United States Admiralty Law

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1 United States Admiralty Law by Gerard J. Mangone KLUWER LAW INTERNATIONAL THE HAGUE / LONDON / BOSTON

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD xiii CHAPTER 1 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ADMIRALTY LAW 1. Why Maritime Law? 1 2. Ancient Maritime Law 2 Athens 2 Rhodes 3 Rome 3 3. Medieval Maritime Law 6 Trani 6 Amalfi. 6 Pisa 7 The Rolls ofoleron 7 Wisby Sea-Laws 9 Consulate of the Sea of Barcelona Application of the Medieval Law English Maritime Law in the Middle Ages 14 The Admiralty Court 14 The Black Book of Admiralty English Admiralty: Tudors, Stuarts, and Commonwealth The End of Separate English Admiralty Courts Continental Maritime Law Maritime Law in Non-European States Admiralty Law in Colonial America 24 Early Colonial Courts 24 The English Act of Trade, 16% 25 Colonial District Courts The American Revolution, Continental Congress 29 Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture The United States Constitution, The Judicial Power: Admiralty and Maritime Cases 33 Judiciary Act,

3 vi CHAPTER 2 ADMIRALTY AND MARITIME JURISDICTION 1. American Development of Admiralty Law Jurisdiction Statutes and Judicial Interpretation 2. What is an Admiralty Case? Navigable Waters Other Definitions of Navigable Waters Vessels Significant Maritime Activity Sufficient Maritime Activity 3. Maritime Contracts Offshore Oil Exploration Contracts 4. Maritime Torts 5. Products Liability 6. In Rem and In Personam 7. Liens 8. Sovereign Immunity from Jurisdiction 9. Criminal Jurisdiction 10. Original and Exclusive Jurisdiction Federal or State Law? Federal or State Court? 11. Choice of Forum and Law United States or Foreign Law? Trial by fury Statutes of Limitation 12. International Law Territorial Sea Contiguous Zone Exclusive Economic Zone Continental Shelf U. S. Proclamations Protective Jurisdiction CHAPTER 3 THE CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA 1. The Nature of Merchant Trade by Sea 74 Charters 75 Bill of Lading United States Law, The Harter Act, The Pomerene Act, The Hague Rules, The Visbv Protocols 82

4 5. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, Carrier Duties 84 Carrier Liabilities 84 Harter Act and COGSA Claims Under Harter Act/COGSA 86 Seaworthy Ship 86 Perils of the Sea 87 Inherent Vice 87 Deviation 88 Packages 90 Navigation and Management of the Ship 91 Actual Fault or Privity of the Carrier 92 Priority of Claims The Hamburg Rules 94 Contracts of Carriage 94 ustody Cargo 96 &7A of Lading 96 Claims Jurisdiction Conflict of Laws 102 inform ofcogsa/hague- Vis by Rules General Average The York/Antwerp Rules 108 Imminent Peril 110 Allowable and Non-Allowable Claims The Jason Clause The Himalaya Clause 114 Effect of the Hamburg Rules 116 VI1 CHAPTER 4 PERSONAL INJURIES AND WRONGFUL DEATH 1. The Seaman Legal Remedies for Seamen 119 Definition of Seaman 119 Maintenance and Cure 122 Care of Seamen 123 Shipowners Liability Convention 124 Service of the Ship 125 Misbehavior of the Seaman 126 Concealment of Illness 126 Extent of Award 127

5 via 3. Unseaworthiness 128 Strict Liability 129 Longshoremen and Unseaworthiness 130 Temporary Unseaworthiness The Jones Act 133 The Jones Act Seaman 135 Alien Seamen 136 Jones Act Negligence 138 Limitation ofliability 139 Comparative Negligence 140 Contribution and Indemnification 140 Jurisdiction and Damages Longshore and Harbor Workers 144 Situs of the Injury 145 Status ofan Injured Employee 147 O0J/W* W&r m Death on the High Seas Act Maritime Death Remedies and Compensation Passengers, Guests, and Visitors 155 Duty of Care 156 GWjf or Seaman 157 Choice of Forum 159 Extent of Vessel Liabilities 160 Stowaways 161 CHAPTER 5 COLLISIONS, TOWAGE, PILOTS, AND WRECKS LIMITATION OF LIABILITY 1. U. S. Development of Safety in Navigation 163 Steamships 163 The Lighthouse Service 164 The Steamboat Inspection Service 165 Supervising Inspector General 166 Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation The United States Coast Guard 167 Revenue Cutter Service 167 The Life Saving Service 168 Establishment of the U.S. Coast Guard 168 Marine Casualties Collision Regulations Washington Conference on Rules ofnavigation International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea 172 (COLREGS) Apportionment of Fault in Collisions 173 Brussels Liability Convention and U.S. Law 174

