1 THE TRANSNATIONAL STUDIES INITIATIVE! TSI WORKING PAPER NO 3 / MARCH 2015 CLARA RACHEL EYBALIN CASSEUS! Cross-border Mobility and Haitian Entrepreneurial Dynamism Between French Guiana, Suriname and Brazil! WORKING PAPER SERIES Pushing the Boundaries of Migration Studies: Perspectives from the U.S. and France The Transnational Studies Initiative is a Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Seminar at Harvard University.
2 !!!!! THE TRANSNATIONAL STUDIES INITIATIVE! NO 3 / MARCH 2015 TSI WORKING PAPER SERIES PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES OF MIGRATION STUDIES: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE U.S. AND FRANCE CROSS-BORDER MOBILITY AND HAITIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL DYNAMISM BETWEEN FRENCH GUIANA, SURINAME AND BRAZIL CLARA RACHEL EYBALIN CASSEUS INDEPENDENT RESEARCHER Published by the Transnational Studies Association,!a Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Seminar at Harvard University. The author bears sole responsibility for this paper. The views expressed in the TSI Working Paper Series are those of the author(s and do not necessarily reflect those of TSI, the WCFIA, or Harvard University. Copyright by the author(s. Contact: Peggy Levitt and Jocelyn Viterna, Transnational Studies Initiative Co-Director Use Policy: Papers may be downloaded for personal use only. Comments and suggestions for improvements directed to the author(s are welcome. TSI Working Papers may be quoted without additional permission. Submissions: Transnational Studies Initiative affiliates and attendees are encouraged to submit papers to the Working Paper Series. Manuscripts are assessed on the basis of their scholarly qualities the extent of original research, the rigor of the analysis, the significance of the conclusions as well as their relevance to contemporary issues in transnational studies. Please visit the TSI website for manuscript formatting guidelines. The Transnational Studies Initiative is a Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Seminar at Harvard University.
3 !!!!! THE TRANSNATIONAL STUDIES INITIATIVE! TSI WORKING PAPER SERIES / MARCH 2015 PUSHING THE BOUNDARIES OF MIGRATION STUDIES: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE U.S. AND FRANCE NO 1 EVREN YALAZ Immigrant Political Activism: Political Opportunities, Group Resources, and Inter-Ethnic Context NO 2 JOSEPHA MILAZZO Foreign Migrant Workers in Mediterranean Intensive Farming: Labour Relations in a Quality Labelled Commodity Production (Haute-Corse, France NO 3 CLARA RACHEL EYBALIN CASSEUS Cross-border Mobility and Haitian Entrepreneurial Dynamism Between French Guiana, Suriname and Brazil NO 4 ILKA VARI-LAVOISIER Social Remittances as Mimetic Diffusion Processes: From Homophily to Imitation in Transnational Networks NO 5 SIHÉ NÉYA From Diaspora to Diaspo (ra: An Unwelcome Reverse Transnationalism among Burkinabè Return Migrants from Côte d Ivoire to their Country of Origin NO 6 CYNTHIA SALLOUM Diasporas and Statecraft: The Salient Relevance of a Concept NO 7 GUILLAUME MA MUNG Situations of Ethnic Trade and Arrangements of Space in Château Rouge and Brixton NO 8 ANNE BOUHALI The Effects of Transnational Trade on Urban Settings: The case of the al-muski Market, Cairo, Egypt NO 9 MATTHIEU MAZZEGA Defining and Denouncing Racism through Socio-Cultural Repertoires: Boundary-work, Morality and Ordinary Anti- Racism in France Series Editors: Amandine Desille (PhD Student, Poitiers University & Tel Aviv University Thomas Lacroix, CNRS Research Fellow (University of Poitiers, Associate Researcher (Oxford University, Guillaume Ma Mung (PhD Candidate, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, LAVUE-Mosaïques, Kathleen Sexsmith (PhD Candidate, Cornell University, Sadio Soukouna (PhD Candidate, University Paris 1 Pantheon Sorbonne, Evren Yalaz (Visiting researcher, Institut Barcelona d Estudis Internacionals, Series: Papers discussed at the Conference Pushing the Boundaries of Migration Studies: Perspectives from the U.S. and France hosted by the Transnational Studies Initiative at the Weatherhead Center, Harvard University (organized by Thomas LaCroix, Peggy Levitt, Nancy Khalil, Kathleen Sexsmith, Sadio Soukouna, and Evren Yalaz. The conference was sponsored by the Social Science Research Council; and by Harvard University s Transnational Studies Initiative, Center for European Studies, Center for American Political Studies, and Department of Anthropology. The organizers sincerely thank Josh DeWind, Marika Dunn, Peggy Levitt, Thomas LaCroix, the many conference student presenters and faculty participants, and their DPDF program faculty field leaders and cohort mates for their ongoing support. The Transnational Studies Initiative is a Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Seminar at Harvard University.
