Workshop on Public Policies to Mitigate Environmental Impact from Brick Production

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1 Workshop on Public Policies to Mitigate Environmental Impact from Brick Production Guanajuato, Guanajuato Mexico September 4th at 6th, Session II b. Panel on Public Policies. Public policies on Brick production in Mexico to mitigate the environmental impact" Beatriz Cárdenas, Na1onal Ins1tute of Ecology Please cite as: Cárdenas, B. (2012). Public policies on Brick produc1on in Mexico to mi1gate the environmental impact. In: INE Proceedings of the Workshop on public policies to mi:gate environmental impact of ar:sanal brick produc:on. (Session IIb. Panel on Public policies). Guanajuato, Mexico, 4 6th September, [PowerPoint slides]. Ins1tuto Nacional de Ecología. Available in: : hup://www.ine.gob.mx/cenica memorias/1111 taller ladrilleras 2012 eng. Last accessed: 17th Sep, 2012.

2 Brick production in Mexico Public Policies on Brick Production in Mexico to mitigate the environmental impact September 4th, 2012 Guanajuato, Gto. Beatriz Cárdenas Instituto Nacional de Ecología 2

3 Outline Artisanal-traditional and mechanized-modern production in Mexico Features of traditional brick production in Mexico Public policies and programs on traditional brick production Ongoing projects and critical mass on artisanal brick production in Mexico Opportunties and challenges: Initiative to mitigate short-lived pollutants for brick production as part of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition 3

4 Brick production in Mexico: craft and mechanized production Brick production in Mexico takes place both using modern and mechanized process as well as traditional methods Of total number of kilns (reported as production units), 70% are traditional ( / ) but account for 30 to 50% of total production. Traditional kiln The technified production is modern and high production One such company, located in Tlaxcala (according to their own reports) produces 2000 ton/day equivalent to 1,000,000 bricks /day** Plant in Tlaxcala *Economic Census INEGI,

5 Artisanal brick production Production (bricks/batch): Small kilns: 5,000 Medium kilns: ,000 Large kilns: 30,000-35,000 Batch/month: Dry season: 1-2 Rainy season: 1 Centro Nacional de Investigación y Capacitación Ambiental

6 Crafted production of bricks How many and where: - Currently SEMARNAT* is compiling an inventory of artisanal kilns in Mexico - In 2007, 16 of 31 states provided information to SERMARNAT* on artisanal kilns. Based on this information and population estimates, an approximate number of 16,300 kilns nationwide was determined (Maiz et al., 2010). - Example of questionaires (production per kiln types and fuels used. Cárdenas et al., 2010 * DGCAyRETC-SEMARNAT (Air Quality Management and National Registry for Pollutant Release and Transfer- Office) * 6

7 Distribution of artisanal brick production Distribution of artisanal brick production in Mexico 74% * of craft production is concentrated in 7 states*: Puebla (25%) Jalisco (15%) Guanajuato (14%) San Luis Potosí (7%) Michoacaan (5%) Durango (4%) Estado de México (4%) 7

8 Distribution of artisanal brick production General Information on craft production: Numerous projects to reduce environmental impact over the last 3 decades - State and federal level involving Little documentation on the projects including costs, results, verification Focused mainly on environmental issues Little or no coordination between the different institutions Science and technology projects Local and national funds (Science and Technology Ministry) Documentation: reports, Thesis, papers Poor coordination between research groups and local authorities Intervention projects documented Ciudad Juárez (1980 s) Relocation kilns in some states (Guanajuato, Querétaro, Coahuila) INE is currently making efforts to document the different programs and policies in relation to artisanal brick production and its environmental impact 8

9 Some considerations and public policies related to the production of brick Federal jurisdiction - Use of alternative fuels and firewood Municipal and state jurisdiction - Land use planning Mining of sand and cal Fuels Environmental and health policies Air quality Standards for criteria pollutants: PM2.5, Ozone Social policies Poverty, child protection, gender equity Economic and development policies Support for small and medium businesses Technical support and funding 9

10 Public policies related to the brick production Urgent problems Environmental Air quality Climate change Short-lived pollutants and greenhouse gases Social Basic services Health protection Political Governance to pollution problems Economic Productivity, construction industry 10

11 Public policies related to the brick production Public policies related to the brick production Mexico's participation in the Climate and Clean Air Coalition Coordination of the initiative to mitigate short-lived pollutants: climate and air Climate Change Act (June 4, 2012) Strategy for low carbon growth Millennium Goals 11

12 Public policies related to the brick production Great opportunities and challenges of the Initiative for Mexico Information about artisanal and mechanized brick production Placing Artisanal brick production on the agenda at the state and national level Identification of alternative technologies Design of integrated projects Coordination between the three levels of government and stakeholders 12

13 Public policies related to the brick production What we already have Regulatory framework (state and some elements related to federal issues) Interest and ongoing work involving state governments Critical mass: science and technology development Great experience in projects implementation: opportunity to learn from past experiences Participation and enthusiasm of different sectors The Coalition initiative as a catalyst 13

14 And after this workshop? Activities to do in the coming months, invitation to collaborate on: Brick production in Mexico: detail report Synergy and coordination between different public policies Program to mitigate emissions of short-lived pollutants production from brick Gracias! 14

15 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production ANNEX Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production 15

16 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION TO THE ATMOSPHERE BY COUPLING BRICK KILNS IN MEXICO STATE. Funding: S&T Mix-funds (CONACyT-Mexico Edo: FM-EDOMEX C ) and participant institutions Evaluate the reduction of pollutants to the atmosphere by coupled brick kilns in State of Mexico State. MK type kilns Dra. Rosa Hilda Chávez, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares 16