6 6. The Measure of Fault 174 The Pennsylvania Rule Allisions Tug and Tow 178 Duties of Tug and Tow 180 Liabilities of Tug and Tow 180 Of Service and For Service Pilotage 183 Federal and State A uthority 183 Admiralty Law and Pilotage 184 Compulsory and Voluntary Pilots Limitation of Liability 186 Who May Limit Liability 187 Procedure 189 Privity or Knoivledge 191 Limitation Fund and Personal Injury Exceptions to Limitation of Liability Act 193 Personal Contracts 193 Maintenance and Cure 194 Contracts of Affreightment 194 Marine Pollution 194 International Convention on Limitation ofliability Wrecks 195 Negligent Owners and Abandonment 196 Abandonment Without Negligence 197 Strict Liability and Third Parties 198 Wreck Removal Insurance 199 IX CHAPTER 6 SALVAGE, FINDS, AND HISTORICAL WRECKS 1. Wrecks and the Origins of Salvage Law 201 Incentives for Salvage 203 From English to American Law 204 International Salvage Conventions and Contracts 205 Salvage Convention, Lloyd's Open Forum (LOF) 206 Salvage Convention, The Elements of Salvage 207 Contract Salvage 208 Voluntary Salvage 209 Duties of Salvors, Owners, and Masters Requirements for Pure Salvage Claims 210 Peril 210 Duty 211 Success 212

7 4. Maritime Property The Salvage Award 214 Special Compensation 216 General Average Negligence of the Salvor Procedure in Salvage Awards 219 Security 219 Appeal 220 Limitation of Action 220 Applicable Law Recovery of Treasure Vessels from the Sea 221 Diving Apparatus The Law of Finds 223 Z.orf ara<sf Mislaid Property 224 Abandoned Property 225 Embedded Property The Maritime Law of Finds 226 Possession 226 S/ftw <?r Location Historic Shipwrecks Abandoned Shipwreck Act of Constitutionality of the Act 233 /«ris diction 235 CHAPTER 7 MARINE INSURANCE 1. Origins of Marine Insurance 239 Northern Italy 240 Lombard Street 241 Lloyd's oflondon 242 The American Colonies The Nature of Insurance 244 Risk Assessment 244 Insurable Interest 245 Representation and Utmost Good Faith 246 Material Facts Jurisdiction Over Maritime Insurance Policies The English Marine Insurance Act, Federal or State Standards? Types and Forms of Marine Insurance 252 Hull Insurance 252 Cargo Insurance Particular Average and General Average 256 Particular Average 256 General Average Protection and Indemnity Insurance 257

8 Indemnification and Subrogation 260 Indemnity of Liability 260 Double or Excess Insurance 261 Subrogation 262 Proximate Cause 263 XI CHAPTER 8 MARINE POLLUTION 1. Sources of Marine Pollution National and International Regulation 266 National Refuge Act 266 Pollution of the Sea by Oil 266 Dumping of Wastes 267 Pollution of the Sea by Ships Liabilities for Pollution of the Sea 270 Clean Water Act, Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Authorization Act, Deepwater Port Act, Offshore Oil Pollution Compensation Fund, International Liability Conventions 273 Civil Liability Convention, International Fund for Oil Pollution Compensation, Protocols U.S. Acts on Marine Pollution 276 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Responses, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) 278 Prevention and Removal 27'8 Limitation of Liability 279 Liability and Damages 279 Economic Damages 279 Liability to States 280 Natural Resource Damages 282 Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund 283 Certificates of Financial Responsibility (COFR) Liabilities in State Statutes New International Conventions on Marine Pollution 286 Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation Liability and Compensation for Damages in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances (HNS) 286 LIST OF CASES CITED 289 INDEX 301

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