4 Cross%border Mobility and Haitian Entrepreneurial Dynamism Between FrenchGuiana,SurinameandBrazil 1! ClaraRachelEybalinCasseus Independent'Researcher' This paper contributes to the gap in knowledge about the ever%increasing scholarlyattentiondirectedtowardthegrowthofborder%crossingmobilitiesin termsofentrepreneurialprocessesinparticularonthescaleoflocalities.what is largely missing in the literature on transnational entrepreneurship is an accountofamorecomplexrelationshipwithterritoryagainstthe ethniclens frequentlyusedindescribingimmigrantcommercialactivities.whatmeanings do Haitians entrepreneurs of French Guiana connected to Surinamese and Brazilian networks give to their associational experience? The associational dynamicsofthisgroupofmigrantshasrarelybeenexposed,butstudyingthem addsgreatvaluetomigrationstudiesbecauseitdrawsattentiontothechanging spatiality and alternative ways of understanding factors of migrant entrepreneurship across borders. The analysis based on multi%sited field research and in%depth interviews, examines the process by which Haitians entrepreneurs negotiate their citizenship/non%citizenship, organize their networks and contribute to this sort of long%distance civic engagement in relation to their homeland. The findings suggest that the factors of change describing best their experience reside in the fluidity of a common socio% culturalmatrixgroundedinacultureofmobility. INTRODUCTION The question of why and how immigrants turn into transnational entrepreneurs is not new. Yet,theverydefinitionoftransnationalentrepreneurscontinuestobedebatedletalonethe restrictive framework through which the discussion often evolves in terms of ethnicity. AccordingtoDrorietal.(2009,transnationalentrepreneursare entrepreneursthatmigrate from one country to another, concurrently maintaining business%related linkages with their former country of origin and currently adopted countries and communities. As for transnational entrepreneurship itself, such activity lies at the intersection of immigrant! 1DrClaraRachelEybalinCasseusholdsaPh.D.inPoliticalGeography(Université'de'Poitiers,France,aMPAin StrategicPublicPolicy! (The'American'University'of'ParisandaMA,InternationalAffairs&Sociology! (Institut' Catholique' de' Paris. An Independent Researcher affiliated to the Ramphal Institute (London, her research interestdealswithtopicsonmobility,citizenshipandstatepolitics.sheregularlyintervenesinacademicforum inthegulfregionaswellasinthecaribbean.shewouldliketothankamandinedesilleandkathleensexsmith for their comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Errors and omissions obviously remain her own.
5 enterprise, a phenomenon described at length in the sociological literature, and the broader field!oftransnationalismwhichincludespoliticalandsocio%culturalactivitiesaswell(porteset al.,2001.! Yet,itisquestionablewhetherthenatureofboundariesofterritorycanbeneatly organizedintoatransnationalumbrellaasmorepeopleengageincommercialactivitiesthat spreadacrossandbetweenboundedspaces(mandaville1999,653.thisarticlecontributesto this gap of knowledge by tracing Haitian socio%spatial entrepreneurial dynamism at the intersection of three borders, French Guiana, Suriname and Brazil. It is part of a broader doctoraldissertationaddressingassociativedynamismintheaftermathoftheearthquakein HaitionJanuary2010.Indeed,mydoctoralprojectinvolvedthreemainissues:theroleof go% between migrants as actors of development in their country of origin; the socio%spatial transnationalnetworksatthecoreofcaribbeanmobilitypatterns;thebroadergeopoliticaland developmentalimplicationsofgovernmentpoliciestowardtheircommunitiesabroadandthe variousmodelsofstate%diaspora'relationship. My focus in this paper will be first on an operational framework using the literature on transnational entrepreneurship in relation to territory and mobility. Second, the discussion addresses several individual accounts engaging in cross%border activities along with the changingboundariesofcitizenshipinacomplexinstitutionalfrenchguianesecontext.finally, theconclusionaddressesthenecessitytobroadentheresearchpossibilitiesontransnational entrepreneurship. WHATISNEWABOUTTRANSNATIONALENTREPRENEURSHIP? Recentworkinthestudyofmobilityrecognizesthat mobilitiescreateanintegratedsystem, whichcanbeobservedatarangeofscales:family/household,community, national, and the constellation of countries linked by migration flows (King and Skeldon 2010: Nevertheless,thetransnationalliteratureonentrepreneurshiphastendedtonarrowitselfto themarkingoutofidentitieswithoutengagingmuchdeeperwiththenotionofmobilityand spatialityattheconceptuallevel.incontrast,iarguethatoverthelastdecades,newmobility patterns have emerged in localities often situated between borders that have not been fully analyzedsofar.ofallthevariouselementswhichillustratethemovingterritorialcontextof