1 Agricultural H igher Educatio n in the 2 1 st Ce n tury: No n -Traditio n al Educatio n al Mo de ls Professor Asha Kanwar, K Balasubramanian, V Balaji 16 J une June, 2015
2 Learning for Sustainable (COL) Developm ent
3 The Co m m o n w e alth THE COMMONWEALTH COMPRISES 53 DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS AROUND THE WORLD Map Published by the Communications and Public Affairs Division, Commonwealth Secretariat
4 W H AT IS IT FOR? To help Com m onw ealth governm ents and institutions use various technologies to im prove and expand learning for developm ent
5 W here is it? Burn aby, Can ada (H e adquarte rs) New De lhi, In dia (CEMCA)
6 Agricultural HE in Developing countries What are the options? The Way Forward Plan Global Context
7 GLOBAL CONTEXT
8 Glo bal Co n te xt World population 9.1 billion by million hungry people worldwide IFAD, billion live on less than a dollar a day
9 The yo uth bulge In 2013, 74.5 million young people aged were unemployed 1.2 billion youth 17% of the world s population 74.5 million Unemployed Youth
10 Challe n ge s Decline in contribution to GDP Unem ploym ent, underem ploym ent Decreased investments
11 Pre ssin g Needs Fo o d pro ductio n will need to nearly double by 2050 in developing countries. GDP gro w th ge n e rate d by agriculture is up to four times more effective in reducing poverty than growth generated by other sectors. IFAD, 2012
12 AGRICULTURAL H IGH ER EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
13 Co lo n ial Be gin n in gs: Asia
15 Green Revolution in Asia Setting up of State Ag Universities (India, Pakistan, the Philippines) Influenced by US Land Grant Colleges system Not designed for very large numbers of students
16 Te rtiary Educatio n an d Share o f Agriculture in Su b-sah aran Africa Country Total Enrolment in Tertiary Education Total Enrolment in Agriculture/Tertiary Level Share of Agriculture in Total Enrolment % Year* Number Annual Growth % Year* Number Annual Growth % Ghana , Kenya , Malawi , not available *earliest and the latest year for which data are available
17 Challe n ge s: Africa 1 IFRI, Davis et al, 2010
18 Challe n ge s: Asia (In dia) By 2022, 20 million trained persons required. (Govt report, 2014) 2020, 54,00 graduates required. Number available: (Singh, 2013) Institutional Capacity will need to double
19 W H AT ARE TH E OPTIONS? NON-TRADITIONAL EDUCATION MODES
20 Explo din g de m an d fo r H E 2007: million tertiary students globally 2012: 165 million 2025: 263 million
21 TH E DEMAND 4 new universities to cater to 30,000 needed each week to accommodate children who will reach enrolment age by go.nature.com/ mjuzhu, Everitt, qtd Liyanagunawardena et al, 2013
22 Can the phenomenal growth in ICTs help?
23 1. The Rise o f Ope n Un ive rsitie s
24 The philo sophy o f o pe n -n e ss Open as to people Open as to places Open as to methods -Lord Crow ther Open as to ideas
25 Open-ness in Practice No entry qualifications Credit banking Cafeteria approach for courses
27 Ope n an d distan ce e ducatio n in m e ga un ive rsitie s Co un try In stitutio n En ro lm e n t % o f Cam pus Co st* Pakistan AIOU China CCRTVU 2,300, India IGNOU 1,187, UK OU 203, *Unit cost per student as a percentage of the average for other universities in the country, NKC, 2004.
28 The Ope n Un ive rsity highest rated for overall student satisfaction in the 2012 National Student Survey rated fifth of 100 UK universities (2003) Source:
29 Agriculture Pro gram m e s in Ope n Un ive rsitie s School of Agriculture (started in 2005) Certificate and Diploma programs Doctoral program in Extension and Dairy Science School of Agricultural Sciences (started 1993) Certificate, Diploma and Degree program s Bachelor in Horticulture program contributed to creation of wine industry in the region Sources:
30 Life lo n g Le arn in g fo r Farm e rs Every $1 invested in learning, facilitation and networking resulted in $9 worth of income and assets in India.
