1 Technion Israel Institute of Technology Masters of Engineering in Energy Engineering Curriculum for a Specialization in Natural Gas & Petroleum Engineering (NG&PE) Introduction The Masters in Engineering (ME) degree, will be granted by the Technion, and administered academically as a specialization within the framework of the Inter- Departmental Committee for Energy studies. Under the Technion's existing rules, the study program will comprise of 40 academic credits, of which 5 credits will be devoted to a final project. In the Technion, an academic credit is typically awarded based on contact hours as follows: for 14 hours of lectures, or for 28 hours of tutorials, or for 42 hours of laboratory/practical classes. Academic credits may also be awarded for extensive homework assignments or for project work. The program, as outlined here, is designed for graduates with a B.Sc. in Engineering (such as Mechanical, Aeronautical, Chemical, Civil, Material and the like). Other candidates will be expected to take prerequisites before being admitted to the regular NG&PE program. The program as envisioned here will admit up to 25 students a year (at least during the first stage), on a full time basis, for 15 months (including the final project). This program is a minimal program and contains few electives. As the program develops, as it attracts more students and as the number of local faculty increases, it would be expected to add courses based on student demand and requirements of regulatory and industrial bodies. The study program proposed herein will be named the Natural Gas & Petroleum Engineering (NG&PE) specialization in the Technion's Master of Engineering in Energy Engineering program and will consist of basic courses in addition to courses from three options: 1. Drilling Engineering 2. Production, Transportation and Storage Engineering; and 3. Reservoir Management The courses which are recommended for each of these options are listed below. Deviation from the recommended lists will be allowed, after being approved by the academic director of the program. The majority of the courses are mandatory and serve as the currently required core of the program. There are 4 elective courses, and the students may have some choice in making up the 35 course-work academic credits.
2 Course No. Session 1 List of Courses Course Title Credits Introduction to Geology Introduction to Applied Geophysics 2.0 Session NG &P Geology Chemical Thermodynamics & Kinetics 2.5 Session Drilling Operations I Two-Phase Flow 2.0 Session Deep Water Drilling & Well Control Development and Operation of Offshore Gas Fields 2.5 Session Flow in Porous Media Gas Production Engineering 2.0 Session 6 Subsurface & Subsea Production Reservoir Engineering I Law & Economics of NG&P 2.0 Session Conditioning & Processing of NG Production, Storage, Transmission and Safety 2.5 Session Materials & Standards in Natural Gas and Petroleum Engineering Seismic interpretation 2.5 Project Project in Natural Gas and Petroleum Engineering 5.0 Electives Advanced Gas Reservoir Engineering Environmental Control in natural Gas and Petroleum Engineering
3 Syllabus Introduction to Geology Environmental and engineering geology, basics of petroleum geology, geologic time, plate tectonics, structural types and stratigraphy, rock types characteristics and identification, age determination, paleontology, advanced analysis and simulation Introduction to Applied Geophysics Principles of geophysical usage, measurements and analysis (sampling, resolution, non-uniqueness). Pragmatic understanding of the usage of potential (e.g. gravity, magnetic) and imaging (seismic, EM) methods, and well-logging, with focus on NG&P and infrastructure industry NG &P Geology Basin analysis, prospect generation using, a model system, source rocks, oil generation and maturation, migration of fluids, structure, and seal. Additionally seismic, logging, log correlation, risk assessment Materials, & Standards in Gas and Petroleum Industry Theory & practice of high and low pressure materials of oil country tubular goods (OCTG), low carbon steel pros and con, stainless steel limitation and capabilities, seamless, quenched and tempered alloys, and specialty designed alloys for drilling, storage and transformation, corrosion in NG & P chain, effect of corrosion and leak on the environment, API, ANSI, ASME, ISO standards and applications Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Thermodynamics; Single component phase diagram, binary systems, multicomponent phase diagrams, advanced chemical equilibrium in gases and solutions, deviations from ideality, surface tension, wetting & capillarity. Kinetics: Complex reactions chain reactions, pressure & temperature effect, energetic surfaces, homogeneous & heterogeneous catalysis, advanced surface chemistry Production, Storage, Transmission and Safety Theory and practice in designing tests completions, sea floor completions, tubular goods, Most Efficient Rate - MER, choke design, horizontal applications, productions systems, specialty systems, gas and oil measurement, production accounting, control systems, safety systems, types of production systems and applications, optimization, operations, a single and a multi-phase flow in piping, design and codes, construction, corrosion, maintenance, regulations.
4 Two Phase Flow Liquid-gas two phase flow, flow regimes, flow regime maps for gas and oil, pressure drop. Basic equations; Modeling, numerical solutions, wettability and capillary Capillary pressure, relative permeabilities, trapped phase saturation, underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, Darcy s law in porous media flow. Fluid saturations, compressibility and interfacial phenomena (surface energy, surface tension, energy of adhesion and cohesion, refractive index and electrical conductivity). Fundamental properties of multiple fluid correlation to rock properties. Diffusivity equation, steady state, Pseudo-steady state and transient flow, radial flow and well models Development and Operation of Offshore Gas Fields The course addresses the technical aspects, work processes, and major technical decisions involved in development and operation of offshore gas fields. It reviews the life cycle of an offshore gas field from prospect identification and gaining exploration access and exclusive production license, through the discovery, appraisal, establishing commerciality, conceptual planning and design, engineering and project development, commissioning and production startup, production plateau period, production decline and tail production, production shutdown, abandonment of the field and decommissioning of the facilities Drilling Operations I Introduction to drilling techniques and engineering: Rig design, string design, bits, hydraulics, fluid systems, casing design, pressure identification, horizontal drilling, basic well control, environmental precautions, budgeting, physics of flow in porous media, equipment, relevant processes and procedures, environmental aspect of drilling and completion operations Deep Water Drilling & Well control Deep water platforms, floating drilling vessels, types of motion, station keeping, wellheads and BOP s, drilling risers, motion compensation, special problems in floating drilling, shallow water flows, dual gradient, drilling deep water, drilling fluids, drilling hydraulics, high pressure risers, pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction, deep water casing design and running procedures, deep water cementing, deep water well control.
