1 Rethinking the Design of Online Courses Kemi Jona Cognitive Arts Evanston, IL USA Abstract Learner choice is the touchstone of the paradigm shift that needs to take place in education and in how it is delivered. We need to move from an educational model where learners are given virtually no choice (e.g., in lecture halls) to one in which they are driving the learning process. This also means moving the locus of responsibility from the teacher to the learner by asking learners to take responsibility for their own learning. Course designers must move from a trust me, this is important to know attitude towards creating learning environments where the learner understands the importance of something before being asked to learn it. A critical examination of our current educational system makes it clear why this paradigm shift is long overdue. Keywords Design, Learning-by-doing, Online courses The Flawed Premise of Current Educational Systems The reason most of our education systems aren t effective is because they are based on a flawed model of how people learn. This model is so prevalent, both in academic and corporate arenas, that no one ever stops to think about it anymore. It is simply accepted as is. Understanding what this model is and why it makes no sense is a prerequisite in adopting a new and more effective paradigm for learning. The flawed model that underlies our educational system can be summarized most simply as follows: Education equals the transmission of information. This model underlies the lecture-based classroom approach used in most university courses as well as the online translations of these courses. However, if you reflect back on college courses you have taken, it is difficult to remember much if anything of what you learned. Certainly it would be nearly impossible for any of us today to pass the same tests we took in high school or college. For example, Levine & Foreman (1973) found that only 62% of medical students who passed a neuroscience class could pass a basic concepts test one year later. Unless you have used the knowledge or skills regularly since then, most of the information you had transmitted to you has not been retained. In fact, one definition of lecture that captures the problem very nicely is information passing from an instructor s notes to students notes without passing through the minds of either. Why doesn t the lecture approach work? Research in cognitive science, along with plain old intuition and common sense, makes it clear that people learn most effectively while in
2 the pursuit of specific, authentic, intrinsic goals (e.g., Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990). No one ever learned to ride a bike, play ball, or fix a flat tire by sitting through a lecture on it. We all learned these things by actually trying to do them, making mistakes, getting confused, asking questions, and trying again until we got it right. This, in essence, is how natural human learning takes place. Natural Human Learning So if education does not equal the transmission of information, how does learning happen? Natural human learning has three important characteristics: Natural learning is goal-directed. Every child is capable of amazing feats of learning, which for the most part, take place outside of school. A growing body of research has focused on why this should be so that is, why children learn more effectively in their everyday lives than they do in the classroom. The emerging consensus is that the basic cognitive mechanisms of attention, reasoning, and memory that are involved in learning depend on authentic learner goals in order to be properly engaged. Effective learning is driven by natural curiosity, which arises when the learner has intrinsic desire to master some area of knowledge or performance. Natural learning is driven by expectation failure. The mind s learning mechanisms are invoked when the world does not behave as expected. Such a divergence from expectations makes it apparent that existing knowledge is incorrect or incomplete in some way, thus signaling an opportunity to learn. Effective learning, therefore, requires that learners be allowed, and encouraged, to attempt tasks that are somewhat beyond their abilities, to make mistakes, and to learn from those mistakes. Finally, natural learning is case-based. Natural learning consists of building a base of experiences that can be called upon in realworld performance. Personal experiences are the most memorable and instructive. But learners can also profit greatly from hearing stories describing the experiences of others, if told in the right way at the right time. Good teaching involves the telling of memorable stories when the learner is in a position to understand and apply them. These three characteristics give us a foundation from which we can build an understanding of the problems with traditional approaches to education and describe an alternative approach one that avoids these problems and fosters effective learning and retention. Problems with Traditional Learning Environments Given this view of natural human learning, many classroom-based learning environments suffer from a number of problems that hurt student motivation and hinder effective learning and retention:
3 Managers and Administrators Passive learning The single biggest problem with many classroom-based approaches is that they place learners in a passive role where they are expected to sit in a seat and absorb knowledge from a lecturer, a set of readings, or a PowerPoint presentation. This is a problem because lectures simply don t work. Learners don t retain what they don t use. Not only do learners have trouble remembering what was said in a lecture; they also have problems trying to apply that knowledge to the real world. For this reason, researchers have called knowledge acquired in decontextualized settings such as lectures inert knowledge, a term introduced by Whitehead (1929). Artificial divide between practice and instruction A second problem common with traditional classroom approaches is the tendency to present learners with lists of concepts, principles, or theories and expect them to remember them and apply them appropriately. The reason this is a problem is that learners don t retain abstract concepts that they can t relate to specific cases. Practicing the application of concepts across the range of cases in which they apply is time consuming, detail-oriented, and idiosyncratic. It is little wonder that simply presenting concepts is the preferred timesaving approach. Irrelevant subject matter and inappropriate assessment A third problem that is endemic to lecture-based courses is that the content of courses is often driven by what can be easily tested and measured. In an era of increased demands for accountability in education, many schools are driven to endlessly test students. What ends up happening is that teachers, knowing their performance will be judged by their students performance on the final test, orient the entire course towards helping their students do well on the exam. In university lecture courses, the economics of grading hundreds of student papers leads many to use machine-scored multiple-choice tests. Because of the limitations of the multiple-choice format, students get their heads crammed full of decontextualized facts that are easy to test but difficult for them to retain and to apply to real-world situations. Teaching real skills or complex knowledge both much harder to assess students learning of often gets bumped aside in the curriculum in favor of more easily testable topics. Online Learning: Same Problems in a New Package With the advent of increasingly powerful and affordable computer and networking technology, universities have begun to embrace the translation of courses onto the Web. Unfortunately, instead of exploiting the unique interactive capabilities of the computer, most online courses simply replicates the education is equal to the transmission of information model of learning that is common practice in the classroom. Most online courses are simply fancy page turners online presentations of lecture notes, facts, and concepts that the learner progresses through sequentially. Usually courses include a number of quizzes and a final multiple choice test to measure the learner s absorption of the presented content. Universities (and their online course vendors) eagerly continue to create these online courses, unwittingly falling prey to the easy delivery and flashy multimedia presentations they provide. No one stops to notice that they are built on the same dubious educational
4 model as the classroom version of the course they are supposed to replace and improve upon. These online courses suffer from the same three problems outlined above: Learners are placed in a passive role, one where they must read text or watch videos or animations. Despite what many course producers claim, just because learners now control the button that advances to the next page of material does not in any meaningful sense qualify as active learning. Most online courses do not make any real attempt to provide opportunities for learners to practice skills or apply knowledge in authentic contexts. And those that do try to allow for practice usually make only a feeble attempt at it. Thus these online courses still do not do enough to help learners relate new concepts to specific cases where those concepts apply. Driven by the computer s ability to automatically score multiple-choice tests and readily store this assessment data for a large number of trainees, most online courseware is awash in tests, quizzes, and other assessments. This replicates the problem of assessment-driven curricula that traditional classroom environments suffer from. Designers of these courses know what kind of test questions they can administer, and this drives the type of content that learners are expected to master. Complex skills, especially those that involve professional judgement and decisionmaking where there are many potential solutions, are rarely included in online courses because of how hard it is to measure these skills in a multiple-choice format. Principles for Effective Learning Environments So given all of the problems associated with traditional classroom-based courses and their online translations, how does one go about creating effective courses online? To begin, one must replace the education equals transmission of information model with a model based on natural human learning processes. Goal pursuit is at the heart of natural human learning. To pursue a goal means to take action and make decisions, and this, in turn, creates opportunities for failure. This failure can be a failure to execute a desired action, as well as failure of one s expectations when an action didn t have the expected result, or the world didn t behave in the expected way. Failure naturally raises questions in one s mind about why something didn t work, or what might have worked better. And it is these questions that drive learning (Schank, 1999). This conception of natural human learning translates into three key principles for creating effective learning environments: Learning by doing To the greatest extent possible, all learning should take place in the context of doing. Learners should be given an authentic goal and provided with an environment in which they can actively try to achieve that goal. All skills and knowledge must be acquired in the service of achieving this goal, when the learner realizes that they are needed. This means no lectures, no drill and practice, no listening until after trying. Presenting answers is not the key to teaching. Raising questions is the key to teaching. Creating a simulation that allows learners to try things out and make mistakes is an effective way to help learners generate the questions that lead to learning. Providing learners with a simulation means creating the opportunity for them to make choices choices about what action to try next and when to request help. This is the essence of active learning.
