes and Links. Topology. Topology. Telecommunications 1 P. Mathys Overview ommunication Networks ommunication Networks Telecommunications 1 P. Mathys Layout (Hardware) - Nodes, Links - Topology -Media - apacity, Speed - onnectivity - Redundancy - Switches, Routers -

More information

SDH and WDM A look at the physical layer

SDH and WDM A look at the physical layer SDH and WDM A look at the physical Andrea Bianco Telecommunication Network Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ Network management and QoS provisioning - 1 Copyright This

More information

Improving Quality of Service

Improving Quality of Service Improving Quality of Service Using Dell PowerConnect 6024/6024F Switches Quality of service (QoS) mechanisms classify and prioritize network traffic to improve throughput. This article explains the basic

More information

COMMUNICATION NETWORKS WITH LAYERED ARCHITECTURES. Gene Robinson E.A.Robinsson Consulting 972 529-6395 ROB1200@aol.com

COMMUNICATION NETWORKS WITH LAYERED ARCHITECTURES. Gene Robinson E.A.Robinsson Consulting 972 529-6395 ROB1200@aol.com COMMUNICATION NETWORKS WITH LAYERED ARCHITECTURES Gene Robinson E.A.Robinsson Consulting 972 529-6395 ROB1200@aol.com 9 March 1999 IEEE802 N-WEST STANDARDS MEETING FOR BROADBAND WIRELESS ACCESS SYSTEMS

More information

SBSCET, Firozpur (Punjab), India

SBSCET, Firozpur (Punjab), India Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Layer Based

More information

CHAPTER 1 ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 1 ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 1 ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Webster s New World Dictionary defines congestion as filled to excess, or overcrowded; for example, highway congestion. Although, the best solution of congestion is to

More information

Local Area Networks transmission system private speedy and secure kilometres shared transmission medium hardware & software

Local Area Networks transmission system private speedy and secure kilometres shared transmission medium hardware & software Local Area What s a LAN? A transmission system, usually private owned, very speedy and secure, covering a geographical area in the range of kilometres, comprising a shared transmission medium and a set

More information

Multimedia Requirements. Multimedia and Networks. Quality of Service

Multimedia Requirements. Multimedia and Networks. Quality of Service Multimedia Requirements Chapter 2: Representation of Multimedia Data Chapter 3: Multimedia Systems Communication Aspects and Services Multimedia Applications and Transfer/Control Protocols Quality of Service

More information

Introduction cont. Some Structure in the Chaos. Packet switching versus circuit switching. Access networks and physical media

Introduction cont. Some Structure in the Chaos. Packet switching versus circuit switching. Access networks and physical media Introduction cont. Some Structure in the Chaos Lecture goal: get context, overview, feel of ing more depth, detail later in course approach: o descriptive o use Internet as example Overview: access net,

More information

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING

CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING CHAPTER 6 CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING 6.1 INTRODUCTION The technical challenges in WMNs are load balancing, optimal routing, fairness, network auto-configuration and mobility

More information

Broadband Networks. Prof. Dr. Abhay Karandikar. Electrical Engineering Department. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 29.

Broadband Networks. Prof. Dr. Abhay Karandikar. Electrical Engineering Department. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 29. Broadband Networks Prof. Dr. Abhay Karandikar Electrical Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 29 Voice over IP So, today we will discuss about voice over IP and internet

More information

IT4504 - Data Communication and Networks (Optional)

IT4504 - Data Communication and Networks (Optional) - Data Communication and Networks (Optional) INTRODUCTION This is one of the optional courses designed for Semester 4 of the Bachelor of Information Technology Degree program. This course on Data Communication

More information

Network administrators must be aware that delay exists, and then design their network to bring end-to-end delay within acceptable limits.

Network administrators must be aware that delay exists, and then design their network to bring end-to-end delay within acceptable limits. Delay Need for a Delay Budget The end-to-end delay in a VoIP network is known as the delay budget. Network administrators must design a network to operate within an acceptable delay budget. This topic

More information

Municipal Mesh Network Design

Municipal Mesh Network Design White Paper Municipal Mesh Network Design Author: Maen Artimy 1 Summary This document provides a wireless mesh network design for the downtown area of the Town of Wolfville, Nova Scotia. This design serves

More information