5 Flow (of Gas and Liquid) in Porous Media Material balance concepts: (derivations, working equations, example problems), constant compressibility oil case, dry gas case. Steady-state flow concepts: (pressure distributions for linear and radial systems), Liquid systems (pressure case), Gas systems (pseudopressure and pressure-squared cases), development of the radial flow skin factor. Pseudosteady-state flow concepts: Derivation, example applications, analysis of boundary-dominated flow data. Development of the diffusivity equation: Liquid systems (pseudopressure, and pseudotime cases), Gas systems (pseudopressure, and pseudotime cases) Gas Production Engineering Gas reservoirs, properties of natural gases, gas-wellbore performance, gas-wellhead choke performance, deliverability of gas wells, liquid separation process of natural gases, compression and cooling of natural gases, dehydration processes of natural gases, gas-metering techniques, transportation of natural gases, special problems in natural gas production operations, economics analysis of production Subsurface and Subsea Production Subsurface: Inflow and outflow performance, system analysis in subsurface production operations, well completion operations and procedures, ISO and API standards, tubing selection, design, and installation, perforating methods & designs with explosive powders and gas expansion methods, formation damage, flow restrictions, fracturing process, producing bottom hole pressure (BHP), gas lift, an electrical submersible pump (ESP) hydraulic pumping, progressing cavity pumping (PCP) systems, plunger lift. Subsea Production: Offshore production, design and building blocks of subsea engineering, different types of subsea completions, flow assurance, subsea production systems and equipment, production control systems, drilling control systems, costs of subsea equipment, operations, maintenance and integrity of subsea systems, decommissioning subsea equipment, advanced and new subsea technologies, detailed examples of subsea developments around the world.
6 Conditioning and Processing of Natural Gas Gas processing systems, physical properties of hydrocarbons, qualitative phase behavior, vapor-liquid equilibrium, water-hydrocarbon phase behavior, basic thermodynamic concepts, thermodynamics of LNG processes, separation equipment, gas treatment, CO2 and H2S removal, fractionation and adsorption, general system energy changes and rate processes, process control fundamentals, fluid hydraulics, separation equipment, heat transfer, pumps, compressors, refrigeration, fractionation/distillation, dehydration of natural gas, LNG liquefaction technologies Reservoir Engineering I Theory, phase behavior, reservoir types, permeability and relative permeability, porosity, reservoir drive mechanisms, reserves determination, deterministic (volumetric & material balance) and probabilistic techniques, production forecast using decline analysis empirical methods, non-conventional gas reservoirs, flow in porous media, well test design, planning and analysis, reservoir damage, fluid coning and water influx, secondary and tertiary recovery, schemes. Water flooding: Planning, predicting oil recovery and performance, monitoring horizontal well applications Project in Gas and Petroleum Industry The project could either be a team or an individual effort designed to integrate the topics studied in the courses. One option would be to identify a theoretical, or actual, offshore prospect and describe the exploration and exploitation of the prospect, followed by a plan for the production based on establishing facilities to produce, transport and market the hydrocarbons. Another option would be to work and report on a real-world project provided by an NG energy company. The total project output would include an approximately 50 page document which would include references to the geology, engineering, economics and production processes involved Law and Economics of Natural Gas and Petroleum Law: History and evolution of oil and gas law, case studies, Israeli Petroleum Law, regulatory agencies, production sharing agreements, joint operating agreements, unitization agreements, basics of contract law and marketing. Economy: Cash flow components and economic indicators, upstream petroleum economics, midstream and downstream petroleum economics, managing and mitigating uncertainty and risk, sensitivities, simulations and decision analysis, valuing petroleum assets, portfolios and companies
7 Advanced Gas Reservoir Engineering Classical material balance, inflow performance, gas condensates, gas well test, analysis, horizontal wells, temperature modeling, PVT modeling, vertical lift, complex material balance, well completions, reservoir monitoring RFT, MDT, super wells Seismic Interpretation A fundamental theoretical and practical study of seismic interpretation, with stratigraphic and structural emphases. Startigraphic: Marine sedimentological systems, sedimentary sequences, unconformities and their significance in time and space, buried channels and their evolution in time. Structural: Faulting systems and identification, faults reactivation. From grabens to basins - 2D and 3D interpretation, structures an geological periods. Special topics: BSR and gas hydrates, the sedimentary structure of continental margins, transform basins. Practical training in interpretation of paper sections and maps preparations Environmental Control in Natural Gas and Petroleum Engineering Impact of drilling and production operations, environmental transport of petroleum wastes, planning for environmental protection, waste treatment methods, waste disposal methods, remediation of contaminated sites, environmental regulations, sensitive habitats.