17 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production Black carbon emissions from artisanal kilns Objective: To determine black carbon and GHG emisions from measurements in a traditional and MK kilns Responsible: Dra. Beatriz Cárdenas Period: 2012 Funding: INE, Clean Air Task Force (UAMI, MCE2, Julio Medina, Fam. Esparza. The report will be available in November

18 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production Environmental impact assessment and identification of public policies to mitigate the environmental impact of brick production Objectives: a) Evaluate the environmental impact of the production of bricks based on the characterization of emissions of greenhouse gases, criteria pollutants and toxics, personal exposure and energy efficiency. b) Identify, evaluate and design public policies and programs that contribute to the mitigation of environmental impact Responsible: Ing. Uriel Aréchiga and Dra. Beatriz Cárdenas Period: Funding: INE, UAMI 18

19 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production Environmental impact assessment and identification of public policies to mitigate the environmental impact of brick (references) Cárdenas B., Aréchiga, U., Márquez C., Munguía J.L., Informe Final: Evaluación preliminar de la contribución de fuentes específicas en la calidad del aire de la Ciudad de Salamanca. INE-UAMI. México D.F. Cárdenas B., Aréchiga, U., Munguía J.L., Márquez C., Campos, A Evaluación preliminar del impacto ambiental por la producción artesanal de ladrillo: cambio climático, eficiencia energética y calidad del aire. Informe Final del Convenio de Colaboración INE/ADA-013/2009. México D.F. 44 pp. Cárdenas B., Aréchiga, U., Munguía J.L., Márquez C., Campos, A Evaluación preliminar del impacto ambiental por la producción artesanal de ladrillo: cambio climático, eficiencia energética y calidad del aire: segunda etapa. Informe Final del Convenio de Colaboración INE/ADA México D.F. 54 pp. Cárdenas B., Aréchiga, U., Munguía J.L., Márquez C., Identificación de políticas públicas para lograr la mitigación del impacto ambiental de la producción artesanal de ladrillo en México. Informe Final del Convenio de Colaboración INE/PS-005/2011. Versión Actualizada Julio Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa y el Instituto Nacional de Ecología. México D.F. 43 pp. Cárdenas, B. (2012). Iniciativa para mitigar contaminantes de vida corta y otros contaminantes por producción de ladrillo. En: INE Memorias del Taller sobre políticas públicas para Mitigar Impacto Ambiental de Ladrilleras Artesanales (Sesión VI. Hacia programas y políticas para mitigar el impacto ambiental de ladrilleras artesanales). Guanajuato, México Septiembre 4-6, [diapositivas de]. Instituto Nacional de. Disponible en: Fecha de acceso: Septiembre 17, Maiz P., Umlauf G., Mariani G, Skejo M., Cardenas B., Grochowalski, A PCDD/F, PCB and HCB Emissions from artisanal brick production in developing countries a case study in México. Organohalogens compounds. Vol 72, Umlauf, G. Bouwman H, Cardenas B., Fiedler, H. Mariani G., Mirikau, C., Skejo, H., Thanner, G PCDD/F, PCB, HCB in soil and ash from brick production sites in Kenya, South Africa and Mexico. Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 73,

20 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production RISK ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN EXPOSED to artisanal brick production. CASE REPORT ON THE STATE OF GUANAJUATO Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory and pulmonary function abnormalities in children exposed to artisanal brick production in El Refugio community of Guanajuato Cross-sectional epidemiological study, all children 6 to 14 years old community El Refugio (350 children 6 to 14 years old). Compared with 350 children in a community not exposed to brick production Responsable: Dr. Benigno Linares and Dra. Diana Rocha, Universidad Autónoma de Guanajuato Period: Collaborators: UAG, IEEG, INE, Secretaria de Salud-Guanajuato, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Productores de El Refugio, Proyect EELA. 20

21 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN FOR MEXICO ON Short lived climate FORCERS INE y MCE2 Period: Funding: Global Environmental Fund, INE and participant institutions Responsible: M.C. Julia Martínez and Dr. Luisa Molina 21

22 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ARTISANAL BRICK PRODUCTION IN LATIN AMERICA Objectives: To promote the reduction of GHG emissions from artisanal brick kilns by implementing comprehensive energy efficiency models; impact on national policies; promote learning generated by the exchange between countries. Pilot projects at community level (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru). Pilot project in Mexico: El Refugio, León Guanajuato Period: Funding: Swiss Cooperation Agency (300,000 usd), other participating institutions (Producers of El Refugio, COMIMSA, IEEG, INE, UAG, UAM) 22

23 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production GEOMETRIC NUMERICAL VALIDATION REDESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF HEAT TRANSFER IN TRADITIONAL BRICK KILNS IN THE STATE OF GUANAJUATO. Objective: Redesign the geometry of campaigns cooking red brick through numerical modeling of heat transfer that can contribute to the productivity, efficiency, and reducing the environmental impact of the brick industry in the state of Guanajuato.Responsible: Dr. Sergio Alonso, CIATEC Period: Funding: CONCYTEC-Guanajuato (1,149,400), Participating Institutions 23

24 Critical mass and ongoing projects related to artisanal brick production NETWORK ON SUSTAINABLE BRICK PRODUCTION Objectives: To improve the quality of life of producers, improve working conditions, asess health of workers and surrounding communities. Participants: Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Pollution in natural resources, Labor and Environmental Health, Pharmacology, Environmental problems), Autonomous University of Queretaro, Autonomous University of Guanajuato (Toxicology), University of the State of Hidalgo (Materials), University of San Luis Potosí (Materials Engineering) Period: Coordinator: Dra. Alba Yadira 24

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