CS130 - Intro to computer graphics. Dr. Victor B. Zordan Objectives

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1 CS130 - Intro to computer graphics Dr. Victor B. Zordan Objectives Explore basics of computer graphics Survey application areas Today, brief introduction to graphics and course administravia Today, cont., a quick historical look And then a bit about me and where graphics at UCR fits in

2 Computer Graphics Computer graphics deals with all aspects of creating images with a computer - Hardware - Software - Applications, products In CS130, we will focus on core algorithms that may appear in any of these (hardware, software, etc...) 3 Computer Graphics Where did this image come from? 4 2

3 Preliminary Answer Software: - Maya for modeling and rendering - Maya is built on top of OpenGL Hardware: - PC with graphics cards for modeling and rendering 5 Basic Graphics Hardware Output device Input devices Image formed in FB 6 3

4 Software: Conceptual Model Real Light Real Object Human Eye Synthetic Light Source Synthetic Camera Real Object Synthetic Model Display Device Human Eye Graphics System 7 Basic Graphics Software Graphics Software 2D Photoshop, Illustrator, Powerpoint 3D Library OpenGL, Open Inventor 3D SW Maya, 3D Studio, Softimage CAD - Autocad, Pro-Engineer Rendering Renderman, Mental Ray Post-processing After Effects, Premiere Director, Final Cut Pro 8 4

5 Basic Graphics Software Graphics Software 2D Photoshop, Illustrator, Powerpoint 3D Library OpenGL, DirectX 3D SW Maya, 3D Studio, Blender, z-brush CAD - Autocad, Pro-Engineer Rendering Renderman, Mental Ray Post-processing After Effects, Premiere Director, Final Cut Pro 9 Computer Graphics:1950 s Computer graphics goes back to the earliest days of computing - Pen plotters - Simple displays using D/A converters to go from computer to CRT Cost of refresh for CRT very high - Computers slow, expensive, unreliable 10 5

6 Computer Graphics:1960 s Wireframe graphics Vector display D Project Sketchpad Display Processors 11 Computer Graphics:1960 s Ivan Sutherland - PhD thesis at MIT - Recognized the potential of man-machine interaction - Sketchpad Display something User moves light pen Computer generates new display - Sutherland also created many of the now common algorithms for computer graphics Sutherland joins Evans at Utah and "start" CG in CS Utah Teapot 12 6

7 Computer Graphics: 1970 s Raster Graphics Flat and smooth solid models Beginning of graphics standards Microprocessors - Workstations and PCs Siggraph formed (73) Pong released (72) Star Wars released (76) 13 Raster Graphics Image produced as an array (or raster) of picture elements (pixels) in the frame buffer 14 7

8 Raster Graphics Allow us to go from lines and wireframes to filled polygons 15 Computer Graphics: 1980 s Realism comes to computer graphics smooth shading environmental mapping bump mapping 16 8

9 Computer Graphics: 1980 s Realistic 3D, ray tracing Vol Libre (1980) Disney s Tron (1982) 17 Computer Graphics: 1980 s Special purpose hardware - Silicon Graphics geometry engine Industry-based standards - RenderMan Standardized graphics: Windows Systems Human-Computer Interface (HCI) 18 9

10 Computer Graphics: 1990 s OpenGL API Completely computer-generated featurelength movies are successful New hardware for: - Texture mapping - Blending First 3D Feature Pixar s Toy Story (1995) 19 Computer Graphics: Photorealism Graphics cards for PCs dominate market - Nvidia, ATI, 3DLabs Game boxes and game players determine direction of market Computer graphics routine in movie industry 20 10

11 Computer Graphics: About me Victor B. Zordan University of California, Riverside Riverside Graphics Lab 22 11

12 Character Animation Techniques Keyframing Keyframing Skeleton + Rig 12

13 Keyframing Complete control Quality relies on skilled animator Character Animation Techniques Keyframing Motion capture 13

14 Motion Capture Recording humans Motion Capture Recording humans 14

15 Motion Capture Motion Capture 15

16 Character Animation Techniques Keyframing Motion capture Physics models Physics-based Characters Physical simulation of dynamics Human moves based on equations of motion Already in many Video games F = ma Ragdoll effects, no control Speed: multiple sims at real-time rates on today s computers 16

17 Combining Motion Capture and Physics Physics for characters is gaining Motion popularity capture is the industry standard But for currently lifelike, used 3D humanlike mostly characters for 'ragdolls' for games Combing Motion Capture and Physics Basic ideas: Combine the best of both approaches Employ each when most appropriate Drive with mocap, interact physically 17

18 Combing Motion Capture and Physics Tracking/following motion capture not a problem But, need high-level feedback Motion capture tracking only (no balance control) Balance Control Static balance f footl support polygon center of pressure center of mass footr 18

19 Balance Control footl support polygon footr center of mass Balance Control footl support polygon footr center of mass Balance Control F(t) Dynamic Simulation, 19

20 Multi-Objective Optimization min Constrained such that Where: Momentum change control guides Comparison of simulation to motion Motion capture Simulation motion 20

21 Interaction results Interaction results 21

22 Non-humanoid example - balancing on one leg (Made from 2 keyframes) Physics for Animation Physics makes motion Human moves based on gravity and collisions Already in many video games Ragdoll effects, no control Also for explosion and particles, water 22

23 Combining Motion Capture and Physics Basic ideas: Combine the best of both approaches Employ each when most appropriate Drive with mocap, interact physically Combining Motion Capture and Physics Why is it hard? 23

24 Balance Control How do we balance? footl support region footr weight of body Balance Control footl support region footr weight of body 24

25 Balance Control Imaginary muscles attached at the joints guide footl support region weight of body footr Balance Control muscles Physics for character motion Interaction results 25

26 Interaction results Other creatures 26

27 Other research interests Video games!! Video Games are serious business Some stats from Jupiter Research s Industry Report, ESA, GDC, and Gamespy News ) Industry total $20 billion, and growing fast! Online games is >1 billion currently, and growing faster Gaming population is 12 million, to hit 17 million in 5 yrs Online, network, tablet, smartphone, in-browser games continue to build new growth and cater to Indie 27

28 UCR Brain Game Center Collaboration with UCR Neuroscience - Aaron Seitz Improve memory, brain function and even sensory processing via games Games Interfaces Joysticks and buttons limit input choices Wii allows the player to move freely Touchscreens, everywhere! 28

29 What is Gamespawn? Gamespawn is a game development club at UCR. Our goal is to provide a community for students who are interested in game development, to teach workshops to those who want to learn more about the various skills required to create a game, and to help promote both the professional and amateur game development efforts at UCR. We also offer various social events and opportunities to meet professionals in the video game industry Find Gamespawn on Facebook or under the Highlander Club List 3D Printing/Design Textiles Collaboration with Matusik (MIT) and Grinspun (Columbia) 29

30 graphics.cs.ucr.edu 59 30

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