5 Managers and Administrators Learning from mistakes Once learners have come upon the limits of their knowledge, as evidenced by making a mistake or not knowing how to proceed, they are ready to acquire the missing knowledge or skills. Not only will learners be motivated to learn, but because they are engaged in a realistic task, they will have the proper context within which to index that new knowledge or skill in memory. Because this context will be similar to the one that these knowledge and skills are used in the real world, it is more likely that learners will be able to retain and apply them effectively. Thus, a key feature of effective learning environments is that they must provide learners with a safe environment in which to learn from their own mistakes. Learning from stories Another key result from research on natural human learning is that people remember cases, not abstract principles. While people learn effectively from their own mistakes, people can also learn from other s mistakes, if provided with the context needed to understand them. Thus, in addition to a simulation, an effective learning environment should provide learners with first-person lessons told by the right person at the right time. When people need help and advice in the real world, they often seek out experts who can tell them stories of similar situations and how they worked out. Effective learning environments should provide learners with the same sort of access to the stories and advice of experts. These principles for effective learning environments are applicable to the design of both classroom and online courses. Online delivery, however, offers the potential for greater individualization of the learning experience, and the ability to be deployed more conveniently and cost-effectively for large numbers of learners throughout a university or corporation. Goal-Based Scenarios: A Framework for Developing Effective Online Courses Researchers at the Institute for the Learning Sciences (ILS) at Northwestern University under the direction of Roger Schank have developed the concept of Goal-based Scenario s (GBS s), a framework for developing computer-based learning environments that are structured according to the principles for effective learning outlined above (Schank, Fano, & Jona, 1994). ILS and later Cognitive Arts a corporate spin-off of ILS have created GBS simulations for organizations including Fortune 500 corporations, government agencies, the US military, schools and universities. By putting users in a realistic role, GBS simulations allow them to learn-by-doing and make mistakes in a safe environment. The user is typically given a problem to solve and the resources to try to solve it, with the system providing helpful guidance and coaching along the way. More specifically, a GBS is a learning-by-doing simulation where the learner is given one or more authentic tasks to achieve along with the tools to perform those tasks. All of the core skills and knowledge to be learned are embodied in the scenarios themselves. Hence, rather than telling the learner about a concept, the learner must master it because understanding that concept is needed in order to accomplish the task set forth in the simulation. Of course, this means placing the learner in a situation where he or she is missing key knowledge and skills, and hence is likely to make mistakes. When a mistake
6 is made, an on-line coach intervenes, identifying the learner s error and suggesting a corrective action, or pointing the learner to resources that contain relevant explanations or information. Again, this coaching and advice is not delivered in a vacuum, when the instructor has decided it fits into a preconceived agenda. Rather it is provided in the context of the learner trying to accomplish a specific task or solve a particular problem (the exact point at which the learner is most receptive to this input, most able to utilize it, and most likely to retain it). In addition to an on-line coach, another key component of the support provided to learners in GBS is the expert resource a library of expert stories and explanations captured on video. Learners can ask the experts a series of questions related to the current task and receive relevant advice and anecdotes from expert teachers and practitioners in the field. Instead of the 30:1 student-teacher ratio typical of traditional classrooms (or 300:1 in some university lectures!), a GBS reverses the ratio, providing multiple teachers for a single student. Moreover, allowing learners to get help and advice from recognizable experts in the field instead of solely from a fictitious on-line coach increases the credibility and authenticity of the coaching provided. Examples of Learning-by-Doing Online Courses The best way to make the above description of a GBS more concrete, and to illustrate how this type of learning environment fosters learner s choices, is to explore several examples of online courses built using the GBS design methodology. These examples come from the work being done at Cognitive Arts in partnership with Columbia University. Two types of courses are being built. The first type, called web-mentored courses, is used when the student s key work products are difficult or impossible for a computer to evaluate effectively. Computer programming and business writing are two examples. In web-mentored courses, students are given a series of realistic tasks to complete and submit their work products to a human coach via the web. The coach then critiques their work and sends it back to the students for further work if needed. The second type of course is called simulation-based. In these courses, the learner progresses through a series of simulated scenarios, creating structured reports and engaging in simulated interactions, and receiving feedback and coaching from the system itself. Business writing for non-native english speakers: An example webmentored course When non-native English speakers from outside the United States wish to do business with, or seek employment at, an American company, they face several hurdles. First, and most obviously, they need to be able to communicate effectively in English. But they also need to become familiar with American business culture, particularly as it impacts communication, both written and verbal. And if their focus is on written communication, they must also become proficient at organizing and writing a variety of common business documents. One approach to helping non-native English speakers improve their business communication skills would be to offer them separate courses on English as a second
7 Managers and Administrators language, American business culture, and business writing. But teaching each of these topics separately removes important contextual cues that help students actually put the skills and knowledge from each of these topics into practice. For example, consider the situation of receiving an from your boss asking, Do you think you could draft a preliminary proposal? To correctly interpret this as a politely phrased directive rather than a simple yes or no question and craft an appropriate response requires an individual to bring to bear relevant knowledge of American business culture and communicative practices along with the ability to read the English itself. Figure 1. Student tasks are presented in an authentic context, in this case as an from their fictitious boss in a simulated scenario Thus the approach we are taking in creating business writing courses for non-native English speakers in conjunction with Columbia University s American Language Program is to create an authentic business context and ask students to perform a set of realistic writing tasks with that context. Thus, in one course, the student is placed in the role of a client solutions executive in a large, full service e-commerce consulting firm who is pitching their e-commerce solution to a large, upscale, American department store called Isabella s. Students receive their tasks by way of simulated requests from their fictitious boss.
