1 The Structure, Function and Management Implications of Fluvial Sedimentary Systems (Proceedings of an international symposium held at Alice Springs, Australia, September 2002). IAHS Publ. no. 276, Restoration of dynamic flood plain topography and riparian vegetation establishment through engineered levee breaching JEFFREY F. MOUNT, JOAN L. FLORSHEIM & WENDY B. TROWBRIDGE Center for Integrated Watershed Science and Management, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA Abstract Engineered levee breaches on the lower Cosumnes River, central California, create hydrologie and geomorphic conditions necessary to construct dynamic sand splay complexes on the flood plain. Sand splay complexes are composed of a network of main and secondary distributary channels that transport sediment during floods. The main channel is bounded by lateral levees that flank the breach opening. The levees are separated into depositional lobes by incision of secondary distributary channels. The dynamic topography governs distribution of dense, fast-growing cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and willow (Salix sp.) stands. In turn, establishment and growth of these plants influences erosional resistance and roughness, promoting local sedimentation and scour. Cottonwood and willow establishment is associated with late spring flooding and the occurrence of abundant bare ground. Key words levee breach; flood plain; sedimentation; riparian vegetation; topography; Cosumnes River; California INTRODUCTION With the exception of a handful of tropical and high latitude rivers, the hydrology and topography of flood plains of the developed and developing world have been extensively altered to support agriculture, navigation, and flood control. The loss of the seasonal flood pulse and the widespread conversion of riparian, wetland and flood plain habitats have degraded ecosystem integrity and related ecosystem services in the world's river systems (Power et al, 1995; Vitousek et al, 1997; Benke et al, 2000). In the past decade there has been an increasing emphasis on rehabilitation of flood plain ecosystems in large lowland rivers by re-establishing the key physical drivers that sustain ecosystem integrity (Galat et al, 1998; Tockner et al, 2000). This includes not only restoring the hydraulic connectivity between the river channel and its flood plain, but also promoting the processes of erosion and deposition that create dynamic flood plain topography (Stanford et al, 1996; Florsheim & Mount, 2002). In this paper we report on the use of engineered levee breaches to restore hydraulic connectivity and dynamic flood plain topography within an experimental restoration site on the Cosumnes River in the Central Valley, California, USA (Fig. 1). This work demonstrates the utility of engineered breaches in mimicking processes typically associated with avulsion and the formation of crevasse splays at natural levee breaches in anabranching rivers.
2 COSUMNES RIVER FLOOD PLAIN The Cosumnes River basin (3000 km 2 ) drains the western slope of the Sierra Nevada in California. The extensive flood plains of the lower Cosumnes occur in the Central Valley, just upstream of the San Francisco Bay-Delta (Fig. 1). Prior to the arrival of European settlers in the mid-late 1800s, the lower Cosumnes River occupied a broad, low-energy cohesive flood plain with low-gradient, anastomosing channels (Florsheim & Mount, 2002). The river and flood plain supported a mosaic of successional cottonwood-willow (Populus fremonti and Salix sp.) riparian forests, climax oak forests (Quercus lobata), and emergent wetland communities. The Cosumnes River channel is currently lined by close agricultural levees that restrict the river to a single, low-sinuosity incised channel. The levees are capable of containing moderate floods with exceedance probabilities of 0.2 or higher. The historic flood plain has been cleared, graded and levelled for agriculture, eliminating the original flood plain topography and plant communities. Discontinuous, remnant oak and cottonwood-willow riparian forests occur in areas of limited agricultural activity along the river and its sloughs. The Cosumnes River is distinguished from all other large Sierra Nevada rivers by its lack of large water retention structures and limited number of surface diversions. The winter and spring flow regime on this river remains largely unregulated and intact, with significant seasonal flooding.