entrepreneurship, it is worth examining specific determinants of dynamism among communities with restricted financial capital, limited educational background, yet with increasinglycapacitiesofconnectivitybeyondaparticularinstitutionalcontext.apartfroma study questioning the paths of entry and patterns of adaptation of Haitians residing in metropolitanfrance(mooney2008,littleisknownabouthaitiansengaginginparticularon entrepreneurial activities in the overseas French departments. Mooney rightly points to the low visibility of mediating institutions catering to immigrants in a French Republican frameworkthatpromotesaunifiednationalidentitybasedoncitizenshipandnotonethnicity. Building on the work of Ma Mung (2004, I favor the geographer s perspective that stresses muchmorespatialrelationshipsatdifferentscaleswherespecificdiasporicexperiencesimply theemergenceandthesurvivalofmigrantcommunities.here,spaceandplaceaswellassocial networksarepertinentinmycasetoexplainhowisconstructeda tenthdepartment,partof anextra%territorialunitofthehaitianrepublic(anglade2002.thediasporaisviewedasan extensionofthenation;however,thisinformalrelationshipcallsintoquestionthelegalityof citizenship.wah(2003suggeststhedifficultyfordispersedmigrantcommunitiestorepresent 2
6 asingleadministrativeunitinscribedintohaiti sowngeographicalmap.thecaseofhaitian entrepreneurs exemplifies a situation of inter%polarity among different Haitian communities located in different host countries. Looking at dispersal as a resource challenges the conventionalapproachofthenotionofmobilityasitpointstoanalternativeformofeconomic adaptationandseekstomovebeyondthemethodologicalboundariesthatgivemoreweightto aninstitutionalframeworkratherthanthefluidityanddensityofnetworksthatfeedasenseof belongingtohomelandthatunlockcommercialopportunities. The relationship between mobility and transnational entrepreneurship can be better understoodthroughtheuseoftheframeworksocialcapitalandcommunitynetworks.thisis wherethesalienceofhomelandpoliticalinitiativesandpolicyenactedbythehostsocietycome into play, and may partly explain the full emergence of transnational social networks. Such position is in line with Joppke s work on the changing role of the state in conceptualizing different dimensions of citizenship (2007, 37 and how its different understanding of citizenshipconditionsmigrants transnationalpractices. Mostimportantly,however,isthatmuchhasbeenwrittenonhigh%skilledentrepreneurswith financialandsocialcapitalwhoeasilymigrateandadapt.yet,muchlessempiricalstudiesfocus onexplanatoryfactorsofentrepreneurialsuccesscomingfromlow%skilledmigrantsinahostile environment such as Haitians of French Guiana. The Haitian case shows that envisaging entrepreneurshipthroughcross%borderpracticesdemandsgoingbeyondessentializingethnic communities.thegrowingintensificationofmigrants hasmoretodowiththeextenttowhich family and community links are developed over time to form a continuous relationship that bindsplaceswherecontactexists.suchspaceisthentransformedintoatransnationalsocial space dependent upon a complex system of relationships characterized by a primary mechanism of integration based on reciprocity in small groups, exchange in circuits and solidarityincommunities (Faist2000.Spacethenseemstohaveasocialmeaningthatgoes beyond the notion of extraterritoriality, which may be situated in relation to national territories and give a more inclusive description of the group as much spatially dispersed it maybecome(hardwick2008.thechangingdynamicsofmobilityinrelationtosocio%spatial contexts offers therefore the possibility to generate commercial activities across national boundaries that in turn, structure family livelihoods. The next discussion questions the strengthsandlimitsofamulti%sitedfieldasdesignforthisstudy. STRENGTHSANDLIMITSOFAMULTI%SITEDFIELD Thefirstchallengeconfrontedbythestudywasbuildinganinventoryofassociationscreated by the target immigrant groups in their respective areas of concentration. Such data was designed to build on previous findings of my Master thesis before continuing in the post% earthquake (2010 with a larger data collection taken from different settings in French OverseasDepartments(DFA. Specifically, the fieldwork draws upon a sample of 22 Jamaican associations, 34 Haitian associations (based in Metropolitan France, and 27 associations in the French Overseas Departments(Guadeloupe,Martinique,andFrenchGuiana.Besides,officialsourcesonHaitian migration in France and its overseas territories from 1993 to 2001 (Lebon 2001, cited by Mooney 2008 were helpful to understand the link between a growing Haitian presence in 3