8 For example, in your first task as a student, your boss asks you to send the other four executives in your division , soliciting information about recent e-commerce solutions for clients with needs similar to Isabella s (see Figure 1). Then she would like you to summarize the information and send it back out to the four executives and her. The student must read and interpret the boss correctly, and write a clear, well organized message which they submit to the coach. Having successfully completed this task, their next task presents them with the simulated replies from their colleagues and asks the student to create a memo summarizing the information in a concise and organized fashion. Figure 2. Student receiving detailed personalized feedback on their submission from a human coach The course continues to follow this story line, requiring the student to create a variety of s, sales letters, business proposals and other common document types. For each submission, the student receives detailed personalized critiques and suggestions from
9 Managers and Administrators their (human) coach (see Figure 2). Unlike traditional courses, the student does not receive grades on their submissions. As in the real world, they must continue to revise their documents until the coach approves and gives them the OK to proceed to the next task. Thus, each student progresses through the course at their own pace, receiving individualized feedback tailored to their demonstrated level of proficiency. Introduction to developmental psychology: An example simulation-based course When most people think of introductory courses at the university level, it usually evokes the images of large lecture halls filled with hundreds of students listening to a lecturer try to cover the entire breadth of a field in one semester. Students madly scribble notes and, at the end of the semester, try to regurgitate the relevant facts on a multiple-choice exam. Is this really the most effective way for students to learn? What would it mean to completely rethink this approach and redesign introductory university courses in an educationally sound and more engaging way? The simulation-based courses being developed by Cognitive Arts in partnership with Columbia University s College of Arts and Sciences are an attempt to realize this vision through the application of the GBS framework described above. We are developing initial versions of introductory courses in developmental psychology, abnormal psychology, macroeconomics and microeconomics. In the developmental psychology course, for example, the student plays the role of a developmental specialist working at a child development research center, and progresses through a series of 8-10 simulated scenarios. In this role, the student acts as a consultant to parents, teachers, schools and child care centers, and government agencies who come to the student for advice on how to handle a range of issues which are informed by developmental psychology research. The students task is to investigate the issue raised in each simulated scenario by interviewing the parents, teachers, or children, conducting assessments, observations, and tests, consulting with real-world experts captured on video (see Figure 3), and assembling their findings in a report or recommendation. The students then submit their report and receive feedback on it from a coach built into the system itself. In the scenario of the developmental psychology course that focuses on the types and causes of aggression in children, the student is asked to investigate why Lance, one of the children at the child development centre, has been getting into fights with his peers. The student s fictitious supervisor the centre director provides the student with some initial hypotheses that might explain Lance s behaviour. The student is asked to investigate each of the hypotheses and determine which seems best supported by the available data and relevant psychological research on aggression. The student is provided with a range of investigational activities and other resources, and must identify evidence that supports and contradicts each of the hypotheses. Once they have collected enough evidence, they indicate which hypothesis is the one they believe best explains Lance s behaviour (see Figure 4). They submit their report to their supervisor, and then have the opportunity to present their findings in a simulated meeting with Lance s mother (see Figure 5). If the student has done a thorough job investigating Lance s situation, and can answer the mother s questions adequately, the meeting goes well. If not, the mother becomes quite upset, and the student is asked to go back and do more work to complete a more comprehensive and accurate report.
10 Figure 3. The student consults the expert resource to learn more about aggression Once the student successfully completes the first part of the report and addresses the mother s questions and concerns in the meeting with her, they are asked to complete a more detailed analysis of Lance s situation. In this second part of the report the student must identifying the underlying causes of Lance s aggression, the interventions that would be most helpful in addressing his behavior, and the potential short and long term consequences for Lance if no interventions are made. This part of the report is also submitted to the center director, and if adequate, the student proceeds to a second meeting with Lance s mother to explain the detail findings. This approach to an introductory course contrasts sharply with the traditional approach characterized above: The student an active participant in the learning process rather than sitting passively listening to a lecture, The simulated scenarios create an engaging and motivational learning environment; The simulation-based approach embeds the learning in a context that makes the relevance of the content clear to the student at all times; and The authentic tasks illustrate how the topics are relevant to real-world situations the student might encounter.
