Before answering the questions, we think it important to define two of the terms that are used.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Before answering the questions, we think it important to define two of the terms that are used."

Transcription

1 Intra EU air traffic The revision of Regulation 1617/93 is intimately related to the economic fundamentals of the airlines industry. As outlined in paragraphs 29 to 34 of the paper, one may argue that following more than a decade of liberalised intra EU air transport markets, the airline industry has very much tended to restructure its operations along the lines of the so-called hub & spoke model to benefit from the economies of scale and scope which stem from it. Moreover, they have tried to leverage and enhance these economies of scope through the conclusion of numerous and various airline cooperation agreements which range from simple code share to full blown global alliance agreements. As a result of this the paper argues, new forms of interlining (i.e. ability for passengers to seamlessly travel across the networks of different operating carriers) have appeared and considerably developed thanks to code share and alliance agreements, next to the traditional IATA interlining. Accordingly, the benefits which consumers enjoy out of the IATA Interlining may have diminished (See paragraphs 52 to 63 of the paper). Against this background, below is a set of practical / business oriented questions, the answer to which may be of particular help to the services of the Commission in preparing the revision of Regulation 1617/93: Before answering the questions, we think it important to define two of the terms that are used. For the sake of clarity, we understand interlinable fares to be such that they can be used for travel on any IATA airline and transferred without cost or dispute between IATA member airlines for a similar journey. Published IATA fares are the types of fare generally available via the GDS network. Apart from a small number of fare types, they all carry some form of restriction, which limits travel to the issuing airline. 1. Does the description of the above developments in the airline industry conform to reality in the eyes of the airlines corporate customers? Yes it does, although many do not actually realise that anything has changed fundamentally. Within Europe, and the UK in particular, the rise of no frills carriers, which are often not within the IATA system, has had a significant effect on corporate travel. All indications are that full interlining of IATA fares is used by only a very small number of corporate travel purchasers. In general, corporate purchasing managers look for the most flexible fare, at the lowest cost, in line with travel policy. They are happy to accept airline-only restrictions in return for substantial discounts. In Europe the majority of IATA fares are also available on an airline s own website. 2. Is it the case for corporate customers that the benefits they enjoy from the IATA interlining system may have declined? if so, in what proportion? Yes, they have declined, directly because of the alliances and code share agreements. There are certain clients who always have multiple itineraries and will

2 need to use the interlining facility with prorated sectors etc. The rise in use of net fares and other specials has changed the traditional pattern of buying. We do not have any trend analysis, but all indications are that, with the changes in business models and the desire by airlines to dramatically reduce costs and deal direct with corporations, the decline over the last 10 years has been dramatic. We estimate that, on average, full interlinable IATA fares account for less than 5% of corporate tickets purchased. In the case of major corporations with a managed travel policy, this figure is virtually nil. Between 65% and 80% of corporate tickets carry some form of airline discount mostly up front at point of sale. The remainder are airline published fares, which also carry varying degrees of booking limitations. 3. Do corporations continue to purchase tickets issues at IATA fares? Yes, but the level of purchase is very dependent on the travel profile of the individual company staff. Please see the overall split given in 4 below. 4. What may be the proportion of such IATA fare tickets purchased against tickets issued on the basis of other fares (net, promotional, negotiated, carrier specific, alliance specific, interlinable or not, )? Between the EU and the rest of the world, representative figures are: 5% Fully interlinable 40% Restricted published fares 55% Discounted corporate or agent negotiated rates Within the EU, the ratios become: 5% Fully interlinable 60% Restricted published fares 35% Discounted corporate or agent negotiated rates 5. Some universities and business schools teach that, where corporate travel budgets reach EUR or USD seven digit figures, implementation of a corporate travel policy and conclusion of contracts providing for negotiated air fares may result in substantial savings for corporations. Is this the case in practice? Most definitely, savings are made by effective management of travel purchasing. The exact amount depends on volume, route structure, ability to control travel spend etc.. However, it is not uncommon to realise savings of between 10 and 25% on Short Haul and 15 and 40% on long haul journeys. Special short term promotions can see long haul discounts over 50% from foreign carriers to a country. (Especially American carriers). However, for the large number of smaller companies, general net fare deals and spot buying can show savings exceeding those offered in a corporate route deal. Furthermore, corporates with smaller spends than quoted may still secure airline deals and/or utilise such deals negotiated by travel management companies. In addition, there exist corporate loyalty and advanced, bulk purchase programmes that can provide real savings for smaller companies.

3 6. If so, is it possible to describe the main elements particular to a few categories of the most commonly found corporate contracts (other party to the contract: airline or alliance? nature of the product: not interlinable/interlinable tickets and fares, subject as the case may be to certain limitations (even within the carrier s/alliance s network) or conditions? type of negotiated fare: flat rate or rebate off a reference fare (in the case of a negotiated rebate off a reference fare, please specify the what fare and whether the said reference fare is carrier/alliance specific) which may possibly vary over time? order of magnitude of the savings which may be achieved, )? See appendix 2 for examples of corporate contracts. (please note these are for illustration only and are typical of all carriers) There are various types of corporate contracts as illustrated in appendix 2 None of the contracted fares are fully interlinable. e.g. Fixed fare available at point of sale for city pair e.g. 100 euro LHR - CDG return Fixed discount off full fare e.g. 10% e.g. 110 euro less 10% = 99 euros Volume rebate on full fares across city pairs e.g. 5% of total value Etc It is customary for airlines to use the full interlinable fare as a benchmark fare when giving discounts. In other words, a % discount will be linked to the highest fare. As these fares increase so does the discounted fare. e.g. Discount at point of sale Interlinable fare = 1,000 euro 20% Discount = 200 euro Net fare = 800 euro Interlining is further eroded by airline alliances offering discounts where a passenger completes a journey within an alliance group. 7. As the case may be, what is the percentage of corporate travel which falls outside the scope of the defined travel policy and preferential contracts negotiated with carriers and others? This depends on the individual corporation A typical large travel management company will have around 60% to 85% of its client base on some kind of managed travel policy Many large multi-national companies are introducing high compliance policies and consolidating purchasing across markets to ensure 100% control. In fact most of these companies are increasingly falling under the control of the central procurement function or finance. Travel as a distinct group is fast disappearing. Unmanaged travel tends to be limited to smaller corporations with small number of employees. We take managed travel to reflect the existence of a travel policy which is enforced. However, it is unlikely that anything more than a third of the managed travel spend is linked to preferential contracts. Industry estimates put the overall split at circa: 70% managed versus 30% unmanaged travel.

