Factors affecting the reproductive performance of sows

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1 Factors affecting the reproductive performance sows Varley M.A. in Aumaître A. (ed.). The producti pig me in Mediterranean Countries Par : CHEAM Optis Méditerranéennes : Série Etudes; n pages Article available line / Article dpible en ligne à l adresse : To cite th article / Pour citer cet article Varley M.A. Factors affecting the reproductive performance sows. n : Aumaître A. (ed.). The producti pig me in Mediterranean Countries. Par : CHEAM, p (Optis Méditerranéennes : Série Etudes; n )

2 101 Factors affecting the reproductive performance sows A. University Leeds - United Kingdom There are many diverse factors which can have a pround effect the reproductive performance are: the genotype the sow boar, the health stus the herd the general envirment provided for the paper to ccentre those factors which are under direct management ctrol which are ecomically significant. Compents reproductive performance to be csidered are: lacti length, climic social envirment prolificacy. There has been progressive improvement in recent years in sow productivity th trend seems likely to Livestock Commsi show th over the years , sow productivity in the United piglets reared per sow per year to 20.0 reared per sow per year. There gre varii between herds in th respect in 1984 the top 10% herds weaning piglets between days age were recorded as rearing 26.8 piglets per sow per year (2.6 litters per sow per year; 11.1 piglets achieve performances th level but there may be lesss to learn from these top herds which could help the average farmer. - Envirmental effects cditis in additi to the impositi good to the animal, can also be associed efficiency. compents which may play a needed. (1971) has suggested th high associed with size Tomes Neils (1979) not always so. Obviously the effects high size in the female pig cfounded by (1975) two weeks ming Table 1 a by (1985) showing th he effects development weight Table &, (1985) 336f sow. the the Leucine in

3 102 l times when deficiency piglets most likely to be seen. likely to be involved in seasal which 1982; 1981; et al., 1982) no study to de has a significant effect The social pig an excellent model the most significant th. to much a involved in Table 2: Correli coefficients between reproductive performance the quality stockmanship (1981) sows with humans % i No. piglets cclusis can be but it does in the sow affected by good bad stockmanship in the same way th milk yield in be influenced by the 1972). has sows some may be we may develop systems building designs which fulfil1 the evidence sows gilts can be been social manifests itself much sow as complete - Sow nutriti, body cditi prolificacy (1978), sows housed individually. (1981) size. These sows 12 to which sows Table 2 gives the by et (1981) between the each sows which showed an abundance the last 20 sow body compositi Th has a sound sows intake ly a effective means establhed above maintenance. a cost now become levels sow, too many animals without the middle b body cditi. be low to individual sow body cditi adjust feed the ideal body cditi body weight change

4 phases a sow's life. As as little doubt th the sow can without loss Cole, 1978b; incidence dysfuncti been an few to sows gilts in body cditi, the likely last (i.e. up to post coitum been open to much dcussi. The evidence indices th least in gilts, it advable to feed intake in the weeks 1968). well defined but a by Topl, Ginesi showed 2 4 a diet ctaining days post no day 30 sows ten a to body cditi losses possible to apply following - Early weaning The applici 20 played a in sow biological effects now well as lacti length weaning to ccepti, ccepti given by the equi: Y = log, X Cole, 1978b). Y = X = the cclusi (7-20 days) no annual sow it 2.8 has been made th the optimi weaning age weeks. The questi when to wean not so simple be the available management skills. th if sow goal then weaning 21 days would the main time. Wh does model the sow all the known biological facts the ecomic The da depicted in Figure 1 a new with an intensive building system good be seen th slightly less than a 20 day lacti length. Financial shows a positive value. a weaning age about 35 days. capital Figure 2 the same point as the much 1970s. The optimum age to wean to although it to be weeks age, it if the ecomic situi changes. Wh needed inexpensive soya low cost will knowledge the young pig much advanced. Although most 25 sow a week weaning system, they by accepting 22 piglets a five week weaning system today's knowledge. optis

5 l Endocrine stus early-weaned sows Atkins 1981; Atkins, 1984; 1983). do cventially teed sows (weaned 1983; et al., 1984) a it impossible to maxime annual sow , da). also little csequence 12 alive if 15% these die within 48 ten the case. incidence nea1 dehs these include coli timing ovuli peak does not widely technical optis open to now being used et al., blood levels by - Cclusis the same implanti blastocysts. th open the moment sows show A cventially weaned sows show than a a hope th it may be made by a. One possibility a compound the as a to be de in th field it does may known to as may be th some animals a cclusis V - Prolificacy nea1 management usually by to animals size. now have the opti to select a company s gilts the bas Use an hygiene; Stocking density a good genotype, it then good some the points lted below. Feed sows gilts as body cditi; sows not too high; sows. good optis

6 a sow accommodi; Avoid Avoid the impositi stockmanship as well pigs to size. the animal, as to management the highest good the genotype, the housing, the feeding the style management, the actually tending to the animal's needs. 16 to 20 the,basic mechanms it might yet be possible to sell bac pigs a 100 sows. Chaney, Feed intake Exp. Stu. No. 176: S changes in sows weaned two stages lacti. J. 67: L.G a 16 h = or a 8hL = to influence efficiency in sows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 62: swine pp Effect light changes W.J The the success mings. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 4: A. P. Willems, The sows to the human beings to Sci. 8, Thin sows. 1. the fecundity J. Sci.,Camb. 89: Lapwood, W.C. Smith, lacti 10 or 35 days. J. Fert.70: J.W., F.L. Cunningham, The effect extended the sow, J.Anim. Sci Ld. A.G., , p ed. Cole, pp A study to influence the milk yield. J. Sci. 1:l- Tomes, G.J. Nielsen, cditis. Wld. Anim. 15:(1) Ginesi, A.E The influence high food Anim. 37: Cole, 1978a. between the weight change the sow Soc. Anim Cole, 1978b. Studies. in sow 6. The effect lacti length implanti losses. Anim. 27: Atkins, Effect lacti length the sow plasma 17 Anim. 38: T. Atkins, L.N The effect Ed. Cole, J. 33.

7 106 Figure 1 : Effect weaning age ecomic aspects pig producti GMSOW f 25 za SS MARQH 80W --i ON CACltAL W +l O +S O WEANNQ AGE (days) Figure 2 : The effect weaning age pritability Gre Britain costs X. * Current Feed Costs T ' l * Weaning Age (days) optis

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