11 Managers and Administrators Figure 4. The student assembles collected evidence to support or refute each hypothesis The simulated scenarios also motivate the student to explore the expert resource, learning about developmental psychology first-hand from the leading experts and researchers in the field. Because the student is working individually on the computer, there is no social onus against appearing stupid in front of a professor or one s classmates by asking stupid questions. Moreover, the student can ask the experts their own questions and don t have to sit through listening to responses to other students questions. This creates a much more individualized and efficient learning experience, one in which the student makes the decisions and is responsible for their own learning. Principles for the Design of Online Courses As I ve argued, creating truly effective online courses means seriously reconsidering the underlying assumptions that those courses are based on. This paper has sought to explain why much of the education being delivered today is so often ineffective, and to provide examples of how to improve its effectiveness. Here are some principles for rethinking the approach to designing online courses. Think carefully about what the course should cover. The curriculum for many courses is often based on factors that have little to do with learning. A course may be tailored to the length of a semester, which may no longer be relevant in an online version. Some courses are organized to follow the table of contents of a particular
12 textbook even though the authors of that textbook never intended the book to be used in that way. Figure 5. The student meets with Lance s mother to answer her questions and address her concerns Organize what you teach in a way that makes sense to learners. Think about the content of your course from the learners perspective. How will the issues you cover arise in the course of their daily lives? Taking this functional viewpoint will help you create a course whose relevance and utility is clear to learners. Also, many introductory courses are a mile wide and an inch deep, sacrificing depth for breadth in the futile attempt to cover everything in a particular field in one semester. Avoid creating a checklist curriculum that covers a long laundry list of topics that have little relationship to each other. Put the learner in control. Design your courses such that the learner is given control over their own learning experience. Make sure that it is clear to the learner at all times why he or she is being asked to do something. Only teach at the appropriate moment. Fight the urge to force the learner to listen to anything until after trying something and failing. Provide adequate and wellorganized mechanisms for the learner to ask questions and get answers as needed, on a just-in-time basis. This will insure that the information presented is relevant to the learner s needs.
13 Managers and Administrators Avoid blind choices. Make sure that you provide ample opportunities for learners to make decisions and that they have a rich set of resources available to help them make those decisions. These decisions must be meaningful and aligned with the task the learner is performing. Asking the learner to make blind choices where they have no information available to allow them to make an informed judgement do not foster real learning and detract from the realism and effectiveness of the course. Situate learning in authentic contexts. Creating authentic task environments not only helps learners relate what they learn in a course to their lives, but also makes for a more motivating and engaging learning context. Seek out real-world experts and practitioners to help you design your courses and include their insights and stories in the course itself. Provide a rich set of resources and support to your learners. Creating an effective learning environment means raising questions in your learners minds. But if you are going to raise questions, you must also accept the responsibility of helping the learners find answers to those questions. A rich, well-organized, information resource containing the content you are trying to teach is a hallmark of a high-quality course. Try to include first-person stories told by experts if possible. Use the most appropriate course structure and delivery mechanism. Not all courses fit the same design mold. Matching the course structure to the content and skills to be taught is the first step in developing an effective course. The webmentored and simulation-based course structures described here are but two points on a spectrum of approaches. Some courses can be delivered effectively with students working individually; other courses rely more critically on collaboration and teamwork among learners. Some courses may not be suitable for online delivery. Factors to consider when choosing a delivery mechanism include: the number of learners to be taught, how distributed they are geographically, the number of times a course will need to be offered, the availability of teachers and other resources, and of course, the specific learning goals for the course. References Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt. (1990). Anchored instruction and its relationship to situated instruction. Educational Researcher, 19(5), 2-10 Levine, H.G. and Foreman, P.M. (1973) A study of retention of knowledge of neuroscience information. Journal of Medical Education, 48, Schank, R.C. (1999). Dynamic Memory Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schank, R., Fano, A., Jona, M., & Bell, B. (1994). The Design of Goal-Based Scenarios. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(4), Whitehead, A. N. (1929). The aims of education. New York: Macmillan.
14 Copyright 2000 Kemi Jona. The author(s) assign to ASCILITE and educational non-profit institutions a non-exclusive license to use this document for personal use and in courses of instruction provided that the article is used in full and this copyright statement is reproduced. The author(s) also grant a non-exclusive license to ASCILITE to publish this document in full on the World Wide Web (prime sites and mirrors) and in printed form within the ASCILITE 2000 conference proceedings. Any other usage is prohibited without the express permission of the author(s).
Title: Transforming a traditional lecture-based course to online and hybrid models of learning Author: Susan Marshall, Lecturer, Psychology Department, Dole Human Development Center, University of Kansas.