4 8. Are tickets purchased at IATA fares likely to fall outside standard corporate travel policies? It is possible but the percentage will be very small 9. Should IATA Tariff Conferences stop, what would be the consequences for your corporation in respect of intra EU routes? From what we can see, zero. Airlines are already able to set interline processes and rates without using a conference mechanism without appearing to conflict with competition legislation, at least in the USA. Alliance partners have successfully created e-ticket alliance interlining between themselves outside of IATA processes. Were the end of Tariff Conferences to prevent interline price setting, it is possible that costs would rise within the EU were separate ticket purchases needed for a multi-sector route, but it is also possible that competition on many such routes could hold down such cost increases. There could be additional costs associated with baggage reclaim and check in and the lack of advanced knowledge of the arrival times of passengers where travel is separately booked on more than one airline in an itinerary. 10. In your experience as a corporate travel services buyer and over time, do you see that there is some parallelism in the evolution of carrier/alliance specific fares and IATA fares? As the case may be, does this parallel evolution impact on the level of negotiated fares which your company has negotiated? Carrier specific and alliance fares have replaced the traditional interlining fare. In today s commercial world the airlines make there offers so attractive that purchasing full fares is no longer a financially viable option. There has to be some mechanism for agreeing fares between carriers and routes. Through fares are so much better for clients than sector fares. Air traffic between the EU and third countries Alike in the case on intra EU air traffic, any answer to the questions which flow from the 4 conditions laid down in Article 81(3) of the EC Treaty has to be intimately related to the economic fundamentals of the airlines industry. As outlined in paragraphs 72 to 76 of the paper, the regulatory framework governing air traffic on routes between the EU and third countries is very different from that which is applicable within the EU. On routes to third countries, the said regulatory framework is in fact very diverse (it stems from a myriad of bilateral air services agreements concluded between EU Member States and third countries) and on the whole (except for most routes between the EU and the USA) quite restrictive in so far as market access is often limited and/or fares may not be freely set by airlines according to commercial considerations. Accordingly, in the absence of a pro competitive reform of this regulatory framework, forbidding as the case may be IATA Tariff Conferences on grounds of competition law may not likely result in effective airline competition on routes between the EU and third countries. Moreover, on average on routes between the EU and third countries, stage lengths are longer and more connections may be needed to reach one s final destination. At the scale of the world, global alliances may not have as global a reach as they may like to say when selling their services. Accordingly, the value to consumers of a global multilateral interlining system

5 such as the IATA system may be greater than in the case of intra EU routes (See paragraphs 90 to 95). Against this background, below is a set of practical / business oriented questions, the answer to which may be of particular help to the services of the Commission: a) Absent a pro competitive reform of bilateral air services agreements, do you consider that effective airline competition may materialise on routes between the EU and third countries if IATA Tariff conferences were to stop? Effective competition already exists on most major routes, and even on routes where duopolies prevail. There is no reason to believe, or evidence to suggest that stopping the conference mechanism will limit competition. One full IATA member, Aer Lingus, seems to have prospered by breaking away from the traditional airline model. IATA tariff conferences appear to have little or no impact on corporations. The only perceived beneficiaries of the conference system are the airlines b) In relative terms, compared to intra EU services, how beneficial to your corporation do you consider it is to have a global multilateral interlining system available? Is this reflected in the relative share of tickets purchased at IATA fares? Is it reflected in any way in some contracts negotiated with airlines or alliances? More beneficial, as there are more circumstances where multi carriers/sectors are required to reach ultimate destination. Airline alliances already operate this system for their own members. They make the proposition so appealing that any alternative is too costly to corporations. However, we do not support the abolition of interlining. Travellers still need to be able to build worldwide itineraries using a mix of full and discounted interlinable fares in order to do business effectively. The only question is whether this still needs to be facilitated by a tariff conference in a process deemed to be anti-competitive. Interlining is certainly addressed in a number of corporate contracts with airlines. c) Should IATA Tariff Conferences stop, what would be the consequences for your corporation in respect of routes between the EU and third countries? As long as interlining were to continue, there would be no impact SUMMARY It is our view that the interlining system of ticketing should continue to be available, as today, in order to allow benefits for travellers using airlines who are not partners in the major alliances (we understand this figure to be around 47%). However, we see no reason why this type of system needs to be managed using the IATA tariff conference mechanism. Airlines have proven their ability to work, compete together and set fare rates in a commercial environment without the need for anti-trust immunity.

6

Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting

Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting Airports Commission Discussion Paper 01: Aviation Demand Forecasting Response from Kent County Council and Medway Council Q1: To what extent do you consider that the DfT forecasts support or challenge

More information

Big Data: Making sense of the numbers

Big Data: Making sense of the numbers EXPERT INSIGHTS Big Data: Making sense of the numbers Big Data is about collecting all the information that comes in from multiple sources, analysing it and using it to inform decision-making. This can

More information

What is next for Interline?

