2 Agenda Quick intro into barcodes Encoding and decoding Scanners Simple tricks Backend attacks Selected samples decoded Unsolved cases and an invitation Principles of secure barcode use
3 Disclaimer Dear audience: This talk covers observations made of widely used and well documented systems Trying anything against them may be considered a criminal offense I m not encouraging you to do that Dear law enforcement: you can keep your hacker-tool-laws under the table We only need brains and printers for that Systems Barcode 101 = 202codes Yes, that s you, the one with the Internet printout and attached translation
4 The History of Barcodes Developed 1948 by Silver and Woodland at the Drexel Institute of Technology First usage attempt was the Association of American Railroad to identify the cars in It took until 1967 to develop the system. It took seven years to label 95% of the cars. It never worked. 1966, the National Association of Food Chains required equipment to speed up the checkout process 1969, the same NAFC requested an industry standard, which became Universal Grocery Product Identification Code (later: UPC) in , the US Department of Defense required Code 39 to label all products sold to the military.
5 1D Symbologies Code 39 UPC-A to UPC-E EAN8 EAN13 and EAN13 with supplement RSS-14 CODABAR
6 1D Symbologies Interleaved 2 of 5 Discrete 2 of 5 Code 93 Code 128 EAN/UCC 128
7 1D Symbologies Postnet BPO 4 State Code
8 2D Symbologies PDF417 Data Matrix MAXICODE AZTEC CODE
9 Barcode Decoding Barcode scanners 1D hand scanners are cheap All scanners can be configured to output the barcode type using a type character when decoding Don t get a better scanner that what you plan to attack (more on this later) 2D scanners are still expensive Decoding software Some is free Others can be cracked easily I m lazy and have chosen the capitalist way: Omniplanar SwiftDecoder
10 Barcode Generation There is a lot of barcode generation software out there Free: GNU barcode (1D only) Online: ask your favorite search engine Commercial: uncountable Writing generators is not hard Usually, you have to pay for the specs Most specs are below $20 US (next year that s 3,50)
11 Applications Barcodes are in general used for three purposes: Tags and IDs Data transport and virtual to physical media GGU (Ganz grober Unfug)
12 Configuring Scanners Almost all scanners are configured via barcodes Scan Enter Configuration barcode Scan configuration barcodes Scan Save Configuration barcode
13 Configuring Scanners Find out what vendor s scanner is used Get the configuration sheet Vendor s support web page Dealer s support web page Just call them Reconfigure the scanner Change supported barcode types Change CRLF Change character encoding Most scanners support special key codes like ESC, PageUp, PageDown, DEL, etc. Some scanners support software updates via configuration codes.
14 Copying Barcodes Often, it is sufficient to copy barcodes You don t have to decode them if you know what the code does for you Get a good digital camera Get a printer
15 Barcode was used as authentication against the bar You could load money onto your badge Drink without paying PH-Neutral Stefan Sels successfully copied a b33r badge using his digital camera It worked!
16 Parking Hotel parking garage in Dresden does not enforce correlation between entry ticket and exit ticket Paper tickets with barcode They also have long-term parking tickets They also give you one temporarily if you stay in the hotel Parking for free; forever
17 Recycling Machines You feed bottles into the machine It counts their value It produces a voucher Get your money from the cashier using the voucher
18 Getting paid for drinking Beer There is no connection between the recycling machine and the cashier s system People used to simply copy the vouchers Current versions are printed on watermarked paper The vouchers use a special property of the EAN13 barcode: the leading number code EAN13 codes start with the country of origin Number 2 is reserved for store internal use
19 Getting paid for drinking Beer Leading 2: Store Internal Following 6 digits: Cash register code for money back Following 5 digits: value Last digit: 10 minus the sum of all digits (EAN13 checksum) Generate your own and stick it under some heavy item (sixpack)
20 Access Control Some organizations use barcodes to control physical access More often then expected, the access control system only verifies that the structure of the data is well formed Easy test: show it your pack of cigarettes (or candy bar for nonsmokers) More advanced: get the number of digits and the barcode type right