The Westminster College Project Based MBA Program: Preparing Executives to Lead Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I will understand. Confucius 1 Introduction Westminster
Team W2 Video-Conferencing-Based Classroom Extension Sergio Bana Andrew Carland Matt Dyson Sarah Jordan Andrew Wantuch Phase 2 The System Specification 1 P a g e TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTORY PROBLEM
Instructional Design Tips Blackboard believes that instructional design plays an important part in developing online education. Not surprisingly, a critical element contributing to the success of an online
General Procedures for Developing an Online Course General Procedures for Developing an Online Course Questions to Ask before you Begin Analysis 1. What is your learner audience? Is the course for beginners
STUDENT LEARNING SUPPORT TUTORIAL PRODUCED BY THE CENTER FOR TEACHING AND FACULTY DEVELOPMENT CLASS PARTICIPATION: MORE THAN JUST RAISING YOUR HAND CHAPTER 1: LEARNING THROUGH CLASS PARTICIPATION CLASS
NATIONAL COMPETENCY-BASED TEACHER STANDARDS (NCBTS) A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT GUIDE FOR FILIPINO TEACHERS September 2006 2 NATIONAL COMPETENCY- BASED TEACHER STANDARDS CONTENTS General Introduction to
Chapter 3 FACTORS OF DISTANCE LEARNING 1. FACTORS OF DISTANCE LEARNING Distance learning, where the learner can be anywhere, anytime, is an important component of the future learning system discussed in
ADEPT Performance Standards for Classroom-Based Teachers Revised ADEPT Performance Standards for Classroom-Based Teachers Introduction Central to the ADEPT system is a set of expectations for what teaching
PEDAGOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF WEB-BASED SIMULATIONS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE 1. Linser, R., 2. Naidum S. and 3. Ip, A. 1. Department of Political Science The University of Melbourne Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to Know My RE Observe Collect Evidence Mentor Moments Reflect Review Respond Tailor Support Provide Provide specific feedback specific Feedback What does my RE need? Practice Habits Of Mind Share Data
The Praxis Series ebooks The Official Study Guide Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education Test Code: 0023 Study Topics Practice Questions Directly from the Test Makers Test-Taking Strategies www.ets.org/praxis
How to Pass Physics 212 Physics is hard. It requires the development of good problem solving skills. It requires the use of math, which is also often difficult. Its major tenets are sometimes at odds with
Educational Psychology for Elementary Teachers Summer 2007 University of Northern Colorado PSY 347 Sec. 203 3 semester hours MTWR 9:25-11:10am McKee Hall 0136 Office Hours: 11:15-12:15 MTWR Dr. Kevin Pugh
A Primer on Writing Effective Learning-Centered Course Goals Robert K. Noyd (DFB) & The Staff of The Center for Educational Excellence (CEE) US Air Force Academy A Shift from a Topic-Centered to a Learning-Centered
University of Minnesota NSCI 4100 001 Fall 2012 01/10/2013 Number of questionnaires = 17 Page 1 of 2 Dr. McLoon was one of the best instructors I have ever had. He presented difficult material in an interesting
B E S T PRACTICES NEA RESEARCH BRIEF Learning and Teaching July 2006 This brief outlines nine leading research-based concepts that have served as a foundation for education reform. It compares existing
Criteria for Approval of Online Providers and Courses to Satisfy UC Subject ( a-g ) Requirements Approved by BOARS Articulation & Evaluation Subcommittee on July 27, 2006 Approved by BOARS on October 6,
TKT Online Self-study Guide TKT Online overview The Cambridge ESOL Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a test of knowledge of concepts related to language, language use and the background to practical language
LEARNING THEORIES Ausubel's Learning Theory David Paul Ausubel was an American psychologist whose most significant contribution to the fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education.
Instructional Design Principles in the Development of LearnFlex A White Paper by Dr. Gary Woodill, Ed.D. Chief Learning Officer, Operitel Corporation email@example.com Dr. Karen Anderson, PhD. Senior
How to Study Mathematics Written by Paul Dawkins Before I get into the tips for how to study math let me first say that everyone studies differently and there is no one right way to study for a math class.
Teacher Rubric with Suggested Teacher and Student Look-fors This document is intended to inform school communities in recognizing the performance levels for key elements defined in the Teacher Rubric and
The Renaissance Partnership For Improving Teacher Quality TEACHER WORK SAMPLE Performance Prompt Teaching Process Standards Scoring Rubrics June 2002 Representatives from the 11 Renaissance Partnership
Chapter 1 The Life of Aviation Training Life is a culmination of the past, an awareness of the present, an indication of a future beyond knowledge, the quality that gives a touch of divinity to matter.
INDEX OF LEARNING STYLES * DIRECTIONS Enter your answers to every question on the ILS scoring sheet. Please choose only one answer for each question. If both a and b seem to apply to you, choose the one
Online Course Rubrics, Appendix A in DE Hbook Distance Education Course sites must meet Effective Level scores to meet Distance Education Criteria. Distance Education Course Sites will be reviewed a semester
Psychology 3410, Section 001 Introduction to Social Psychology Spring 2011 Psychology 3410-001 Spring 2011 -- 1 Professor Dr. Lisa G. Aspinwall E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Rm. 804 BEH-S (please put
Insights from Today s Student The Not-So-Powerful PowerPoint : Students Weigh the Best Classes against the Worst ENGAGED WITH YOU cengage.com White Paper: The Not-So-Powerful PowerPoint : Students Weigh
CBT Solutions Magazine and the CBT Report Performance-Centered Learning Motivation to Learn Learning Like the Experts Guidelines for PCL Closing the Gap Between Training and Performance by Marty Rosenheck,
2011 RATING A TEACHER OBSERVATION TOOL Five ways to ensure classroom observations are focused and rigorous Contents The Role of Observation Criteria and Tools Assessing Quality of Criteria and Tools: Five
Course Design Each course offered at DSU plays a role in the completion of General Education and/or degree/program learning goals. Be sure to align course learning objectives with these learning goals.