What is next for Interline? Improvement Opportunities in Interline Billing and Settlement RAWG What is next for Interline? Daily settlement? Not for a while we want the SIS process to stabilize first However we have to remember that

More information

Low cost airlines and internet fares: key benefits vs. the fine print

Low cost airlines and internet fares: key benefits vs. the fine print Low cost airlines and internet fares: key benefits vs. the fine print E-Guide 2 Introduction Firmly established in the airline industry and probably high in leisure travellers awareness, low cost carriers

More information

COMMITMENTS. 1. GENERAL AND DEFINITIONS 2. These Commitments shall be annexed to and form an integral part of the Commission s art. 9 decision.

COMMITMENTS. 1. GENERAL AND DEFINITIONS 2. These Commitments shall be annexed to and form an integral part of the Commission s art. 9 decision. COMMITMENTS 1. Austrian Airlines and SAS AB, collectively the Parties, hereby offer the Commitments set out below to resolve the competition concerns identified by the European Commission in the course

More information

2. Expansion of network / Enhance Competition:

2. Expansion of network / Enhance Competition: ADVANTAGES: Africa which could lead to an increase of tourists to South Africa and the creation of new business opportunities. Trade could also benefit through the availability of new airfreight links.

More information

In terlin e E lectron ic T ick etin g A Joint SITA/IATA Partnership Product Briefing

In terlin e E lectron ic T ick etin g A Joint SITA/IATA Partnership Product Briefing In terlin e E lectron ic T ick etin g A Joint SITA/IATA Partnership Product Briefing The Market Need There is widespread enthusiasm for electronic ticketing (e-ticketing) within the airline community.

More information

Accommodating ggrowth and hub development: experiences from Amsterdam and India

Accommodating ggrowth and hub development: experiences from Amsterdam and India Accommodating ggrowth and hub development: experiences from Amsterdam and India Dr Guillaume Burghouwt - Director Airneth - Head of section aviation economics, SEO Economic Research Outline Some important

More information

FAQs Optional Payment Charge (OPC) Version: 0.1 Author: Lufthansa Group

FAQs Optional Payment Charge (OPC) Version: 0.1 Author: Lufthansa Group FAQs Optional Payment Charge (OPC) Version: 0.1 Author: Lufthansa Group 1 Background & Basic Information...1 1.1 What is the meaning of Optional Payment Charge (OPC)?...1 1.2 Why are the Lufthansa Group

More information

Reservations, Ticketing & Integrity Policy for the SAS Group airlines.

Reservations, Ticketing & Integrity Policy for the SAS Group airlines. Reservations, Ticketing & Integrity Policy for the SAS Group airlines. The objective of this Reservations, Ticketing & Integrity Policy is to advise Travel Agents (IATA and Non- IATA Agents) on how to

More information

100% e-ticketing Frequently Asked Questions

100% e-ticketing Frequently Asked Questions 100% e-ticketing Frequently Asked Questions 1. The 100% electronic ticketing initiative 1.1 Where is the deadline coming from? 100% electronic ticketing is one of the five focus areas in the IATA Simplifying

More information

Section 3 Terms of Reference for the selection of Travel Agent(s) for IRENA in Abu Dhabi

Section 3 Terms of Reference for the selection of Travel Agent(s) for IRENA in Abu Dhabi Section 3 Terms of Reference for the selection of Travel Agent(s) for IRENA in Abu Dhabi I. Background: IRENA in Abu Dhabi plans to negotiate contract(s) for one year period (2012-2013) extendable up to

More information

Open Skies Mark Glynn McGill University Abu Dhabi Workshop on Air & Space Law: 12 April 2009

Open Skies Mark Glynn McGill University Abu Dhabi Workshop on Air & Space Law: 12 April 2009 Open Skies 1978-2009 Mark Glynn McGill University Abu Dhabi Workshop on Air & Space Law: 12 April 2009 Precursors to first wave liberalization (1) Bermuda II US UK was & remains the most important long

More information

CWT ViewPoint: CWT ViewPoint The Impact of Oil Prices and Fuel Surcharges on Corporate Travel. Perspective on industry-shaping developments

CWT ViewPoint: CWT ViewPoint The Impact of Oil Prices and Fuel Surcharges on Corporate Travel. Perspective on industry-shaping developments CWT ViewPoint: Perspective on industry-shaping developments September 2015 Americas CWT ViewPoint The Impact of Oil Prices and Fuel Surcharges on Corporate Travel Similar to the correlation between fuel

More information

GPM November 2014 Lori Tully, Secretary Treasurer and Managing Director Revenue Accounting

GPM November 2014 Lori Tully, Secretary Treasurer and Managing Director Revenue Accounting GPM November 2014 Lori Tully, Secretary Treasurer and Managing Director Revenue Accounting Introduction Airlines Clearing House, an airline owned, not for profit company, has provided net settlement services

More information

Greyhound Lines, Inc. Rural Feeder Service Handbook

Greyhound Lines, Inc. Rural Feeder Service Handbook Greyhound Lines, Inc. Rural Feeder Service Handbook February 2007 I. Introduction 3 II. Types & Nature of Feeder Services 4 III. Insurance Requirements 5 IV. Fares & Ticketing 5 V. Baggage Service 7 VI.