7 some French regions and the associative dynamics which constitutes the object of our questioning. Thefocus,however,isgivenheretotheentrepreneurialdimensionamongHaitiansbasedin FrenchGuiana.Insodoing,thispaperisbasedonareducedsampleof19semi%structuredin% depth interviews of which eight entrepreneurs were identified as engaging in cross%borders activities that spread across both Suriname and Brazil. They were informed that anonymity willberespectedbyusingfictitiousnames.theseparticipantswererecruitedthroughalistof Haitianassociationsbeforethestartofthefieldwork.InFrenchGuiana,weparticipatedin3 meetings: at Cayenne, at Radio Mozaïk (07/03/2010 organized by the Association' pour' l Insertion,'le'Développement'et'l Education' (AIDEand the association Collectif'pour'Haïti; at thesameplace,weattendedapoliticalrallyeorganizedbymembersofahaitianpoliticalparty Regroupement'Démocratique'National'Progressiste'd Haïti(RDNP;inthecityofSaint%Laurent% du%maroni, at a wake at the intention of the earthquake victims, at the church Eglise' NéoG Apostolique(10/03/2010. MOVINGINANDOUTOFTHECARIBBEANANDTHEAMERICAS Understanding Haitian entrepreneurial dynamism requires to first contextualizing the specificity of their relation to the host society along with the neighboring cities. Caribbean workersfromallislandshaveatraditionofsojourning,bothonavoluntaryandinvoluntary basis, in search of jobs and better living conditions. From the tobacco fields of Cuba, the buildingofthepanamacanal,thesugarcanefieldsofdominicanrepublic:allofthisformsthe backdroptotheunderstandingoldandnewpatternsthatcontinuetofeedtheconsciousnessof Caribbean(Goulbourne2009. French Guiana is the only overseas department (law dated 19 March 1946 located on a continentandservesasageographicalentrancepointofeuropetosouthamerica.itsneighbor to the northeast of the South American continent is Suriname, a former Dutch colony. Of particular importance in such geographical setting are longstanding policies to regulate the immigrant population coming in and out of Suriname, Brazil and since the 1960s from the southernpartofhaiti(appendixb.mysearchforhaitiansinfrenchguianaledmetodiscover twomajorwavesofhaitiansarriving mainly from the southern part of Haiti. The firstwave dates back to 1961 when a French entrepreneur named Garnot launched an essential oil businessinfond%des%nègres(departmentofnippes,haiti.threeyearslater,hedecidedtosell hispropertiesandsailedtofrenchguianawithapproximately50workerswhoweremainly fromnippesandaquin(lacolline,fond%des%blancs.thisinitiativemarkedthebeginningofa newjourneyandanewdestinationthatwasnotpartofthehaitianmigrationtrajectoryofthe early1900s(i.e.ofhaitiansgoingtocuba,thebahamas,orthedominicanrepublic.forthis firstwave,workwasnotanissueasitbecamethecaseforthesecondwaveofhaitianswhose presencewentfrom500individualsin1974toapproximatelyby20,000individualsin1985, makingitthesecondlargestimmigrantgroupoftheguianesesociety(maignant2007.this newwave,incontrast,representsapoliticalemigrationcomingtofrenchguianatoescapea dramatic socio%political and economic crisis at home. What this implies is a much greater dependenceonthejobmarket.severalfactorsexplainthismassiveinfluxandaretiedtohaiti s periodic crises: from coups' d etat' (1988; 1990 to external interferences. Haiti dealt with structuralfactorsthatinfluencedaprofoundandcontinuouspopulationmovementbothinside 4
8 andoutsideofthecountry.accordingtoacatholicpriestwhowasveryactiveinthehaitian communityduringthe1980s,manybenefitedfrommitterrand sgeneralamnesty,whileothers movedtometropolitanfranceanditssuburbs(banlieues.today,haitiansareestimatedtobe upto33500basedonthefrenchnationalinstituteofstatisticsandeconomicstudies(insee, census2012. InthecityofKourou,hometothespaceshipprogram,Ivisitedacommunitycenterdesignedto accompany some precarious neighborhoods composed of mainly immigrants originally from Haiti and Brazil. In one interview with Pierre, a well%known associative leader in the community,hediscusseshisworkasamediatorofpublichealth: EverytimeItrytohelpmycompatriotsatthemedicalcenter,Irealizehowharshtheir living conditions are, I can only advise them on their medical condition and I feel helplessinfightingthenegativeperceptionsattachedtothem.itissad,butthisisthe reality! Screening is the safest way for them to protect themselves as the whole communityisstigmatizedwithallkindsofinfectiousdiseases(interviewwithpierre, medicalassistant,kourou,12/03/2010. This destination quickly becomes a major pole for two main migratory waves: one between 1970 and 1981, and the other after 1986 mainly as a result of the host society s family reunificationpolicies.guiana,anareaofmultipleculturespresentsdifferentprofilesfromone city to another, whether in Cayenne, Kourou, Mana or at Saint%Laurent%du%Maroni. The situationincayenneisoftenprecariousfornewcomersasmostresidentsliveinslumssuchas in Cité Bonhomme. The engagement of some of the Haitians in French Guiana is expressed through the discourse of few associative leaders. These leaders are dependent on relational networksthathavebeeninserted