12 Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 1 Teachers understand student learning and development and respect the diversity of the students they teach. Teachers display knowledge of how
Assessment Techniques and Tools for Documentation 47 Assessing the Kindergarten Student s Learning Assessment and evaluation are fundamental components of teaching and learning. Assessment is the process
HCC ONLINE COURSE REVIEW RUBRIC Adapted from Maryland Online FIPSE Project and Lake Superior College I. COURSE OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION General Review Standard: The overall design of the course, navigational
Educational Technology Cooperative Online Teaching Evaluation for State Virtual Schools October 2006 Southern Regional Education Board 592 10th St. N.W. Atlanta, GA 30318 (404) 875-9211 www.sreb.org This
A STRATEGY PAPER FROM Realizing the Full Potential of Blended Learning FLICKR/CONCORDIA What higher education institutions say about effective instructional strategies, practices and technologies for student
E-Learning at school level: Challenges and Benefits Joumana Dargham 1, Dana Saeed 1, and Hamid Mcheik 2 1. University of Balamand, Computer science department Joumana.email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Impact of Assessment on Learning and Teaching Mathematics Some Evidence from MA, ATM and NANAMIC MA, ATM and NANAMIC have gathered some evidence of the views of members on the impact of assessment on learning
Effective teaching and classroom management is about whole child - and whole school development for knowledge, skills and human values During the past years as an outcome of the UN Study on Violence against
Writing in Psychology Courses David Zehr In the summer of 1986 Toby Fulwiler made his first presentation to PSC faculty about that era s higher education catch-phrase, writing across the curriculum. Unlike
The Scientific Literature page 1 The Scientific Literature In Psychology As we saw in the reading on science and the scientific method, falsifiability and replication are aspects of the scientific method
Becoming an Online Learner Online education is where it is at. As an online student, I have control of when I learn, how I learn, and what extra I learn. I gain only as much as I put in; this is what distinguishes
Лю Пэн COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Effective Elementary Reading Program Effective approach must contain the following five components: 1. Phonemic awareness instruction to help children learn
BA530 Financial Management Spring 2015 Professor: Wanli Zhao, Ph.D. Class Time: 4:00 ~ 6:45 PM on Wednesday in Lawson 101 Office: Rehn 124, College of Business Phone: (618) 453-7109 Email: email@example.com
GEORGIA STANDARDS FOR THE APPROVAL OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION UNITS AND EDUCATOR PREPARATION PROGRAMS (Effective 9/01/08) Kelly Henson Executive Secretary Table of Contents Standard 1: Candidate Knowledge,
AP CS Principles Pilot at University of California, San Diego Authors: Beth Simon (UCSD) and Quintin Cutts (University of Glasgow) Course Name: CSE3 Fluency with Information Technology Pilot: Fall 2010
CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 firstname.lastname@example.org Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social
Assessment and Instruction: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Abstract: In this paper we describe our research and development efforts to integrate assessment and instruction in ways that provide immediate feedback
VIRTUAL UNIVERSITIES FUTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS AND ACADEMICS Anderson, M. IBM Global Services Australia Email: email@example.com Abstract Virtual Universities, or as many term them
EDU 330: Developmental and Educational Psychology Course Syllabus Spring 2015 Professor: Dr. Daniel C. Moos Office: (507) 933-7448 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Class: Tuesday & Thursday (Mattson, 102) 9:00
GUIDELINES FOR THE IEP TEAM DATA COLLECTION & Progress Monitoring Decisions about the effectiveness of an intervention must be based on data, not guesswork. Frequent, repeated measures of progress toward
NORTHERN VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY 211 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Dr. Rosalyn M. King, Professor DETAILED TOPICAL OVERVIEW AND WORKING SYLLABUS CLASS 1: INTRODUCTIONS
Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference of Teaching and Learning (ICTL 2009) INTI University College, Malaysia THE IMPORTANCE OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Taghi
Purpose In years 1 and 2 of the RE Program, Resident Educators, through the support of mentors, have systematically and continually engaged in the cycle of inquiry and reflection as they progressed through
Flip Your Classroom to Increase Active Learning and Student Engagement Bethany B. Stone, Ph.D. Associate Teaching Professor University of Missouri Columbia Background Like all technologies, new teaching
SESRI Policy & Program Evaluation Workshop Doha, Qatar January 19-22, 2015 Outline: Session 5 Measurement: Benchmarking in Evaluation Design Quasi-experimental research designs: Combining evaluation with
Building tomorrow s leaders today lessons from the National College for School Leadership If you re looking for innovative ways to engage your would-be leaders through gaming and video role play, the National
Choosing an LMS FOR EMPLOYEE TRAINING As organizations grow it becomes more challenging to scale your internal learning culture. You must be certain that your staff is trained in the entire organizational
Instructional & Motivational Strategy Plan Anthony Saba Dr. Lisa Dawley Edtech 512: Online Course Design 10/18/2009 2 Table of Contents Instructional Strategy Plan... 3 Orientation to Learning... 3 Instructional
7th Edition Office of Distance Learning INSTRUCTION AT FSU A Guide to Teaching and Learning Practices Version 12.02.11 ODL/rg THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFICE OF DISTANCE LEARNING 7th Edition Office
Survey of Clinical Psychology Course Information Basic Requirements Psychology 3320-B consists of 15 lessons, four written assignments, and two equally weighted exams. The course carries three semester
Learning From Lectures: A Guide to University Learning Learning Services University of Guelph Table of Contents Student Guide:... 3 University Lectures... 3 Preparing for Lectures... 4 Laptop Pros & Cons...