More information

real-time revenue management

real-time revenue management real-time revenue management Today has been another challenging day. This morning, my manager asked me to close down V class availability in August (apparently increasing average yield is the current management

More information

AIA Services. Foundation for today, Bridge to the future

AIA Services. Foundation for today, Bridge to the future AIA Services Foundation for today, Bridge to the future How can you make passenger interline billing easier and more accurate? Start using AIA Services. AIA Services are a suite of products that automate

More information

PROTECTION OF PASSENGERS IN CASE OF INSOLVENCY OF AIRLINES

PROTECTION OF PASSENGERS IN CASE OF INSOLVENCY OF AIRLINES PROTECTION OF PASSENGERS IN CASE OF INSOLVENCY OF AIRLINES BEUC Position Contact: Nuria Rodríguez consumercontracts@beuc.eu Ref.: X/2011/105-18/10/2011 EC register for interest representatives: identification

More information

New Skies Customer-Centric Reservation and Distribution System

New Skies Customer-Centric Reservation and Distribution System RESERVATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION SERVICES ANCILLARY REVENUE SERVICES REVENUE AND DECISION SUPPORT SERVICES New Skies Ready to lead the airline industry of tomorrow? It s been called a New World Order for

More information

IDEAS AND INNOVATION 1. BEST PRACTICES IN AIRLINES WEBSITES

IDEAS AND INNOVATION 1. BEST PRACTICES IN AIRLINES WEBSITES NEO IDEAS AND INNOVATION 1. BEST PRACTICES IN AIRLINES WEBSITES More trips, less money The travel industry has radically changed during the last 10 years. The economic context, the technological evolution

More information

Carolyn McCall speech to the European Aviation Club. 26 th February 2015

Carolyn McCall speech to the European Aviation Club. 26 th February 2015 Carolyn McCall speech to the European Aviation Club 26 th February 2015 To be checked against delivery Introduction Thank you for the kind introduction Rigas, and thank you to the European Aviation Club

More information

Travelport. Product Type(s) Contact Details. Company Information. Product Information. Air Reservations. Car Reservations. Global Distribution System

Travelport. Product Type(s) Contact Details. Company Information. Product Information. Air Reservations. Car Reservations. Global Distribution System Travelport Product Type(s) Global Distribution System Contact Details Travelport GDS, Axis Park 10 Hurricane Way Langley, Berkshire SL3 8AG United Kingdom Tel: offices worldwide see website Web: www.travelport.com

More information

Revenue Accounting Reference Number SAA-RS-01 JUNE 2014 Effective Date 2007 SECTION 2 CREDIT CARD SALES 2.1 CREDIT CARD FRAUD PROTECTION

Revenue Accounting Reference Number SAA-RS-01 JUNE 2014 Effective Date 2007 SECTION 2 CREDIT CARD SALES 2.1 CREDIT CARD FRAUD PROTECTION SECTION 2 CREDIT CARD SALES 2.1 CREDIT CARD FRAUD PROTECTION Credit card fraud is a world-wide trend. All Agents and Travel Consultants should be aware of this possibility and familiarise themselves with

More information

===== Overview of GDS Fees applicable in Hong Kong and Macau Market =====

===== Overview of GDS Fees applicable in Hong Kong and Macau Market ===== Dear Travel Agent Partners, To enhance the correct use of GDS, Lufthansa has introduced, since 2010, a policy of GDS Fee in adherence to the IATA Travel Agent s Handbook and the IATA Resolution 830a. We

More information

1. HOW DOES FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRADING WORK?

1. HOW DOES FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRADING WORK? XV. Important additional information on forex transactions / risks associated with foreign exchange transactions (also in the context of forward exchange transactions) The following information is given

More information

With Amadeus you enjoy the worldwide largest community of carriers and markets using Electronic Ticketing!

With Amadeus you enjoy the worldwide largest community of carriers and markets using Electronic Ticketing! Dear Travel Partner, Its time to go 100% E-ticketing. IATA s Simplifying the Business initiative has called for a 100% paperless environment by the end of May 2008. The Airline Industry will achieve a

More information

Airline Distribution. Air Transport Management Seminar Universidade Lusofona Lisbon 7th - 11th January 2008

Airline Distribution. Air Transport Management Seminar Universidade Lusofona Lisbon 7th - 11th January 2008 Airline Distribution Air Transport Management Seminar Universidade Lusofona Lisbon 7th - 11th January 2008 Dr Keith Mason Director Business Travel Research Centre www.businesstravelresearch.com Dept of

More information

Improving the Delivery of Aviation Permits for Foreign Registered Aircraft - Summary of Consultation Responses and the Government s Decision

Improving the Delivery of Aviation Permits for Foreign Registered Aircraft - Summary of Consultation Responses and the Government s Decision Improving the Delivery of Aviation Permits for Foreign Registered Aircraft - Summary of Consultation Responses and the Government s Decision The purpose of this Consultation was to invite views on two

More information

Information meeting. Cheuvreux Conference September 2010. Philippe Calavia CFO, Air France-KLM

Information meeting. Cheuvreux Conference September 2010. Philippe Calavia CFO, Air France-KLM Information meeting Cheuvreux Conference September 2010 Philippe Calavia CFO, Air France-KLM Air transportation: a growth industry CAGR 2001-11 GDP: +2.7% World Passenger traffic: +5.0% World cargo traffic:

More information

Data Integrity in Travel Management Reporting

Data Integrity in Travel Management Reporting The travel management reports produced by back office systems and third-party reporting tools are often plagued with omissions, errors and inconsistencies. Although the output of a system is generally

More information

Sample Travel Policy. TMG Policy Doc 12/11

Sample Travel Policy. TMG Policy Doc 12/11 Sample Travel Policy TMG Policy Doc 12/11 Sample Travel and Accommodation Policy Staff in cooperation with its preferred travel management company (TMC) must find the most cost effective way to travel

More information

Use of United States Flag Air Carriers From General Services Administration 41 CFR 301-3 and 301-10