attheheartofaninformaleconomyassociatedguaranteed bymeansoftrustandsocio%culturalbelonging (Piantoni2009,35. ENTREPRENEURSHIPTHROUGHTHESENSEOFCOMMUNITYBELONGING Ofallexistingframeworks,socialnetworkandtransnationalitytheoryprovideagoodstarting pointtocapturethenatureofentrepreneurshipbasedonasenseofcommunitybelonging.in thisparticularcaseofcross%borderprocesses,transnationalityas acontinuumoftrans%state ties and practices, ranging from less to more intense and regular (Faist 2012, 52. Nevertheless,inconsideringhowinterconnectionsbetweenmobility,spatiality,andterritory affectentrepreneurship,ifindinterestingtolookmorecloselyatthenatureofcitizenshipthat is evolving in the dynamics of here and there to lead to the notion of active citizenship (Bertinietal.2010.Activecitizenshipgoesbeyondtraditionalloyaltytowardonenationand bringsaboutfluidityintermsofexchangesacrossspace.itshedslightonthedifficultiesfacing themigrant sassociativeactionsinordertofindanoperationalframeworkadaptedtodescribe whatistakingplaceontheground. AmongsomeoftheassociativeleadersIinterviewedinFrenchGuiana,twoinparticular(Tony andloulouclearlyunderstoodthepertinenceandpotentialgainofadoptinganappropriation strategy of the French Guianese space; it requires relying on community resources acquired through activities like religious assembly or civic mobilization on behalf of sans%papiers (illegal residents. These encounters demonstrated the challenge to the territorially based approachofcitizenshipandimmigrationpoliciesasrightlypointedbylafleur.(
9 Whenquestionedaboutthepossiblerelationshipbetweentheevolvementoftheirassociative practices and socio%professional statuses, three respondents explain the lack of perspective andthesocioeconomicdifficultiesintheircommunities.accordingtothelogicofsurvival,their main motivation is to benefit from numerous networks to ensure their livelihood. The entrepreneurs that are part of my study justify their personal engagement in transnational practicesasanopportunitythatisbasedonpreferentialtiesandknowledgeofbothcountries. They recognize the positive impact of their transnational activities on a socio%professional level. The case of two young entrepreneurs Fito and Fritz met at Saint%Laurent%du%Maroni illustratesthistypeofengagementastheyinvestedthemselvesasentrepreneursandcitizens. Itraisesthequestionofhowentrepreneurialactivityinscribesitselfinrelationtothecross% borderspaceofsaint%laurent%du%maroni,albina,andthebraziliancityofamapá.' MAKINGALIVINGACROSSST%LAURENT%DU%MARONITOSURINAMEANDBRAZIL The focus is on explaining how spatial patterns are vital to the livelihoods of many families back in southern part of Haiti connected to families across French Guiana and beyond. As alreadydemonstratedintheprevioussections,commercialnetworksareontherisewhenever mainstreamjobmarketremainsinaccessibletocitizensandnoncitizensinparticular.asa result,differentformsofmobilityareconstructedtobypassinstitutionalhostsetting.iflong% distancenationalismappearsasanideaofbelongingwhichlinkspeoplewholiveatdifferent geographicpoles,itfindsitsrootsinthewaypeopleappropriatethemselveswiththeterritory (territorialityandthenotionoftransnationalsolidarityexpressedindiverseformsofsocio% spatial practices across borders. In so doing, a whole process of deterritorialization brings aboutmultipleloyaltiesamongthestateoforiginanditscitizenslivingabroad.fromthislong% distanceengagement,densenetworksconnectmigrantsandfamilyleftbehind. Fito,anativeofCroix%des%Bouquets(Haiti,isayoungentrepreneurlivinginSt%Laurent% du%maroniwherehelaunchedhisaccountingcompanywithanassociate.havingcommercial tieswiththecityofalbina(suriname,heregularlycrossestheborderintofrenchguiana.he wantstochangethis attitudeofisolation amongthehaitiancommunity.hebelievesthatself% confidenceisthemainchallengetoimprovinghiscommunity. Wehaveacommunitywhichlivesforthemostpartinisolationbetweenpartiesand religiousevents;otherwise,nothingexcitingandnewishappening.themajorityofthe peopleworkinagriculturewhetheritisbananaorsugarcane.itisasourceofpridefor ustoputourenergyintoanenterprisethathasexistedsince2009(interviewwithfito, entrepreneur,09/03/2010.' Accesstomoneyofferstheseyoungentrepreneursarareopportunitytoassembleresources, make behavioral changes, and discourage entrepreneurial dependence. Fritz, a commercial partneroffito,recountsthebeginningofthisinitiative: Itwasverydifficulttoconvincemyentourageandthenobtainacontactfromabank beforelaunchingthebusiness.ourserviceistheonlytypeofbusinessofthiskindthat workswiththehaitiancommunityinparticularhereinst%laurent%du%maroni,iracubo, and Mana. We have a contract with the Consulate of Haiti in French Guiana which allows us to treat passport applications and birth certificates. I feel completely integrated in the Haitian community I help to the best of my ability and I consider 6
