1 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Amnesty International, Annual Reports, Colombia, Arnson, Cynthia J., Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C., Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt (eds.), In Athena s Camp: Preparing for Conflict in the Information Age, RAND, MR-880- OSD/RGI, 1997, The Advent of Netwar, RAND, MR-789-OSD, Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence, Australian Illicit Drug Report , Canberra, Bushnell, David, The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself, University of California Press, Berkeley, Davies, John L., and Ted Robert Gurr (eds.), Preventive Measures: Building Risk Assessment and Crisis Early Warning Systems, Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, Lanham, Maryland, Echandía Castilla, Camilo, El Conflicto Armado y las Manifestaciones de la Violencia en las Regiones de Colombia, Presidencia de la República de Colombia, Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz, Bogotá,
2 108 Colombian Labyrinth Europa World Year Book, Colombia, Europa Publications, London, Fals Borda, Orlando, Subversion and Social Change in Colombia, Columbia University Press, New York, Garay S., Jorge Luis, Globalización y crisis, Tercer Mundo Editores/ Colciencias, Bogotá, Garay S., Jorge Luis, et al., Colombia: estructura industrial e internacionalización, , Tomo I, República de Colombia, Departamento Nacional de Planeación, Bogotá, Graham, Bob, Brent Scowcroft, and Michael Shifter, Toward Greater Peace and Security in Colombia: Forging a Constructive U.S. Policy, Task Force Report, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS), International Drug Trade, Strategic Survey, 1997/98, Oxford University Press, London, Khalilzad, Zalmay M., John P. White, and Andrew W. Marshall, Strategic Appraisal: The Changing Role of Information in Warfare, RAND, MR-1016-AF, Leal Buitrago, Francisco, El oficio de la guerra, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, Martz, John D., The Politics of Clientelism: Democracy and the State in Colombia, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London, Maullin, Richard, Soldiers, Guerrillas, and Politics in Colombia, RAND, R-0630-ARPA, Oquist, Paul, Conflict and Politics in Colombia, Academic Press, New York, Pizarro, Eduardo, Insurgencia sin revolución, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, Rangel Suárez, Alfredo, Colombia: guerra en el fin de siglo, Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá, 1998.
3 Bibliography 109 Ronfeldt, David, John Arquilla, Graham E. Fuller, and Melissa Fuller, The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico, RAND, MR-994-A, Santos Calderón, Enrique, Fuego Cruzado: Guerrilla, Narcotráfico y Paramilitares en la Colombia de los Ochentos, CEREC, Bogotá, United States Commission on National Security/21st Century, New World Coming: American Security in the 21st Century, Phase I Report on the Emerging Global Security Environment for the First Quarter of the 21st Century, September 15, Vick, Alan, John Bordeaux, David Orletsky, and David A. Shlapak, Enhancing Air Power s Contribution Against Light Infantry Targets, RAND, MR-697-AF, Zackrison, James L. (ed.), Crisis: What crisis? Security Issues in Colombia, Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS), National Defense University, Washington, D.C., ARTICLES AND PAPERS Bagley, Bruce M., The Evolution of Drug Trafficking in Colombia in the 1990s, unpublished paper provided to authors, February Center for International Policy, The Content of the Colombia Aid Package, in Chalk, Peter, Heroin and Cocaine: A Global Threat, Jane s Intelligence Review, January 6, Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler, Justice-Seeking and Loot-Seeking in Civil War, paper presented at the World Bank Workshop on Civil Conflicts, Crime and Violence in Developing Countries, Colombia, República de, Ministerio de Defensa Nacional, La fuerza pública y los derechos humanos en Colombia, Bogotá, March Colombia, Republic of, Plan Colombia: Plan for Peace, Prosperity, and the Strengthening of the State, Presidency of the Republic of Colombia, Bogotá, October 1999 edition.