Use of United States Flag Air Carriers From General Services Administration 41 CFR 301-3 and 301-10 Fly America Act The Fly America Act was enacted in 1974 to mandate the use of U.S. flag air carriers for federally funded international travel. Since the Fly America Act s enactment, innumerable changes

More information

SAXO BANK S BEST EXECUTION POLICY

SAXO BANK S BEST EXECUTION POLICY SAXO BANK S BEST EXECUTION POLICY THE SPECIALIST IN TRADING AND INVESTMENT Page 1 of 8 Page 1 of 8 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 This policy is issued pursuant to, and in compliance with, EU Directive 2004/39/EC

More information

Aviation Policy at 20 Years: Accomplishments, Challenges and the Need for Further Change

Aviation Policy at 20 Years: Accomplishments, Challenges and the Need for Further Change Aviation Policy at 20 Years: Accomplishments, Challenges and the Need for Further Change ATAC AGM 14 November 2012 Presentation by Gerry Bruno, Group CEO InterVISTAS Consulting 20 Year Accomplishments

More information

Guide to online booking and having tickets issued

Guide to online booking and having tickets issued Guide to online booking and having tickets issued Search. As shown on Figure 1 the www.aeroflot.ru hyperlink points to the main page of the website from where you can navigate to the section of the site

More information

Traveler Help Desk Credit Card Authorization Form Fax completed form to (888) 331-2110

Traveler Help Desk Credit Card Authorization Form Fax completed form to (888) 331-2110 Traveler Help Desk Credit Card Authorization Form Fax completed form to (888) 331-2110 Please fax the following items: (1) This Credit Card Authorization Form (2) Photocopy of Credit Card (Both Sides)

More information

Travel management key challenges 14/15

Travel management key challenges 14/15 Travel management key challenges 14/15 Page 1 2014 Key challenges travel management 14/15 Introduction Internal Cost reduction UK target of 25% reduction over 2 years Increasing amount of project business

More information

A Guide to Using HiFX

A Guide to Using HiFX A Guide to Using HiFX Welcome to HiFX Whatever your international payments needs, HiFX gives you access to consistent bank beating exchange rates and the ability to arrange international money transfers

More information

Establishing successful closed book operations

Establishing successful closed book operations Establishing successful closed book operations The insurance market is not immune to the changes in recent years in financial services. A combination of economic recession in Europe and increased regulation

More information

The Evolution of Inter Carrier Settlements

The Evolution of Inter Carrier Settlements Seminar on Costs & Tariffs for the TAF Group Member Countries Niamey (Niger), 23-25 April 2001 The Evolution of Inter Carrier Settlements Didier Lacroix +33 1 45 23 92 92 Didier.Lacroix@intec-telecom-systems.com

More information

TAP Portugal. Responsible Booking Policies. Booking Procedures and Consequent Penalties

TAP Portugal. Responsible Booking Policies. Booking Procedures and Consequent Penalties TAP Portugal Responsible Booking Policies Booking Procedures and Consequent Penalties May 2014 Introduction The purpose of this document is to inform our agency partners about existing rules and recommended

More information

Bogdan Georgescu BUES georgescubogdanmk@gmail.com

Bogdan Georgescu BUES georgescubogdanmk@gmail.com Pricing Strategy in Services - Pricing Strategies in Transport Services Bogdan Georgescu BUES georgescubogdanmk@gmail.com The paper aims to highlight the main ways in price fixing strategies in general

More information

EUROPEAN LOW FARES AIRLINE ASSOCIATION

EUROPEAN LOW FARES AIRLINE ASSOCIATION York Aviation EUROPEAN LOW FARES AIRLINE ASSOCIATION MARKET SHARE OF LOW FARES AIRLINES IN EUROPE Final Report February 2011 Originated by: James Brass... Dated: 7 th February 2011... Reviewed by: Richard

More information

AEA s response to the public consultation on the aviation package. Prerequisites for a competitive European airline industry policy

AEA s response to the public consultation on the aviation package. Prerequisites for a competitive European airline industry policy Brussels, 8 June 2015 AEA s response to the public consultation on the aviation package Prerequisites for a competitive European airline industry policy Europe needs a cohesive, supportive aviation policy

More information

The Truth about Finding the Lowest Airfare

The Truth about Finding the Lowest Airfare The Truth about Finding the Lowest Airfare My employees tell me they can find lower airfares on the Internet 2011 Hurley Travel Experts, Inc. Reproduction Prohibited. This paper includes data that shall

More information

TRAVELTIME. Business Travel Services. Overview

TRAVELTIME. Business Travel Services. Overview TRAVELTIME Business Travel Services Overview THE TRAVELTIME GROUP TRAVELTIME was set up to meet the needs of discerning travellers looking for personal service when making their leisure and business travel

More information

HOW TO USE. ATPCO s Baggage Calculator Online Version 1.4

HOW TO USE. ATPCO s Baggage Calculator Online Version 1.4 HOW TO USE ATPCO s Baggage Calculator Online Version 1.4 Contents Baggage Calculator Online Overview...3 Access Information...3 Canadian Transportation Agency...4 IATA Resolution 302...5 Frequently Used

More information

Here you will find the answers to the most frequently asked questions about Lufthansa Group agent.com. Firstly, please select a subject area:

Here you will find the answers to the most frequently asked questions about Lufthansa Group agent.com. Firstly, please select a subject area: Here you will find the answers to the most frequently asked questions about Lufthansa Group agent.com. Firstly, please select a subject area: The purpose of Lufthansa Group agent.com... 3 Why is Lufthansa

More information

International Air Transport Policy. Submission by the Aviation Industry Association of New Zealand to the Policy review document