21 De-Synchronization People read the number printed next to the code Scanners and backend systems read what is encoded on the barcode They don t have to be equal
22 De-Synchronization People play this trick with you as well: The Zoo Berlin The barcode says : , , The barcode decodes to: , ,
23 De-Synchronization: Property Tracking Property must be checked in when entering the building Connects your badge barcode with the property s barcode Checkout works the same way Replace the barcode on your badge temporarily with the barcode on the badge of the legitimate owner Check out with your new property Check in again without anything Remove replaced barcode from your badge Check out and go home
24 De-Synchronization: Property Tracking Works as well with inventory numbers (ever wanted this company laptop to be your own?) Works well with MAC addresses too. MAC Address Serial Number Property Tag
25 Procedure is Key: Video24 Automated DVD rental system Barcode member card, PIN, Biometric authentication (!!1!) Rental Procedure: Swipe card, enter PIN, select movie, logout Can be done via their Web Site Pickup Procedure: Swipe card, get DVD from machine Return Procedure: Swipe card, enter PIN, put DVD in machine
26 Procedure is Key: Video24 Code 38, 5 characters on member card (CCD readers in machine?) Easy to try some If open order, you get a DVD 5 digit code on DVDs Replacing a DVD with an empty one requires PIN Can be verified on the Web Site beforehand Not a good idea: last placement is traceable
27 Injections and Multi-Decoding Most barcode readers are left in their factory configuration Even if they are not, one can reconfigure them The back end application will, in many cases, only expect the barcode type it is written for Usually EAN13 or Interleaved 2o5 Using Code 128, one can inject arbitrary characters as input SQL Injections Separation character injections Format String attacks The newer the system, the better this works!
28 Injections and Multi-Decoding
29 QR-Codes Take a photo of a 2D barcode on your newspaper Commercial (!!!) decoder software will convert it into a HTTP hyperlink The software will send your mobile browser to that URL
30 QR-Codes: Die Welt
31 QR-Codes: Die Welt The codes actually contain a link to a mobile blogging company: wget --20:43:30-- => ` ' Resolving decode.kaywa.com Connecting to decode.kaywa.com :80... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response Found wget Location: --20:43:46-- => ` ' li [following] Resolving decode.kaywa.com Connecting to decode.kaywa.com :80... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response Found Location: [following]
32 QR-Codes: Injection People can print arbitrary content in newspapers: it s called advertising Most people trust their newspaper (at least the security of it, not necessarily the content) The browser on the mobile phone may already run Active authenticated session cookies? Vulnerable Browser?
33 Cross Zeitung Scripting XSS via a newspaper!!1! How about a link to your control your gmail account? a link to an ICEPACK / MPACK site? a link to a binary for your mobile phone? a link to about: or chrome:? Thanks! Now we need to tell our managers to not click links in their newspaper. OMFG!
34 Length and Decoding The better 1D codes do not specify the amount of characters you can encode The better your printing resolution and the attacked scanner (laser preferred), the more data you can stuff into the code Have you ever noticed that more data than expected is a desired property for people called hackers?
35 Barcode driven Buffer Overflows Yes, they happen. No, it is a lot less common than one may think. Your tool of choice: Code 128 Full 7-Bit ASCII character set Chainable using Function Code FC4 Warning: It s a pain.
36 QR-Code Readers Again.text:10006EB4 athisapplicatio DCD 59.text:10006EB4 unicode 0, <This application is for use only within the >.text:10006eb4 unicode 0, <European Union.>.text:10006F88 a DCD 13.text:10006F88 unicode 0, < >.text:10006FA8 artsps unicode 0, <rtsp://%s>,0.text: unicode 0, < >.text:100071C0 unicode 0, <http://ap.hpl.hp.com/resolve.php?v=1&a=g&d=>.text: unicode 0, <http://activeprint.lavasphere.de/ lava_key_generator/?login=hpglass&pwd=yoc9boon&sis=1&ver=0.9&imei=%s>
37 Things that didn t break
38 Things that didn t break They use Interleaved 2o5 Their scanners accept almost all 1D barcodes Their application doesn t care at all. Well done IKEA! May be we should try again in Moscow, they seem to have a different management.