10 myself well very immersed into my host community. Our clientele is mixed and of different origins, whether Brazilian, Surinamese or Haitian or Guyanese. We have entrepreneurs working mainly in the construction and agriculture sector. The great geographic position of Saint%Laurent near the border makes it a very dynamic economic pole ' (Interview with Fritz, entrepreneur, St%Laurent%du%Maroni, 09/03/2010]. This raises the question about the conditions that stimulate entrepreneurship among immigrants.iposedtheinterrogationtothevicedirectorofchamberofcommerceandarts andcrafts(chambre'des'métiers'et'de'l ArtisanatinavisitatSaint%Laurent%du%Maroni.Sheis charged of providing assistance in the procedures necessary to create their businesses. She describedthegrowinginvolvementofentrepreneursofhaitiandescent: We are receiving requests in many sectors, such as restaurants (especially street vendingandfleamarketsinthefoodindustry(supermarkets.foranyprofessionin thefoodsectorthereismandatorytrainingand,thereafter,theycanopentheirstores closetotheschools.wealsohavefilesofhaitianentrepreneurswhoaredealingwith the clothing sector. They participate regularly at our formations. In the construction business,weobserveapositiveevolutionoftheirbusinesseswhichquicklygrows.for 14years,sinceIhavebeenattheChambre'des'Métiers'et'de'l Artisanat,Icanattestto thegrowingandvibrantactivityamongpeopleoriginallyfromhaiti.theyarewhati considergoodmodelsofintegration(interviewwithmrsomanabalmin,publicofficer, St%Laurent%du%Maroni,09/03/2010. There are two relevant aspects about the main factors of entrepreneurial dynamism in the cross%bordermobilityfromguianatosurinam:thesenseofbelongingtoatightnetworkthat acts as a safety%valve and the nature of the niche market. Nadine, originally from Aquin, is another entrepreneur of Saint%Laurent%du%Maroni who often goes to Kourou. She belongs to the Confédération Associative de Convergence Humanitaire et d Echanges (CACHE and to CollectifKourousincetheearthquakeinHaiti.HerhusbandworksinSurinam.'' For3years,Ididallkindsofmenialjobs;Iopenedmyaccountingbusinessin2007, named Kourou' Prestation' administratif (Kourou administrative services.' My clients are small construction enterprises. My husband works as an automobile salesman in Albina(Surinamandhelpsmereplenishmystockintheshop (InterviewwithNadine, businessentrepreneur,stlaurent%du%maroni,12/03/2010. Whereas the Haitian presence in Saint%Laurent%du%Maroni keeps growing with cross%border mobilities, I came across entrepreneurs increasingly investing in the construction business. Henry,originallyfromSaint%Louis%du%Sud,leftHaitiin1979anddecidedtopartwaysfromhis familyandfriendsandremainedinthecountry.hemethisfuturewife,whoisalsofromhis hometown,throughanassociationcomposedmainlyofmembersfromhisnativecommune.by virtue of this alliance, his activities diversified from construction to agriculture and cattle farming. I am residing in Matoury where I started in the construction business and then I becameinvolvedinfarmingandagriculture.iownlandandconductseveralfarming activitieswhilemywifemanagestwosheepandbeefherdsinsavanematiti.shegrew up in Saint%Louis%du%Sud (Haitian commune and knows this domain well. She maintained ties with parents at Paramaribo (Surinam and these people regularly replenishherstock(interviewwithhenry,entrepreneur,eau%lisette,11/03/
11 Social capital reconstructed in a new location does not necessarily have the same degree of solidarityandreciprocityasinthelivingareapriortomigration.becauseitremainsthesame, itrequiresalongtimefortransnationalandassociativesocialcapitaltoberecreated.certain practiceslinkedtomigratorycirculation,suchascommercialpractices(entrepreneurshipand individual practices (gifts, immaterial goods, allow for improved exploration of the entrepreneur smovementswhosetradestrategiesaredependentoncontinuouscross%border exchange.fito sprofilereflectsthemoredynamiccharacterofatransnationalfirm:theyboth rely on new communication technologies and become directly involved in them as service providerstotheimmigrantcommunityandhomecountrymarkets. In contrast to Fito, Nadine turns to a different route to entrepreneurship: from family responsibilityathometoassociationalengagement.herstoryshowsthisyounggeneration s loyaltytotheirplaceoforiginandtheirsurvivingtiestotheirhomeland: MymotherwasalreadysettledinFrenchGuianawhenIjoinedherattheageof14. Unfortunately, she passed away two years after my arrival in They refused to give me the visa of sojourn and they placed me under social assistance. I married a citizenofsurinamofhaitianorigin(thomazeau.ilostmychildthreedaysafterhis birth.allthesesadeventswouldhavebeenworseifitwasnotformyextendedfamily s supporthere.iwentbacktostudytobecomeacomputerandaccountingsecretaryand I also joined a landscape program and graduated in I became involved in the associative movement by being a member of the