International Air Transport Policy. Submission by the Aviation Industry Association of New Zealand to the Policy review document Aviation Industry Association of NZ (Inc) Level 5, Agriculture House, 12 Johnston Street, PO Box 2096, Wellington 6140 Telephone (04) 472-2707 Facsimile (04) 471-1314 Email: admin1@aia.org.nz Website:

More information

PROS ORIGIN & DESTINATION REVENUE MANAGEMENT III

PROS ORIGIN & DESTINATION REVENUE MANAGEMENT III PROS ORIGIN & DESTINATION REVENUE MANAGEMENT III The most advanced network revenue management solution in the world. Unlock Your Data Unleash Your Sales As you expand your network, the pressure to maximize

More information

Multi Country Inventory (MCI) shipments and VAT

Multi Country Inventory (MCI) shipments and VAT Multi Country Inventory (MCI) shipments and VAT Do not let VAT be a barrier to using MCI Programme May 2014 All content in this webinar and this presentation is prepared by Meridian Global Services. Amazon

More information

Mary Immaculate College. Travel and Expenses Policy

Mary Immaculate College. Travel and Expenses Policy 1. Introduction Mary Immaculate College Travel and Expenses Policy Adopted by ABR Pro Tem on 17 Dec. 2014 Updated to comply with Circular 05/2015 from 1 st July 2015 The M.I.C. Travel & Expenses Policy

More information

MEMO/09/143. General What are interchange fees? Brussels, 1 st April 2009

MEMO/09/143. General What are interchange fees? Brussels, 1 st April 2009 MEMO/09/143 Brussels, 1 st April 2009 Antitrust: Commissioner Kroes notes MasterCard's decision to cut cross-border Multilateral Interchange Fees (MIFs) and to repeal recent scheme fee increases frequently

More information

Catania Airport Commercial Aviation Policy 2016 on incremental international traffic. 31st January 2016

Catania Airport Commercial Aviation Policy 2016 on incremental international traffic. 31st January 2016 Catania Airport Commercial Aviation Policy 2016 on incremental international traffic 31st January 2016 Commercial Policy Guidelines AIM This policy aims at increasing traffic (both on international connections

More information

CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY

CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY 3.1 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to deal with the economic characteristics of the airline industry. The special nature of the airline

More information

08 May 2003 INTRODUCTION

08 May 2003 INTRODUCTION Comments by Cable and Wireless Submitted in Response to the Public Consultation on request by Singapore Telecommunications Limited for Exemption from Dominant Licensee Obligations with Respect to the International

More information

OPTIMIZING SALES EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH VALUE AND DIFFERENTIATION

OPTIMIZING SALES EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH VALUE AND DIFFERENTIATION OPTIMIZING SALES EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH VALUE AND DIFFERENTIATION UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMER NEEDS Most sales organizations strive to preserve their margins during the sales process; but even the savviest salesperson

More information

Quick Reference Guide for US Travel Agents

Quick Reference Guide for US Travel Agents Lufthansa German Airlines Page 1 of 10 Last updated: 11/9/2012 Quick Reference Guide for US Travel Agents Agent Debit Memo (ADM) Policy of Lufthansa German Airlines Lufthansa German Airlines Page 2 of

More information

Crane PAX. Choice of fast growing airlines.

Crane PAX. Choice of fast growing airlines. Crane PAX Crane PAX is the cornerstone of Crane Airline Suite. It is a modern passenger service system (PSS) that allows airlines and their affiliates to create, design, distribute and deliver advanced

More information

COMMITMENTS PACKAGE. CASE COMP/37984 SkyTeam

COMMITMENTS PACKAGE. CASE COMP/37984 SkyTeam COMMITMENTS PACKAGE CASE COMP/37984 SkyTeam Pursuant to Article 9(1) of Council Regulation (EC) 1/2003 as amended ( Regulation 1/2003 ), Aerovías de México S.A, Alitalia-Linee Aeree Italiane S.p.A., České

More information

Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted market power assessments

Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted market power assessments Civil Aviation Authority Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted market power assessments Summary of the CAA s initial views January 2012 (page left intentionally blank) Civil Aviation Authority Airport market

More information

ESRI Research Note. The Irish Electricity Market: New Regulation to Preserve Competition Valeria di Cosmo and Muireann Á. Lynch

ESRI Research Note. The Irish Electricity Market: New Regulation to Preserve Competition Valeria di Cosmo and Muireann Á. Lynch ESRI Research Note The Irish Electricity Market: New Regulation to Preserve Competition Valeria di Cosmo and Muireann Á. Lynch Research Notes are short papers on focused research issues. They are subject

More information

IFRS IN PRACTICE. Accounting for convertible notes

IFRS IN PRACTICE. Accounting for convertible notes IFRS IN PRACTICE Accounting for convertible notes 2 IFRS IN PRACTICE - ACCOUNTING FOR CONVERTIBLE NOTES TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 3 The basic requirements of IFRSs 4 Example 1 Convertible note in

More information

Finnair Q3 Result 2012. 26 October 2012

Finnair Q3 Result 2012. 26 October 2012 Finnair Q3 Result 2012 26 October 2012 1 Content Market environment in Q3 Business performance and strategy execution Outlook Financials 2 Finnair Q3 Result, 26 October 2012 Market Environment The global

More information

1. Agreement Between United Airlines and Agent: 2. Definitions:

1. Agreement Between United Airlines and Agent: 2. Definitions: United GDS/CRS Booking and Ticketing Policy 1. Agreement Between United Airlines and Agent: This Booking and Ticketing Policy must be followed by any Travel Management Company (TMC) or other entity that

More information

Credit Card Market Study Interim Report: Annex 5 Firm business model analysis

Credit Card Market Study Interim Report: Annex 5 Firm business model analysis MS14/6.2: Annex 5 Market Study business model analysis November 2015 Introduction 1. This annex summarises issuers approach to evaluating profitability, as well as a summary of the role of affinity and