4 110 Colombian Labyrinth Downes, Richard, Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) Conference Report, March 10, Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Las FARC: 30 años de lucha por la paz, democracia y soberanía, in Fujita, Edmundo Sussumo, The Brazilian Policy of Sustainable Defense, International Affairs, Vol. 74, No. 3, July Geopolitical Drug Watch, A Drug Primer for the Late 1990s, Current History, 97/618, González, Libardo, El Plan Colombia: una paz armada, Colombia Thema, No. 7, March May 2000, in Grassley, Sen. Charles, The U.S. Effort to Fight Drug Abuse Global Issues 2/3, June Marcella, Gabriel, and Donald Schulz, Colombia s Three Wars: U.S. Strategy at the Crossroads, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI), United States Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, March 5, Passage, David, Colombia s Struggle, Adelante, Summer Penhaul, Karl, Colombian Rebels Map Out Plan to Topple Government, News Agency Colombia, January 14, Perafán, Carlos César, Impacto de cultivos ilícitos en pueblos indígenas: el caso de Colombia, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID), Washington, D.C., Posada, Miguel, Colombia s Illegal Self-Defense Groups, Centro de Información sobre el Desarrollo de la Democracia en Colombia (CIDEC), February 1998, in Rubio, Mauricio, La violencia en Colombia: dimensionamiento y políticas de control, Serie de documentos de trabajo R-345, Inter- American Development Bank, Washington, D.C., October Shifter, Michael, Colombia at War, Current History, 98/626, 1999.
5 Bibliography 111 Shifter, Michael, The United States and Colombia: Partners in Ambiguity, Current History, 99/634, Spencer, David, FARC Warfare Strategy and Tactics , unpublished manuscript. Spencer, David, and Heather Noss, Colombia: Strategic End State, Goals, and Means: A Workshop Report, Center for Strategic Studies, The CNA Corporation, Arlington, Virginia, November Tickner, Arlene, Colombia: Chronicle of a Crisis Foretold, Current History, 97/616, U.S. Congressional Research Service, Colombia: The Problem of Illegal Narcotics and U.S.-Colombian Relations, March U.S. Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1999, Washington, D.C., U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Supplementary Homicide Reports, , accessed via homicide/city.htm. U.S. House of Representatives, Government Reform Committee, Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources Subcommittee, Testimony by William Ledwith, Chief of the Drug Enforcement Agency International Operations, Washington, D.C., February 15, Williams, Phil, The Nature of Drug-Trafficking Networks, Current History, 97/618, World Bank, Local Government Capacity in Colombia: Beyond Technical Assistance, Washington, D.C., World Bank, Violence in Colombia: Building Sustainable Peace and Social Capital, Washington, D.C., Youngers, Coletta, U.S. Entanglements in Colombia Continue, Report of the Americas, The Wars Within: Counterinsurgency in Chiapas and Colombia, Vol. 31, No. 5, March/April 1998.
6 112 Colombian Labyrinth Zirnite, Peter, The Militarization of the Drug War in Latin America, Current History, 97/618, NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS Cambio (Bogotá) Colombia Thema (Bogotá) Colombia Update (Colombia Human Rights Network) The Economist El Espectator (Bogotá) El Tiempo (Bogotá) El Universal (Caracas) Financial Times The Independent New York Times Semana (Bogotá) Venezuela Analítica Wall Street Journal Washington Post Washington Times OTHER SOURCES In addition to published materials, the research relied on field work in Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama in April The authors interviewed the commandant and members of the staff of the Institute of Higher Defense Studies of Venezuela; the commander of the armed forces of Colombia; and the director of the National Police, the deputy directors of the Panamanian air and naval services, and other officials in the security services of Panama. We also inter-
7 Bibliography 113 viewed Colombian, Venezuelan, and Panamanian political practitioners and defense analysts, and U.S. experts on Colombia. For the effects of the armed conflict at the local level, we are indebted to the organizers of the Georgetown University and National Endowment for Democracy Conference on Local Government Amidst the Armed Conflict: The Experience of Colombian Mayors, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., September 27, 2000, which brought together mayors from 11 Colombian cities and towns and officials from the Colombian Federation of Municipalities and the Federation of Municipal Councils. There was also valuable material applicable to the violence in Colombia presented at the World Bank s Workshop on Civil Conflict, Crime, and Violence in Developing Countries, Washington, D.C., February 22 23, Finally, there is a great deal of useful material on the Internet, including the Web sites of some of the key players, such as the Colombian armed forces, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the National Liberation Army, and the major Colombian political parties.