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1 Last lecture... Computer Graphics: Visualisation can be greatly enhanced through the Introduction to the Visualisation use of 3D computer graphics Toolkit Visualisation Lecture 2 Computer Vision Lab. Institute for Perception, Action & Behaviour computer graphics are our tool in visualisation computer graphics are a key offering of computer science to the visualisation problem Notices reading / links / vtk examples In order to do effective visualisation we need: see course web page first practical handout (not assessed) to know some computer graphics (this lecture) VTK handout (reading) a computer graphics architecture (VTK) Computer Graphics & VTK 1 Computer Graphics & VTK 2 Data Representation : 3D shape Computer Graphics : simulation of light behaviour in 3D For effective simulation require to model: object representation (geometry) object illumination (lighting) camera model (vision) world to image plane projection rendering: converting graphical data into an image Approximate smooth surfaces with flat, planar polygons 3D scene (e.g. real world) polygons formed of edges & vertices vertex: positional point (2D or 3D) edge: joins 2 vertices polygon: enclosed within N edges (cf. faces) Light Source(s) Object with surfaces Camera Model Rendering on image plane Computer Graphics & VTK 3 Hierarchy of Surface Representation polygons share common edges mesh: set of connected polygons forming a surface (or object) (cf. graph) Computer Graphics & VTK 4

2 Surface mesh : examples Mesh Based Representation 3D file formats: set of vertices in ℝ3 polygons reference into vertex set Different resolutions alter perception of surface e.g. vertex vertex smoothness implicitly define edges... Several primitives utilised, triangles generally fastest to draw polyon (close up) polyon modern graphics cards : 1 million + triangles per second Computer Graphics & VTK 5 #VRML V1.0 ascii # Separator { Material { ambientcolor diffusecolor Coordinate3 { point [ , , , , , , , , , IndexedFaceSet { coordindex [ 0, 1, 2, -1, 3, 4, 5, -1, 6, 7, 8, -1, 9, 10, 11, -1, 12, 13, 14, -1, 15, 16, 17, -1, 18, 19, 20, -1, 21, 22, 23, -1, perform transformations only on vertices standards: IGRES (ANSI), VRML (ISO), X3D (ISO) Computer Graphics & VTK 6 Light interaction with surfaces Simple 3 parameter model The sum of 3 illumination terms: Ambient : 'background' illumination Ambient Lighting light reflected or scattered from other objects simple approximation to complex 'real world' process Result: globally uniform colour for object Specular : bright, shiny reflections Rc = resulting intensity curve Diffuse : non shiny illumination and shadows Lc = light intensity curve Oc = colour curve of object surface normal (specifies surface orientation) Uniform Light source Light source (here point light source) Object 'Virtual' camera Light Colour = Lc Object Colour = Oc Computer Graphics & VTK 7 Example: sphere On Rc camera Object Rc = Lc Oc Computer Graphics & VTK 8

3 Diffuse Lighting Specular Lighting Also known as Lambertian reflection considers the angle of incidence of light on surface Direct reflections of light source off shiny object (angle between light and surface normal) specular intensity sp = shiny reflectance of object Result: lighting varies over surface with orientation to light Result: specular highlight on object Infinite point light source Example: sphere (lit from left) Ln θ On Light Colour = Lc cosθ = (O n Ln ) Rc Object Object Colour = Oc Infinite point light source On θ Light Colour = Lc cosθ = (On Ln ) Object Colour = Oc No dependence on Object Rc = LcOc[S ( Rn)]sp camera angle! Rc=L c Oc cos Ln S = 2(cos θ)οn + Ln Computer Graphics & VTK 9 also specular power sp Rc = colour curve Rn = camera position No dependence on object colour. Surface Shape Perception 1 Rc = wa(ambient) + wd(diffuse) +ws(specular) for relative weights wa, wd, ws S (Reflection) Combined Lighting Models α Computer Graphics & VTK 10 Example: sphere (lit from left) Facing light 3D surface of the skin from a medical scanner. sp=100 sp=4 Interpolated shading (use Gourand or Phong) Diffuse lighting only. (i.e. directional) + Ambient (colour) = + Diffuse (directional) Specular (highlights) Perpendicular to light Rc Computer Graphics & VTK 11 Computer Graphics & VTK 12