More information

REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP) CONSOLIDATED TRAVEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES FOR KANSAS ATHLETICS, INC. January 2009

REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP) CONSOLIDATED TRAVEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES FOR KANSAS ATHLETICS, INC. January 2009 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP) CONSOLIDATED TRAVEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES FOR SECTION I - PURPOSE OF THE RFP KANSAS ATHLETICS, INC. January 2009 1. PURPOSE Kansas Athletics, Inc. (KAI) is soliciting formal presentations

More information

Interline Tariffs Product Guide 2016

Interline Tariffs Product Guide 2016 Interline Tariffs Product Guide 2016 2 Content Ticketing Handbook... 4 IATA Suite of Tax Products... 4 City Code Directory... 6 Mileage Manual... 7 Ticketed Point Mileage Manual... 8 The Mileage Suite...

More information

1 Level 2 - Telesales. Air Fares & Ticketing 2 (IATA Level 1) Approved by and leading to the. City & Guilds Qualification at Level 2

1 Level 2 - Telesales. Air Fares & Ticketing 2 (IATA Level 1) Approved by and leading to the. City & Guilds Qualification at Level 2 1 Level 2 - Telesales Air Fares & Ticketing 2 (IATA Level 1) Approved by and leading to the City & Guilds Qualification at Level 2 CONTENTS Jargon Buster 5 Outcome 1: Describe IATA Codes 13 Outcome 2:

More information

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT EN EN EN COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Consultation on the application of Council Regulation (EEC) 793/2004 on common rules for the allocation of slots at Community airports 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. On

More information

CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT

CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT NOTICE : if the passenger s journey involves an ultimate destination or stop in a country other than the country of departure the Warsaw Convention may be applicable and the Convention governs and in most

More information

Amadeus Business Intelligence Portfolio. Business Management. Don t just guess! be sure

Amadeus Business Intelligence Portfolio. Business Management. Don t just guess! be sure Business Management Don t just guess! be sure More than data: the power to make informed decisions Is speed to market enough? It s no longer news, but it deserves to be repeated again and again: the world

More information

SECTION 2 - CREDIT CARD SALES

SECTION 2 - CREDIT CARD SALES SECTION 2 - CREDIT CARD SALES 2.1 CREDIT CARD FRAUD PROTECTION Credit card fraud is a world-wide trend. All Agents and Travel Consultants should be aware of this possibility. To prevent credit card fraud,

More information

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT THE FUTURE OF THE COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON THE APPLICATION OF ARTICLE 101 TFEU TO MARITIME TRANSPORT SERVICES

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT THE FUTURE OF THE COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON THE APPLICATION OF ARTICLE 101 TFEU TO MARITIME TRANSPORT SERVICES EUROPEAN COMMISSION COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT THE FUTURE OF THE COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON THE APPLICATION OF ARTICLE 101 TFEU TO MARITIME TRANSPORT SERVICES EN EN This document is a European Commission

More information

Labour s Policy Review. Real Energy Market Reform

Labour s Policy Review. Real Energy Market Reform Labour s Policy Review Real Energy Market Reform REAL ENERGY MARKET REFORM The energy market must be radically reformed so that people pay a fair price for their energy Energy bills are soaring, up by

More information

Introduction to Foreign Currency Exchange

Introduction to Foreign Currency Exchange Introduction to Foreign Currency Exchange Introduction to Foreign Currency Exchange In the most basic of terms, currency exchange (also known as foreign exchange, forex or FX) is where you swap one currency

More information

TRAVEL POLICY FOR THE U.S. SCIENCE SUPPORT PROGRAM (USSSP) OFFICE

TRAVEL POLICY FOR THE U.S. SCIENCE SUPPORT PROGRAM (USSSP) OFFICE TRAVEL POLICY FOR THE U.S. SCIENCE SUPPORT PROGRAM (USSSP) OFFICE Table of Contents TRAVEL AUTHORIZATION 2 AIR TRANSPORTATION GENERAL 2 EXPEDITION-RELATED TRAVEL 3 AIR CARRIER SELECTION 3 SATURDAY NIGHT

More information

Creating a Secondary Annuity Market: a response by the National Association of Pension Funds

Creating a Secondary Annuity Market: a response by the National Association of Pension Funds Creating a Secondary Annuity Market: a response by the National Association of Pension Funds June 2015 www.napf.co.uk Creating a secondary annuity market: a response by the NAPF Contents Executive Summary

More information

NEW TO FOREX? FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEMS There are basically two types of exchange rate systems:

NEW TO FOREX? FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEMS There are basically two types of exchange rate systems: NEW TO FOREX? WHAT IS FOREIGN EXCHANGE Foreign Exchange (FX or Forex) is one of the largest and most liquid financial markets in the world. According to the authoritative Triennial Central Bank Survey

More information

How to Become a Smart IP Transit Buyer

How to Become a Smart IP Transit Buyer How to Become a Smart IP Transit Buyer DISCLAIMER These slides show experience examples of the Init7 / AS13030 backbone over various years. They may work or may not work for you. Please use the methods

More information

Amsterdam, 20 th January 2016

Amsterdam, 20 th January 2016 Amsterdam, 20 th January 2016 Rue du Luxembourg 3 1050 Brussels - Belgium Tel +49 172 424 0381 aage.duenhaupt@a4e.eu www.a4e.eu A4E: New European airline association takes off - Launch event with EU Commissioner

More information

Criteria for adopting International Standards and Risk Assessments

Criteria for adopting International Standards and Risk Assessments Criteria for adopting International Standards and Risk Assessments February 2016 Criteria for Accepting International Standards and Risk Assessments 1 Table of Contents 1 About the Department... 3 2 The

