1 Demographic Factors, Social Supports, and Quality of Life of HIV infected Persons in Ghana Presentation by Tina Abrefa-Gyan, PhD Norfolk State University October 28, 2014
2 Acknowledgements Funding Support Norfolk State University
3 Presentation Overview Purpose and Significance of Presentation/Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Ghana Literature Review/prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Ghana Theoretical Framework Methodology/Research Design/Research Questions/Hypothesis Results from the Study Discussions- Study s Implications for Social Work
4 Purpose of Presentation/Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Ghana Purpose: To discuss the study and its findings Population estimate for July 2014 was 25,758,108 HIV prevalence rates: 1.8% (CIA, 2013), Currently at 1.4%. Prevalence rates are significantly higher in other countries; Lesotho (23.10%), Botswana (23%), South Africa (17.90%), and Zimbabwe (14.70%) (CIA, 2014). Why should we care? A generalized epidemic: infection rate is above 1% among the general population (UNAIDS, 2009) 4
5 Literature Review Summary Compared to Asia, Europe, and USA/Canada, few studies have been conducted on the topic in Ghana, and Africa in general. Social supports and quality of life differed by demographic factors. E.g., Gender influenced social supports in all settings Findings from prior literature are consistent with findings from this study
6 Theoretical Framework The Social Determinants of Health, defined as: Social determinants of health are those conditions of life deeply connected to the foundations of existence, to the entirety of economic and social life. The entire social environments, including the distribution of power and privilege may play a role in the health of populations, such as social networks, educational systems, and family structure. (Hofritcher, 2001, p. 11, as cited in the WHO SDH Report, 2010)
7 Theories Social capital, social support, and social network theory Concepts from the intersection domains of social capital, social network and social support theories.
8 Theoretical Framework Socio-demographic Factors: Material Capital Stated Income Social Capital Employment Status Influence Human Capital Education (in years) HIV Knowledge Knowledge of HIV Risky Behavior(s) QUALITY OF LIFE (QoL) Demographic Factors Sex (male, female, and other) Age Marital Status Influence SOCIAL SUPPORT SOCIAL NETWORKS Model: Conceptualization of Socio-demographic Factors, Social Support, and Quality of Life (Adapted from Oakes & Rossi, 2003)
9 Study was conducted from September-October 2013 Methodology-Study Setting Study was conducted in Accra, Ghana Subjects were PLWAs belonging to various support groups managed by the NAP+ Ghana NAP+ Ghana was formed to help improve the lives of PLWAs Group members meet at least once a month The support groups come together to deal with the complexity of issues working against PLWA in Ghana including stigma and discrimination
10 Study Design Cross-sectional design survey Most of the respondents self-reported (read) Just a few requested for assistance in completing surveys (listened)
11 Sample and Sampling Strategy N = 300 Participants were notified about the research project through flyers posted at the agency and from agency representatives Participants orally consented to the study Surveys were used to gather data.
12 Procedures Individual participants were directed to meet with this researcher at her office (within the agency) to complete surveys Compensation for their time: GH 10 (USD $4.76)
13 Measurement Demographic Questionnaire: For variables like sex, age, income, marital status, etc. QoL instrument: Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) scale Social Support instrument: MOS Social Support Survey Original versions of instruments were used Permission from the instrument developers granted
14 Methodology-Research Questions 1. Is there an association between overall social support and quality of life? 2. Are both socio-demographic factors and social supports of individuals with HIV/AIDS associated with their quality of life?
15 Results from the Study- Total N = 300 Demographics Demographic Factors N % Female Belong to other Groups Less Educated (0-12) Married Unemployed HIV/AIDS Diagnosis for >4 years Family Member Benefit Christian Group Attendance for 1 year Have Children All respondents (100%) reported income of less than GH (USD $46.33) Ranged in age from 18 to 60 years
16 Results-Hypotheses Tested The hypotheses were rejected Ho 1 : There is no association between overall social support and quality of life A moderate correlation was found between overall social support and overall quality of life (r =.51, p =.01)
17 Results-Hypotheses Tested Ho 2 : There is no relationship between socio-demographic factors and social supports combined with the quality of life of individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overall equation was significant; p < R 2 =.415 (41.5%) Significant demographic factors [younger (B = -.002, p = <.0005); male (B =.154, p = <.0005); attended support group meetings for over a year (B =.043, p =.009); educated (B =.070, p =.023). Overall social support was not significant; (p =.081).
18 Discussions-Study s Implications for Social Work Research: Preliminary quantitative study on the topic in Ghana. Other researchers can build on knowledge by further investigating relationships among variables in other settings in Ghana and other developing countries Practice: Encourage the use of more interventions that will enhance the receipt of increased social support in Ghana Policy: Fund the development of more interventions aimed at increasing social supports in Ghana
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