Task 1: Principles of Content-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy for Single Subject In Task 1: Principles of Content-Specific and Developmentally Appropriate Pedagogy includes four scenarios.
Software Engineering 10 Using videos in teaching software engineering IAN SOMMERVILLE 1 As part of the teaching material to support the book, I have made a number of videos on software engineering topics
An Investigation into Visualization and Verbalization Learning Preferences in the Online Environment Dr. David Seiler, Assistant Professor, Department of Adult and Career Education, Valdosta State University,
Instructional Rounds in Education By Elizabeth A. City, Richard F. Elmore, Sarah E. Fiarman, and Lee Teitel Chapter 1: The Instructional Core In its simplest terms, the instructional core is composed of
Selected Instructional Aids from Biography-Driven Culturally Responsive Teaching SOCORRO HERRERA Teachers College, Columbia University New York and London This material appears in Biography-Driven Culturally
PRESERVICE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS (graduate level): March 2009 INTRODUCTION The Professional Standards for Queensland Teachers underpin all stages of teachers professional learning throughout
WHERE ARE WE NOW?: A REPORT ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING AN ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEM TO ENHANCE A DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS COURSE Alvina Atkinson Georgia Gwinnett College 1000 University Center Lane Lawrenceville,
Course Title: IL 709 Applied Research II Credit Hours: 3 Instructor: Office: Phone: Email: Office Hours: University of North Alabama College of Education and Human Sciences Course Syllabus (Note: Occasionally
Study Guide for the Physical Education: Content and Design Test A PUBLICATION OF ETS Copyright 2011 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS, the ETS logo, GRE, and LISTENING. LEARNING.
Insight TOEFL ibt TM Research Series 1, Volume 1 TOEFL ibt TM Test Framework and Test Development oooooooo ETS Listening. Learning. Leading. ETS Listening. Learning. Leading. TOEFL ibt TM Research Series
ON-LINE TRAINING AND EDUCATION IN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: PERSPECTIVES BASED ON EXPERIENCE by Walter G. Green III, Ph.D., CEM Assistant Professor of Emergency Management University of Richmond A Paper Provided
Teaching English: A Brain-based Approach Instructor s Guide Version 1.0 Copyright 2009, DynEd International, Inc. August 2009 All rights reserved http://www.dyned.com 1 Teaching English A Brain-based Approach
Self Study and Training for Members and Staff of Agricultural Cooperatives A Guidance Manual for Advisers and Trainers This manual offers guidance to field workers involved in advising and providing training
LIFELONG E-LEARNING: A FOUNDATION FOR TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL SUCCESS L. Roger Yin, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, email@example.com Tena B. Crews, University of South Carolina, firstname.lastname@example.org
Lesson Design and Planning In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable. Dwight D. Eisenhower By: Bob Harrison Effective lesson design is approached
INTERCALL STREAMING SURVEY REPORT Methodology CONTACT US 800.820.5855 www.intercall.com An online survey was conducted using the field services of Russell Research. The study was fielded between August
Jennifer M. Scagnelli Comprehensive Exam Question (O Bannon) Instructional Technology - Fall 2007 Instructional design is a system of procedures used to plan and develop instructional materials and activities
Masters of Reading Information Booklet College of Education Department of Teaching and Learning Bloomsburg University's Masters in Reading/Reading Certification degree program provides theoretical, analytical
Comparison of Student Performance in an Online with traditional Based Entry Level Engineering Course Ismail I. Orabi, Ph.D. Professor of Mechanical Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
SVCC Exemplary Online Course Checklist Purpose of the SVCC Exemplary Course Checklist The SVCC Exemplary Course Checklist has been created to: guide faculty as they prepare a course for online instruction