4 Surface Shape Perception 2 Surface Shape Perception 3 3D surface of the skin from a medical scanner. 3D surface of the skin from a medical scanner. Diffuse + specular lighting. Diffuse + specular lighting. Specular Power = 4.0 Specular Power = Edge of highlight Edge of highlight Computer Graphics & VTK 13 Computer Graphics & VTK 14 Perception of Shape Interaction Specular highlights Allows perception of edge contours (silhouette) The motion/direction of lines or patterns on the surface of the shape improve perception of surface shape features (e.g. nose) Viewing depth with 2 eyes... but only where the highlight occurs Stereo displays frequently used for visualisation Display 'feels' more 3D e.g. easier to see features at sides of noise with diffuse (middle) Computer Graphics & VTK 15 Stereo Ability to rotate the shape is extremely powerful. Texture Other cues to shape Computer Graphics & VTK 16

5 Scene Coordinate Systems Object Coordinates Object A s Transform Object A s Coordinate System 3D (x,y,z) Object B s Coordinate System 3D (x,y,z) Camera Model World Coordinates Light Position Camera Position Object Position(s) View Up Objects B s Transform Camera transform 4x4 Matrix (3D 2D) View Coordinates Display Display transform Window size Position Object / World co ordinates: transformations and rotations in ℝ3 1 transformation (perspective projection). Computer Graphics & VTK 17 Prospective projection (3D world 2D image plane rendering) all rays into camera go through a common point View Frustrum 3D space viewable to camera bound by clipping planes (front, back); by camera view angle (top, bottom) clipping planes eliminate data that is too near or too distant from camera Computer Graphics & VTK 18 VTK : in summary Computer Graphics Objects in VTK Our provider of a computer graphics architecture for visualisation To convert a data structure into graphical object in VTK, use an object called a mapper Controls graphics properties such as colour and shading VTK is a set of methods (toolkit) that implement a variety of visualisation operations Implements a visualisation pipeline Position, rotation and surface properties also specified by actor methods Platform independent (we use linux, DICE) transformation from object to world co ordinates Object orientated visualisation Program in C++ or Java or use an interpreted language such as Tcl/Tk or Python 3D computer graphics output & basic interactive user input Computer Graphics & VTK 19 Graphics objects in vtk are known as actors Actors are rendered in the scene by the renderer object VTK also implements basic tools for visualisation: Direction of Projection Front Clipping Plane Camera transform: 3D 2D matrix Focal point View angle Coordinates 2D (x,y) View Frustrum Position 3D (x,y,z) Back Clipping Plane Controls camera and lighting properties The renderer draws to a render window object Controls window size Can display or capture to an image file Computer Graphics & VTK 20

6 Graphical Objects in VTK Example : drawing cone vtkconesource Cone Source The Visualisation pipeline for this application Geometric representation Polygons vtkpolydatamapper Cone Mapper Computer Graphics & VTK 21 Actor Renderer RenderWindow vtkactor vtkrenderer vtkrenderwindow Computer Graphics & VTK 22 VTK Objects : TCL / Java TCL: Command with class name creates new object of that class Java : Object obj = new Object(); Tcl : Object obj # create a rendering window and renderer # create an actor object and set vtkrenderer ren1 # mapper vtkrenderwindow renwin vtkactor coneactor renwin AddRenderer ren1 VTK is object orientated; TCL itself is not coneactor SetMapper conemapper # create a cone geometry source object # assign our actor to the renderer vtkconesource cone ren1 AddActor coneactor cone SetResolution 8 A note on tcl/tk (tickle talk), tcl/vtk... # render scene TCL (Tool Command Language) is a dynamically allocated interpreted programming language # create mapper object and map cone geometry Commonly used for GUI application with GUI toolkit TK tcl/tk vtkpolydatamapper conemapper Here we are doing visualisation (rather than GUI) so we use VTK although not generally known as tcl/vtk! Drawing a cone : TCL Computer Graphics & VTK 23 renwin Render conemapper SetInput [cone GetOutput] Computer Graphics & VTK 24