39 Recreation Attacks If we can predict the meaning of the barcode, we can create our own Yes, it s that simple.
40 Postal Codes Postal services increasingly use 2D barcodes to replace stamps. Automated generation Automated verification Some use their own special barcode types Less decoders are capable of dealing with them Most use DataMatrix But what exactly is verified? Depends on what is in there
41 Postal Codes: Swiss Australia Post ASCII 00, , Interleaved 2 of Interleaved 2 of
42 US Postal Service Labeling System called Intelligent Mail Uses Code 128 labels Specs can be found on the Internet
43 US Postal Service CIN: Element ZIP Code: Label Source Mailer ID: Unique Identifier: Label Type: Digits Purpose and Details Identifies the tray or sack s destination. For 5-digit trays in accordance with the DMM, the destination ZIP Code is the 5- digit ZIP Code. For 3-digit trays in accordance with the DMM, the destination ZIP Code is the 3-digit ZIP Code followed by two zeros. Describes the contents of the tray or sack based on the 3-digit content identifier numbers listed in the DMM. If no listing for the tray contents is found, three zeros are used. Use the value 1 for Automation Compatible, Barcoded, and Machinable Mail. Use the value 7 for all other mail. 1 and 7 are the only acceptable values. A unique, nine-digit number assigned by the Postal Service to each mailer. A unique, five-digit number for each tray or sack. The Label Type is used as a qualifier for systems to recognize and parse the data within this barcode. The value is 8 when used with the 9-digit Mailer ID.
44 US Postal Service To maintain uniqueness of the barcode, the data for these label types must be unique for days. Mailers are asked to check with their Postal Service Marketing representative to confirm the requirement for uniqueness for a specific program.
45 US Postal Service To maintain uniqueness of the barcode, the data for these label types must be unique for days. Mailers are asked to check with their Postal Service Marketing representative to confirm the requirement for uniqueness for a specific program.
46 Boarding Tickets The latest trend: print your boarding pass from the airline s web site Security on Frankfurt/Main airport (FRA) relies on all boarding tickets (Internet or not) to be barcoded The security checkpoint is central, therefore, it is not airline specific This implies that: 1. The security checkpoint may not know all checked in passengers, since it would have to have a backend connections to all airlines represented in FRA. 2. Therefore, the validity must be in the barcode
47 Boarding Tickets
48 censored Boarding Tickets
49 Boarding Tickets
50 Boarding Tickets Everything in the ticket barcode can be either predicted or ignored. We can make arbitrary boarding tickets now. Oops. M1YYYYYYYY YYYYYYY TXLFRAAB C M1LINDNER/FELIXMR E77 MUCTXLLH M021D M1XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX TXLFMOAB A M1LINDNER/FMR E3U5XG3 FRATXLLH C1D M1LINDNER/FELIX MR EY2KI8G TXLCGNLH M16C M1LINDNER/FELIX MR EYMZSB3 TXLFRALH C4G M1LINDNER/FELIX MR E3HUYFI FRATXLLH M32C
51 Baggage Tracking Works by logically attaching a 1D barcode to your boarding pass Baggage is routed in the airport delivery systems depending on the barcode on it With online boarding, you connect an piece of baggage to your boarding pass by dropping it off at the counter Assumed it was your boarding pass to begin with
52 Wheelie of Fortune Copy Pass Ernst Agent Abdul bin Scheusal Boarding Pass Brain- and Fearless security (BaFe) X-Ray TERRORIST!!1!
53 Baggage Tracking: Fix Recommendation Evil water bottles are already illegal Not if you buy them for 3,50 after security Simply make Luggage illegal! The infrastructure for the traveler is already there! Frankfurt Airport Shopping
54 Deutsche Post Deutsche Bahn US Immigration Unsolved Cases
55 An Invitation BinID will be released to those interested Please provide feedback I will decode any barcode our commercial software can handle and send you the result If we get swapped, we will automate it
56 Principles of secure barcode applications Consider the barcode like a browser cookie It may be intercepted, copied, modified, lost, etc. If you can only use 1D, make sure it represents an unpredictable internal ID and nothing else. If you can use 2D, use real crypto. It doesn t cost you more. It may provide non-repudiation in both ways. Make sure your process works If your process trusts the barcode, you are toast Make sure the connection between the tag and the item works. There is no browser to cooperate with. Never trust the printed number!
57 Thank you, as always! FX of Phenoelit Shouts: Phenoelit, Fixer, Halvar & Zynamics, Frank Boldewin, David, Manu & Geraffel, twist4, Scusi, CCCB, NoLogin and many many others
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