Confédération Associative de ConvergenceHumanitaireetd Echanges(CACHE,createdin1991atKourou,withthe objective of promoting cooperation among different socio%cultural ethnicities and teaching.upuntilnow,therewasnoassociationofferinganyalphabetizationlessonsto thehaitiancommunity.wecurrentlyhavetwoemployeesintheassociation(interview withnadine,kourou,12/03/2010. Inacontextofhighunemployment,itisimportanttounderlinetwoaspectsthatarelinkedto thedevelopmentofthistypeofentrepreneurship:thedependencyofprecariouslaborinillegal situations and entrepreneurs growing relational networks. In some cases, there exists an unbalancedexchangethatputsthehomecountry(haitiatadisadvantage.agoodexampleis thecaseofahaitianentrepreneuringuianawhoexportsricetohaitieventhoughhaitihasa considerable local rice production that is vital for peasants. This is where the informal economy runs parallel to the commercial activity of entrepreneurs like Henry who do not hesitatetorecruitpoolsofhaitians,eveninillegalsituations. Everybodyknowseachotherherebecauseitisdifficulttoavoidthefamilialcircle.In Haiti,weusedtofunctionwellinaninformalway,andhereinGuiana,suchpractices continue. Here, we do not solve our problems in court but rather among informal negotiationsamongus.thelocalsayingis noumem'ki'nou'min,inotherwords we keeptoourselves. Itdescribeswellthisspiritofsolidaritythatiskeytokeepingour businesses running smoothly (Interview with Henry, entrepreneur, Eau%Lisette, 11/03/2010. These different entrepreneurial trajectories shed light on new configurations tied to a migratorymovementthatisneitherunidirectionalinabipolarspaceofdeparture%arrival,nor' of settlement%return. It is rather about a pluri%directionnel dynamic in relation to diverse spaces(berthomièreandhily2006,75. 8
12 'I have traveled three times already to Haiti since my arrival here: in 2001, 2003, and2005.itgavemegreatpleasuretovisitmyfamily.iwishtoinvestinhaitiandto create an orphanage via an association dedicated to social work. The goal of buying propertyispartofmyfutureprojects;theback%and%forthmovementfitsmeperfectly asmobilityhelpsmetomakeendsmeetwithmyfamilyobligationshereandthere.i send remittances every three months of about 300 euros (Interview with Nadine, Kourou,12/03/2010. When it comes to entrepreneurship in Saint%Laurent%du%Maroni, social capital mobilized by Nadine and other female entrepreneurs such as Mama in Mana are about an integrated structurewhichcanmovedifferentformsofskillsandpractices,suchashighdegreeofmutual trust and understanding. They supplied their trade using the same cross%border circuits by linkingthecitiesofsurinamwithsaint%laurent%du%maroni.inthiscase,withinthehostsociety infrenchguianahelpedthemidentifytheopportunityandgetintobusinessorinotherwords made it possible for them to become a part of the transnational network. Viewed in this context, transnational networks allow new economic markets to be conquered; for mobile people,rethinkingnewparadigmsofdevelopmentbecomesessential.fromthecityofalbina orparamaribo(surinamtothecityofsaint%laurent,fromkouroutothecityofsaint%louis% du%sud(haiti,trendsindicateintensificationofthehaitianpresenceuptobrazil,frommanaus and Tabatinga, where (since the earthquake of 2010 complex networks quickly constitute. Indeed,amongthosearrivingin2010and2011,thethreeprimarycitiesoforiginareGonaives, Ganthier, and Croix%des%bouquets; in 2012, many others came from Port%au%Prince. This is largelyapost%earthquakephenomenon,whichcontrastswithamucholdermigrationtowards French Guiana or even Venezuela, which was known as a prime destination for political refugees during the Duvalier era. In any case, the same strategy exists without having to necessarily leave the host country. It is possible to engage in a cycle of back and forth movements that allows for both exploiting economic opportunities here (host society and satisfyingdemandsoverthere(homeland,usingethnicnetworks.theseareessentialsupports to nurture commercial practices that evolve around merchandise for a specific culture. Importedproductsaredesignedtosupplysmallbusinessesandtobenefitafriendorfamily member. Muchofthetransnationalpracticesexposedinthisarticlerevealexplicitlythesignificanceof resilient cross%border ties that translate into opportunities. In conversation with entrepreneursbasedinst%laurent%du%maroniwhohavebenefitedfromtheirtieswithalbina, however, the emergence of multiple networks has rapidly shifted to routes reaching Brazil. Accordingtothe1980Celadecensus,atotalof127HaitianswerelivinginBrazilin1980and by1991therewere142haitianpeoplelivingthere.inthesefigures,itwasreportedthat98 were employed males and 71 were employed females. From January to July 2012, approximately2,000traffickedmigrantsfromhaitistrandedinthebrazilianbordertownof Tabatinga.! Based on records of the Service Jésuite to Refugees for Latin America and the Caribbean (SJR LAC, the presence of roughly 6,000 Haitians had been documented; some HaitianswerepassingthroughFrenchGuianaandotherstravelledviaSurinam.Thismigratory flowhasbeendocumentedinongoingworkatthefederaluniversityofriodejaneiro,brazil. Thethemedealswiththe anthropologyofthemigratoryhaitianexperienceinthecaribbean context,' which uses mobility, the diaspora, and its social implications at local, national, and transnationalscales.itbegsthequestionofrethinkingtheanthropologicalknow%howofsocio% 9