3 Restoration of dynamic flood plain topography through engineered levee breaching 87 RESTORATION OF FLOOD PLAIN ECOSYSTEM ATTRIBUTES The Nature Conservancy (TNC), along with its partners in the Cosumnes River Preserve, are conducting an extensive management and restoration programme in the lower Cosumnes River that focuses on wildlife-friendly agriculture and restoration of riparian, flood plain and wetland habitats (Andrews, 1999; TNC, 2000). Based on observations of successful establishment of riparian forests on sand splay deposits formed by historic levee failures, the Preserve partners experimented with intentional levee breaching in two locations: the Accidental Forest Breach, constructed October 1995, and the Corps Breach, constructed October Both breaches discharge water and sediment onto former agricultural fields that were graded and levelled prior to restoration. At the Corps Breach, a low set-back benn that deflects flows away from adjoining rice fields, and an excavated 2-m-deep "wildlife pond" were graded as part of the restoration project (Fig. 2). Fig. 2 Generalized geomorphic map of the Corps Breach constructed during fall of Note complex morphology and growth patterns of sand splay complex due to set back levee (modified from Florsheim & Mount, 2002). Hydraulic connectivity Integral to the restoration effort is the provision of adequate duration, depth, frequency and timing of flood plain inundation. Based on field observations and surveys during the winters of 1999, 2000 and 2001, we estimate that hydraulic connectivity through the breaches occurs when flows reach m 3 s" 1 at an upstream flow gauge at Michigan Bar (exceedance probability of 0.95). The timing and duration of flood plain connectivity from water year 1996 through 2000 on the lower Cosumnes are summarized in Table 1. Of particular note are water years 1995/96 and 1997/98. Both years had sustained flooding, coupled with unusually late spring snowmelt floods.
4 88 Jeffrey F. Mount et al. TabJe 1 Flood plain inundation of the lower Cosumnes River, Water year* Date of first flood flows Number of flood days Peak gt Date of last flood flows 1995/96 18 December May 1996/97 6 December March 1997/98 9 December June 1998/99 2 December May 1999/ December May * Water years extend from 1 October to 30 September. t Based on daily average discharge measured at Michigan Bar, m 3 s"'. When flows recede to less than m 3 s" 1 at Michigan Bar, the flood plain becomes disconnected from the channel within 24 h. Based on measurements taken in 2000, water depths on the flood plain fall between 1 and 2 cm day" 1 depending upon wind, temperature and soil moisture. Sand splay complexes At the two study areas, elongate sand splay complexes are developing adjacent to and down-flood plain from the breach openings (Figs 2, 3). The two complexes differ in geometry, thickness and complexity, reflecting differences in initial grading of the restoration sites prior to breaching. Both complexes are accumulating significant volumes of sediment, extending as much as 0.5 km down-flood plain from the breach. Although the sand splay complexes differ in detail, they contain several geomorphic elements that are common to most crevasse splays seen in natural river
5 Restoration of dynamic flood plain topography through engineered levee breaching 89 systems (Lewin, 1973; Richards et al, 1993; Boyer et al, 1997), and where flood control levees have failed during high flows (Gomez et al, 1997; Magilligan et al, 1998). These include distributary channels, lateral levees and depositional lobes. Distributary channels A main distributary channel originates from the lowest elevation in both breaches and extends through the entire length of the sand splay complex. Each main channel contains a breach scour zone (Fig. 3) that is flanked by lateral levees. Sequential surveys indicate that the scour zone deepens following the initial opening of the breach and, over time, extends down-flood plain, maintaining a negative slope. Within the Corps Breach (Fig. 2), and to a lesser extent within the Accidental Forest Breach (Fig. 3), the main distributary channel bifurcates into one or more sand-bedded, secondary distributary or anastomosing channels, each containing a channel mouth bar. Extension of the splay complex channels takes place through progradation of distributary mouth bars. Lateral levees/depositional lobes The most significant vertical accretion that occurs in sand splay complexes takes place on lateral levees that form adjacent to the main distributary channel and the breach scour (Figs 2, 3). The levees are formed through turbulent diffusion of sand in secondary flow cells of the main distributary channel into the flow separation eddies that flank the breach opening. The construction of the lateral levees creates the maximum elevations within the splay complexes and, as is shown below, plays a key role in the establishment and growth of riparian vegetation. The lateral levees