More information

European Low Fares Airline Association

European Low Fares Airline Association European Low Fares Airline Association ELFAA s views on State Aid Competition between air transport and rail. An un-level playing field John Hanlon - Secretary General, ELFAA High speed rail vs low-cost

More information

Metafour. Product Type(s) Contact Details. Company Information. Product Information. Empower

Metafour. Product Type(s) Contact Details. Company Information. Product Information. Empower Metafour Product Type(s) Full Reservation and Administration System, Travel ecommerce Developer, Third Party System Integrator Contact Details 6 Russell Gardens Kensington London W14 8EZ United Kingdom

More information

How the Internet is Impacting Revenue Management, Pricing, and Distribution. E. Andrew Boyd Chief Scientist and Senior Vice President PROS

How the Internet is Impacting Revenue Management, Pricing, and Distribution. E. Andrew Boyd Chief Scientist and Senior Vice President PROS How the Internet is Impacting Revenue Management, Pricing, and Distribution E. Andrew Boyd Chief Scientist and Senior Vice President PROS 1 Prices and Sales 2 A Common Business Model List Price for Each

More information

GLOBAL RAIL DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION. Enjoy Europe Travel by Train!

GLOBAL RAIL DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION. Enjoy Europe Travel by Train! GLOBAL RAIL DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION Enjoy Europe Travel by Train! 1/ PRESENTATION OF RE4A Rail Europe is the worldwide leader in distribution of European Railways products. A joint venture between the French

More information

DRAFT REPORT. EN United in diversity EN 2014/2244(INI) 20.3.2015. on the implementation of multimodal integrated ticketing in the EU (2014/2244(INI))

DRAFT REPORT. EN United in diversity EN 2014/2244(INI) 20.3.2015. on the implementation of multimodal integrated ticketing in the EU (2014/2244(INI)) EUROPEAN PARLIAMT 2014-2019 Committee on Transport and Tourism 20.3.2015 2014/2244(INI) DRAFT REPORT on the implementation of multimodal integrated ticketing in the EU (2014/2244(INI)) Committee on Transport

More information

Evolution of Forex the Active Trader s Market

Evolution of Forex the Active Trader s Market Evolution of Forex the Active Trader s Market The practice of trading currencies online has increased threefold from 2002 to 2005, and the growth curve is expected to continue. Forex, an abbreviation for

More information

The Challenge of the Low-cost Airlines

The Challenge of the Low-cost Airlines The Challenge of the Low-cost Airlines Air Transport Management Seminar Universidade Lusofona Lisbon 7th - 11th January 2008 Dr Keith Mason Director Business Travel Research Centre www.businesstravelresearch.com

More information

CASE STUDY: RYANAIR 1

CASE STUDY: RYANAIR 1 CASE STUDY: RYANAIR 1 A) INTRODUCTION i. History & Background of The Company A brief history of Ryanair is set out to provide a background of submissions. Ryanair started in year 1985 with only 57 staff

More information

Economy Class: One bag 22x15x8 inches (55x38x20 cm) weighing not more than 15 lbs(7kg).

Economy Class: One bag 22x15x8 inches (55x38x20 cm) weighing not more than 15 lbs(7kg). CHECK-IN TIMES Emirates check-in counters worldwide open no less than 3 hours prior to departure. First and Business Class passengers should report to Emirates check-in desks not later than 1 hour prior

More information

Aquiet revolution, triggered by

Aquiet revolution, triggered by 32 I AIRLINE REVENUES Developments in information technology have allowed airlines to alter their methods of distribution and achieve savings related to pricing and revenue management, issuing tickets

More information

Online And Mobile Are Transforming B2B Commerce Firms That Act Now Will Gain Appreciably, Companies That Don t Will Fall Farther Behind

Online And Mobile Are Transforming B2B Commerce Firms That Act Now Will Gain Appreciably, Companies That Don t Will Fall Farther Behind A Forrester Consulting Thought Leadership Paper Commissioned By hybris October 2013 Online And Mobile Are Transforming B2B Commerce Firms That Act Now Will Gain Appreciably, Companies That Don t Will Fall

More information

The Implications of the Irish Air Travel Tax

The Implications of the Irish Air Travel Tax Amsterdam, November 2009 Commissioned by Aer Lingus/Ryanair/Cityjet The Implications of the Irish Air Travel Tax J. Veldhuis MSc J. Zuidberg MSc Roetersstraat 29-1018 WB Amsterdam - T (+31) 20 525 1630

More information

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION

Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 27.5.2016 COM(2016) 303 final 2016/0156 (NLE) Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Union and the Government of the Republic

More information

siemens.com/mobility Travel smarter with electronic ticketing

siemens.com/mobility Travel smarter with electronic ticketing siemens.com/mobility Travel smarter with electronic ticketing Translated reprint from: Nahverkehrs-praxis, March 2013 Travel smarter with electronic ticketing In future, intelligent electronic ticketing

More information

Amadeus Claims Policy

Amadeus Claims Policy Index Introduction... 3 Claim handling procedures... 3 Potential causes of claims... 3 Amadeus Role... 3 Time frame for logging a claim... 4 Actions to be taken by the claimant before submitting a claim...

More information

IATA Commercial Strategy Symposium 2010 Revenue Management Track Speakers December 8

IATA Commercial Strategy Symposium 2010 Revenue Management Track Speakers December 8 IATA Commercial Strategy Symposium 2010 Revenue Management Track Speakers December 8 Gary Parker Revenue Management Track Chairman Founder and President, rmexpertise.com With over 22 years working in revenue

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 18.4.2007 COM(2007) 183 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND

More information