13 economic conditions of those who are migrating and moving while transcending national contextstoarticulatecomplexmovingrealities (Handerson2012. DenseandhighlyactivefamilynetworksspanningbordercitiessuchasSt%Laurent%du%Maroni andalbinaaretransformingtraditionalroutestoincludecircuitsinbrazil(appendixe.going back to old settlements in Venezuela and French Guiana, the trajectories of many of those profiledinmypresentationarechallengingtheconfigurationofnewroutesandcircuitsthat arenotentirelynew.differentpathstomapoutthesocio%spatialmobilitypattern,weseethat insurinamthereisaresidencevisacalled Toelating thatmustberenewedeveryoneortwo yearstoobtainapermanentvisacalled Vesteging.AmongthosewhopassthroughSurinamto gettobrazil,sometravelledwiththeir Toelating ortheircarte'de'séjourfromfrenchguiana. Amobilepersonensuresthatheorsheaccumulatesasmanyofficialdocumentsaspossibleto beopenforallopportunitiesalongtheirpath.duringthetriptomacapátooyapoque,passing throughcayenne,peopleusesuchitinerarytoconnectwithnetworksbasedinthecapitalof Amapá to renew their papers, from the Police Federal, even when they already had a Récépissé,adocumentattestingforanasylumdemandinFrance.Havingmorethanonevisa meanshavingthepossibilitytomakemorebackandforthmovements.someofthesepeople willgotocayenneandtheneverysixmonthsreturntomacapá. CONCLUSION Inthispapermyattemptwastounderstandthefactorsexplaininghowspatialpatternscannot besimplytreatedasresidentorillegalcitizens practicesinacity,butneedtobeinscribedina muchbroaderequationoftransnationality,spatialityandterritoriality.inacontextofcross% borderpractices,thenotionofmobilitycontributestoabetterunderstandingofthefluidityof commercialexchangesamongmigrants,entrepreneurs,andsociety(hostandhomeland. Theanalysisrevealedthatin%betweentransactionsamongHaitianentrepreneursarepartofa broaderprocessofgoing here and there somewhatdifferentlyshapedbytherelationshipto spatial capital. In the context of French Guiana, cross%border transactions for a basis for fosteringsocialsolidarityandunderstandingofasetofrelationalresourcesbasedonbelonging tonetworks.thefindingshavedemonstratedtheusageofspatialresourcesthroughalogicof collective action and a cumulative group experience (in terms of spatial mobility and cross% bordercirculationgivingrisetodifferentmodesofappropriatingspaceandcollectivelyacting andthinking. An important remaining gap is analysis of the different implications for the nature of citizenshipbetweenmigrants,theterritorialstateandhomeland.specifically,towhatextent migrantentrepreneurialdynamismcaninformthenatureofcitizenship/noncitizenshipwithin a broader debate on extra%territoriality? If entrepreneurship represents a key site for understandingprocessesofspatialmobility,italsochallengesdifferentmodesofappropriating spaceandthinkingcollectively(adigunaetal.2012.italsocallsintoquestionasortofbinary thinking about a single and homogeneous Haitian community. This opens a broad field of researchpossibilities,whichlinkspatternsofmobility,pluralityofinstitutionalcontextsandof interconnectionsbetweendifferentmigrantcommunitiesandtheirhomeland. 10
19 APPENDIXD LISTOFINTERVIEWSDONEINFRENCHGUIANA(MARCH2010 Name Association InterviewSite 1 Tony** AIDE CitéBrutus%RadioMozaikMeeeting 2 Colin AIDE EgliseNazaréennedeCayenne 3 AL AssociationSanKomplexASK CitéJean%Marie 4 Lubin Aucune ConsulateofHaiti(Cayenne 5 Mama** AIDE CitéBonhomme 6 Daniela AIDE CitéBonhomme 7 Fritz** None StLaurentduMaroni 8 Fito** UHAF/A.D.A.P. StLaurentduMaroni 9 Tom EgliseNéo%Apostolique StLaurentduMaroni 10 Brice EgliseCombattantdelaCroix StLaurentduMaroni 11 Jacob** ASCG/UnionStLouisiens Mana 12 Mélanie UnionStLouisiens Mana 13 Phil UJEHG/ EgliseEvangéliqueBaptiste,Cabassou 14 Loulou** AIDE/RDNP Rémire%Montjoly 15 Jeanjean** AIDE/MECENES Rémire%Montjoly 16 Fipo Symphonie/UJEHG/AIDE CitéAnatole 17 Henry** ASFMF EauLisette 18 Pierre AssociationSolidaritéASCG Kourou 19 Nadine** CACHE/CollectifKourou Kourou *Allnamesarefictitious;entrepreneurs aremarked** 16
20 SergeLOUIS RomanaBALMIN HaitianConsulofFrenchGuiana Cayenne,2010 AdministrativeSecretary, Trade&CraftsOffice Post%earthquake management in the Haitian/Guianesecommunity Data on Business activity in the HaitianpopulationatSt%Laurent FatherMichel InchargeofPastoralCareofMigrants StJosephChurch(Mana 17
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