of the splay complex are separated into depositional lobes incised by distributary channels. The lobes have highly irregular topographic surfaces that are extensively modified by small overwash channels and by high velocity flows that exceed distributary channel capacity. Cottonwood-willow forest establishment The primary goal of the levee-breaching project was to re-introduce the hydrological conditions and disturbance regimes necessary to promote establishment of riparian forests. Establishment, density and growth rates for three riparian trees Gooding's and Sandbar willows (Salix sp.) and Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremonti) were monitored during 1999 and 2000 within the splay complexes and on the adjacent flood plain. Detailed results of these surveys are described in Trowbridge et al. (in preparation) and are summarized here. Highly selective recruitment is a commonly recognized characteristic of cottonwood-willow forests (Braatne et al, 1996) and is tied to their unique phenology. As Scott et al. (1996), Mahooney & Rood (1998) and others have noted, recruitment and survival of riparian trees occurs when several key factors coincide, including: - the presence of exposed soil or sediment to limit competition; - the coincidence of declining river stage with seed dispersal; - a gradual decline in stage to allow roots to maintain contact with moisture zone; - sustained soil moisture over the length of the growing period, June-September; - protection from scour during subsequent flood events.
6 90 Jeffrey F. Mount et al. Several of these factors that support establishment of cottonwoods and willows appear to have occurred during and immediately following opening of both breaches. Both breaches were constructed during the late fall, leaving bare, disturbed soil immediately prior to winter flows. During spring of 1996 and 1998, the first years following the breaching of the levees, the Cosumnes River experienced late season floods that coincided with the timing of seed dispersal for riparian trees (Table 1). In contrast, during 1997, 1999, and 2000, when little or no cottonwood and willow establishment is recorded, spring floods did not occur after mid-may. Based on measurements made during water years 1999 through 2001, the rate of water surface lowering in spring floods is approximately 1-2 cm day" 1, supporting germination and growth of the cottonwoods and willows near the breaches. Areas of sand deposition in the splay complex and higher flood plain elevations near the breaches appear to have promoted early germination and extended growth of the trees. Lower elevation areas, which remained under water during the critical seed dispersal and viability period, had limited establishment. Cottonwoods and willows exhibit a range of adaptations to cope with episodic sedimentation (Braatne et al, 1996; Scott et al, 1996) that make them effective competitors in riparian and flood plain settings. These traits create a strong feedback between cottonwood-willow growth and the geomorphic evolution of the splay complexes. Density, distribution and growth rates of cottonwoods and willows were surveyed on selected transects of the splay complexes and the surrounding flood plain. In addition, we measured growth rates of willows and cottonwoods within 19 vegetation patches on the Corps Breach splay complex at various elevations and geomorphic conditions. Although establishment occurred in a range of settings, we found that density and frequency were substantially higher within the splay and channel complex, with most growth occurring on lateral levees and depositional lobes. Cottonwoods and willows average 50-75% higher annual growth rates on the sandy lateral levees and depositional lobes than in distributary channels and the flood plain beyond the splay. The higher rates of establishment and growth on the levees and lobes influence the hydraulics of the sand splay complex and its topographic complexity. Where sand cover is sufficient and growth rates high, we noted the development of mats of adventitious roots. These root networks stabilize the sand splay complex by increasing local erosional resistance. In addition, the emergent vegetation of cottonwoods and willows create substantial local drag roughness. This may promote localized sediment deposition within vegetation patches, increasing elevation and enhancing overall growing conditions. During moderate to low flood stages, the flow concentration in distributary channels is enhanced by the erosionally resistant, hydraulically rough vegetation patches, increasing topographic complexity and relief within the splay complex. Acknowledgements This project was funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Conservation Program ( ) and the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program (99N06). The authors thank Ramona Swenson and The Nature Conservancy for their cooperation. This manuscript was reviewed by Yoshimasa Kurashige.