31 Mo bile Pho n e Im pro ve s Farm e rs Fo rtun e s in Ugan da Because L3F Uganda adapts its educational tools to fit farm ers lifestyles and technological capacities, rather than im posing costly or tim e-intensive educational program s on farm ers, the project can m ake real advances in em pow ering farm ers and im proving their livelihoods. Makerere University s Initiative in collaboration with COL in promoting Lifelong Learning through ODL using mobile phones and blended learning in Kabale district
32 Pe dago gic In n o vatio n s Self-instructional Materials Extensive use of Media Flexible learning
33 2. On lin e Co urses Offe rin gs: USA,
34 In cre asin g Acce ss The proportion of higher education students taking at least one online course now stands at 33.5 percent for a total of 7.1 m illio n (Babson Survey, 2014)
35 Quality More than 80% students consider online learning outcomes comparable with face-to-face, with over a quarter considering superior (Babson Survey, 2014)
36 COST Online education bend the cost curve in higher education (Deming et al, 2015)
37 De ve lo pin g co un trie s The adoption rate of elearning in Asian region's higher education segments is astonishing OUM: 90,000+ students, Mumbai University: over 78,000 online students. Non-academic certificates: e.g. IT sector- Microsoft, Cisco, Oracle: significant enrolm ents- industry recognised
38 GUELPH UNIVERSITY Online courses leading to certificates Agricultural economics Animal sciences Equine behavior and health
39 Pe dago gic In n o vatio n s Learning Management Systems Wider use of web resources Online self-tests Interactivity
40 3. Ope n Educatio n Re so urce s (OER)
41 W hat are Ope n Educatio n Re so urce s (OERs)? Materials that are: Free and freely available Suitable for all levels Reusable Digital
42 W hy OER? R ed u ces co s t s En ha n ce a cces s Im p r o v e q u a lit y
43 OER an d Te xtbo o ks USA: Utah Open Textbooks project: $5 per printed and zero for online content Students who used open textbooks scored 0.65 points higher on end-ofyear state standardized science tests than students using traditional textbooks (Robinson et al, 2014)
44 Exam ple s o f On lin e Co n te n t in Agriculture China J inpingke portal, National Top Level Courses Project ( ) 258 courses in agriculture (in Mandarin) India National Ag Innovation Project 475 UG courses, hours equivalent In English
45 Im plicatio n s fo r Pe dago gy (Meta Analysis by Bernard et al.) Student Student Student # 1# 2# 3 Content Student Teacher COL s exp er ien ce: Ag students are generally less fam iliar w ith online course w ork
46 Pe dago gic In n o vatio n Connectivism: student-content (T. Anderson, 2010) Learner not just a consumer but also a producer Collaboration rather than com petition
47 4. Massive Ope n On lin e Co urses: MOOCs
48 Of 3600 MOOCs how many on agriculture?
49 MOOCs in the de ve lo pin g w o rld democratising access to higher education by leveraging on new technologies such as Massive Open Online courses (MOOCs). -Y.B Dato Seri Idris bin Jusoh, 2014 set up Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to make it convenient for working class people and housewives to further their knowledge and qualifications. -BJP Manifesto, 2014
50 MOOCs in Ag Mobiles for Developm ent Audio MOOC for Gardeners AgMOOCs Consortium
51 Pe dago gic In n o vatio n s Shift from teacher moderation to learner responsibilities Social construction of knowledge Move from small group teaching to offer elearning to masses
52 H o w le arn in g take s place is chan gin g: Source: Retrieved 5th Sept 2014
53 Dyn am ic pe dago gy: Le arn in g an alytics Predictive System s can be developed An Early Warning System: an upcoming drop out can be noticed Recommender Systems can be built Tutor/ Coach can observe frequent attempts and failures in a particular activity and recommend remedial activities
54 Distan ce an d On lin e Le arn in g can : Enhance access and equity by reducing costs Improve quality by providing free world class resources Provide flexible learning opportunities using appropriate technologies
55 TH E W AY FORW ARD
56 H o rizo n Re po rt
57 Addre ssin g Challe n ge s Transform the curriculum to make it relevant to the C21 Harness appropriate te chnolo gie s Facilitate the co n ve rge n ce between education, the labour market and the learner Education Labour Market The Learner
58 1. Ado pt ODL/ o n lin e pro visio n Agricultural universities can adopt ODL and online provision to expand access and cut costs. Offer dual mode provision ODL can supplement and complement rather than replace existing institutions and models.
59 2. De ve lo p po licy Enabling policy frameworks Robust systems esp for QA Build the capacity of staff
60 3. Life lo n g Le arn in g ODL and online provision can contribute to the ongoing professional development of the agriculture community and institutional personnel as well as provide opportunities for lifelong learning in this critical sector.
61 4. Em brace o pe n n e ss Agricultural universities need to embrace openness in a systematic manner. This would include adopting and adapting OER as well as open access policies for sharing and collaborating on research locally and globally.
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