7 Drawing a cone : Java Drawing a cone : TCL Wrapper Code public class Cone { catch {load vtktcl public static void main (String []args) { # load vtk package and vtk user interaction command package // create an instance of vtkconesource package require vtk vtkconesource cone = new vtkconesource(); package require vtkinteraction cone.setheight( 3.0 );... cone.setradius( 1.0 ); cone.setresolution( 8 ); # CODE FROM PREVIOUS SLIDE // create vtkpolydatamapper and map cone source... vtkpolydatamapper conemapper = new vtkpolydatamapper(); conemapper.setinput( cone.getoutput() ); Computer Graphics & VTK 25 Computer Graphics & VTK 26 Drawing a cone : Java Drawing a cone : Java Boiler Plate Code // We import the vtk wrapped classes first. import vtk.*; // create actor and assign mapper // Then we define our class. vtkactor coneactor = new vtkactor(); public class Cone { coneactor.setmapper( conemapper ); // In the static contructor we load in the native code (via JNI). // The libraries must be in your path to work. // create renderer and add actor static { vtkrenderer ren1 = new vtkrenderer(); System.loadLibrary("vtkCommonJava"); ren1.addactor( coneactor ); System.loadLibrary("vtkFilteringJava"); System.loadLibrary("vtkIOJava"); // create render window and add renderer System.loadLibrary("vtkImagingJava"); vtkrenderwindow renwin = new vtkrenderwindow(); System.loadLibrary("vtkGraphicsJava"); renwin.addrenderer( ren1 ); System.loadLibrary("vtkRenderingJava"); Computer Graphics & VTK 27 Computer Graphics & VTK 28

8 TCL basics : variables Variables Are all strings Set using 'set variable value Reference using $variable # Compute the circumference of a circle set pi Expression TCL basics : variables set radius 2 Use expr to evaluate an expression set area [expr $radius * $pi * 2.0] Print results to standard output with puts puts $area useful for debugging Computer Graphics & VTK 29 Computer Graphics & VTK 30 TCL basics : loops TCL basics : conditionals for loop : 3 arguments : {start {end {every Exactly the same as C : if boolean then body1 else body2 # Example to print number 1 10 and their squares for {set num 1 {$num <= 10 {incr num { both then and else are optional set numsqr [expr $num*$num] puts $num => $numsqr e.g. : if {$x == 0 then { while loop : 1 argument : {end condition puts Only superheros, can divide by zeros! else { # print numbers 1 to 10 set x 0 set slope [expr $y/$x] while {$x<10 { puts "x is $x" incr x Computer Graphics & VTK 31 Computer Graphics & VTK 32

9 TCL basics : other puts $varname Special Features of TCL/VTK interpreter Writes a string to the console window format formatstring value1 value2 Returns a string in the same manner as printf in C Similarly scan does the same as scanf in C String operations performed by string Dynamic arrays Comments start with # Special method : ListMethods. Invoked in combination with an object name Find out which methods the object has Listed according to the inheritance hierarchy Special command : ListInstances Invoked in combination with a class name. Lists all instances of a particular class Special command : DeleteAllObjects Computer Graphics & VTK 33 Clears the tcl/vtk interpreter for another session Computer Graphics & VTK 34 VTK : interaction VTK : window interactor Create a new vtkrenderwindowinteractor controls user interaction with VTK visualisation Rotate ( left mouse button ) vtkrenderwindowinteractor iren Zoom ( Right mouse button ) Pan ( left mouse + shift key ) w Draw as a wireframe mesh s Draw as a surface mesh r Reset camera view u user defined command. Here, bring up window command box Set the RenderWindow object that it will control iren SetRenderWindow renwin Make the interactor active and start processing events iren Initialize Functions available (vtkrenderwindowinteractor): Tcl code is still processed even though event loop entered Computer Graphics & VTK 35 iren SetUserMethod {wm deiconify.vtkinteract e exit p pick actor underneath mouse pointer Computer Graphics & VTK 36

10 On line Resources VTK representing object geometry as polygon meshes Examples: code.php illumination models (ambient, diffuse, specular) camera model & projection (VTK) More examples: Everything else: TCL Manual: Online tutorial: Everything else: Software: see course web page (linux) or Computer Graphics (basics) Manual: Summary N.B. DICE versions vtk : & tcl : Computer Graphics & VTK 37 VTK Overview of VTK rendering pipeline simple example in TCL and Java basis of TCL programming language VTK interactive visualisation Next lecture: systems architectures for visualisation Computer Graphics & VTK 38

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