7 Restoration of dynamic flood plain topography through engineered levee breaching 91 REFERENCES Andrews, E. S. (1999) Identification of an ecologically based floodway: the case of the Cosumnes River, California. In: Floodplains: Interdisciplinary Approaches (ed. by S. B. Marriott & J. Alexander), Geol. Soc. Special Publ. no Geological Society, Bath, UK. Benke A. C, Chaubey, I., Ward, G. M. & Dunn, E. L. (2000) Flood pulse dynamics of an unregulated river floodplain in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. Ecology 8(10), Boyer, M. E., Haris, J. O. & Turner, R. E. (1997) Constructed crevasses and land gain in the Mississippi River Delta. Rest. Ecology 5, Braatne, J. H., Rood, S. B. & Heilman, P. E. (1996) Life history, ecology, and conservation of riparian cottonwoods in North America. In: Biology of Popuhis and Its Implications for Management and Conservation, National Research Council of Canada, Ontario, Canada. Florshcim, J. L. & Mount, J. F. (2002) Restoration of floodplain topography by sand splay complex formation in response to intentional levee breaches, lower Cosumnes River, California, Geomorphology 44(2), Galat, D. L., Fredrickson, L. H., Humburg, D. D., Bataille, K. J., Bodie, J. R., Dohrenwend, J, Gelwicks, G. T., Havel, J. E, Helmers, D. L., Hooker, J. B., Jones, J. R., Knowlton, M. F., Kubisiak, J., Mazourek, J., McColpin, A. C, Renken, R. B. & Semlitsch, R. D. (1998) Flooding to restore connectivity of regulated, large-river wetlands natural and controlled flooding as complementary processes along the lower Missouri River. Bioscience 48(9), Gomez, B., Phillips, J. D., Magilligan, F. J. & James, L. A. (1997) Floodplain sedimentation and sensitivity: summer 1993 flood, upper Mississippi River Valley, Earth Surf. Processes and Landforms 22, Lewin, J. (1973) Floodplain geomorphology. Phys. Proc. Geogr. 2, 408^137. Magilligan, F. J., Phillips, J. D., James, L. A. & Gomez, B. (1998) Geomorphic and sedimentologic controls on the effectiveness of an extreme flood. J. Geol. 106, Mahooney, J. M. & Rood, S. B. (1998) Streamflow requirements of Cottonwood seedling recruitment: an integrative model. Wetlands 8, Power, M. E., Sun, A., Parker, G., Dietrich, W. E. & Wootton, J. T. (1995) Hydraulic food chain models: an approach to the study of food web dynamics in large rivers. Bioscience 45, Richards, K., Chandra, S. & Friend, P. (1993) Avulsive channel systems: characteristics and examples. In: Braided (ed. by J. L. Best & C. S. Bristow), Geol. Soc. Special Publ. no. 75. Geological Society, Bath, UK. Scott, M. L., Friedman, J. M. & Auble, G. T. (1996) Fluvial process and the establishment of bottomland trees. Geomorphology 14, Stanford, J. A., Ward, J. V., Liss, W. J., Frissell, C. A., Williams, R. N., Lichatowich, J. A. & Coûtant, C. C. (1996) A general protocol for restoration of regulated rivers. Regul. Rivers: Res. Manage. 12, TNC (2000) Cosumnes River Preserve Site Plan Update. The Nature Conservancy of California, San Francisco, California. Tockner, K., Malard, F. & Ward, J. V. (2000) An extension of the flood pulse concept. Hydro!. Processes 14, Trowbridge, W. T., Mount, J. F. & Florsheim, J. F. (in preparation) Cottonwood and willow establishment on a restored floodplain. Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J. & Mclillo. J. M. (1997) Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. 277, Rivers Science
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