1 Master Thesis Exposé Submitted at European Master in Business Studies Master Program Submitted at 29 October 2012
2 Title of the thesis: Cultural differences in the non-verbal communication within the cross-cultural negotiations A comparison of German and Turkish business partners cultural differences in the non-verbal communication within a business negotiation Abstract With the globalization of world business, Turkey has become an appealing market for foreign investors. It has resulted in the increasing of the face-to-face negotiation between parties from different cultures. Hence, the cross-cultural management problem arises as the cooperation between Turkey and its culturally different Western partners. This paper presents an understanding of the general cultural differences between Germany and Turkey by applying the GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Moreover, it discusses the cultural differences in the non-verbal communication between these countries within the negotiation process. Background: After the Second World War, the world has been significantly changed in terms of increased globalization of business. Hence, cross-national business has started to face great challenges in cultural differences. During a negotiation process, many cultural differences can be observed between foreign business partners. It can also be observed that many cross-cultural companies fail within negotiations due to neglecting cultural differences. Therefore, understanding of cultural differences particularly in non-verbal communication is essential for companies, which want to take advantage from the cross-cultural negotiation process and finally succeed it. Consequently, one of the ways to have a successful business negotiation is take advantage of interpreting of the counterparts non-verbal communication within a negotiation process.
3 Purpose: Cultural differences can affect the way people communicate non-verbally. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the cultural differences in non-verbal communication between German and Turkish business partners within the negotiation process. These differences will be analyzed by implementing an experiment between German and Turkish students. In order to reach this goal, I will mainly identify several influences such as gesture, facial expressions and use of space, relaxed posture that can impact the outcome of the business negotiation. Method: The data will be collected through an experiment. The experiment will be conducted to analyze the differences in non-verbal communications within the negotiation process by focusing several general codes of nonverbal signals such as kinesics, vocalics, proxemisc, haptics, oculesics, chronemics, appearance and artifacts among German and Turkish business partners. Before the negotiation process, completing of the Hofstede's Values Survey Module questionnaire and after the negotiation process completing of a short questionnaire to explore the physical outcomes of the negotiation will conclude the experiment. Conclusion: Nonverbal communication or body language is an important part of how people communicate and it is evident that there are differences from one culture to another. This master thesis suggests that to understand and consider the cultural differences in non-verbal communication of a foreign partner during a negotiation process can help them gain a better result. German and Turkish companies can benefit from seeing the effect of non-verbal communication on the negotiation outcome. I conclude with the theory of Hall s model of high- and low-context culture, which helps us to understand better the powerful effect of culture on business communication that is one of the dominant theoretical frameworks for interpreting intercultural communication. (Cardon, 2008) Based on his theory, I can say that a negotiation partner who is from a high context culture can have more benefit in interpretation of
4 non-verbal communication than a negotiator who is from a low context culture within the negotiation process. Introduction/Background State the research problem (often referred as the purpose of the study) The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of non-verbal communication on the cross-cultural negotiation process. One major target of this master thesis is to identify the link between the cross-cultural negotiation and non-verbal communication. Examining the literature regarding cross-cultural negotiation and non-verbal communication. This paper will attempt to link the findings to cultural background. Additionally, the purpose of this paper will be as follows: 1. Firstly, an overview about culture, cultural differences and negotiation, nonverbal communication will be provided. 2. Increase of globalization in business and its results will be described. German- Turkish business relationship in recent years will be explained. 3. An overview of GLOBE Research findings will be described with an emphasis on German-Turkish cultural differences. 4. The non-verbal communication process in detail nonverbal signals such as kinesics, vocalics, proxemisc, haptics, oculesics, chronemics, appearance and artifacts will be explained. 5. Finally, the experiment results will be discussed and compared. Provide the context in such a way as to show its necessity and importance Decision-making is an important part of the negotiation process and culture affects the decision-making process. Culture is defined as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions. No cultural group is composed of individuals. It goes without saying that each culture has its own standards. Therefore behaviors of negotiators differ from one country to another. These behaviors have a certain meaning in a
5 certain culture that could be interpreted differently in another. So I use cross-cultural studies to understand the cultural factors. The study Cultural Differences in the Non-Verbal Communication within the Cross-Cultural Negotiations has many benefits both for German and Turkish business partners but the most important one is the both parts can take advantage from the ability to explore and interpret the cultural differences in non-verbal communication. This then gives them the opportunity to develop strategies within a negotiation process that might impact the negotiation outcomes. My thesis can be used as a reference when the both business partners have an interaction for doing business. Germany is the most important commercial partner of Turkey. The trade between these two countries displays a high growth rate each year and Turkey presents a promising export market for Germany as well as a destination for investment. Germany is Turkey s largest trading partner in the European Union and the relations between Turkey and Germany have never been as close as they are today but there are still limited studies about a comparison of German-Turkish business partners cultural differences in non-verbal communication within the negotiation process. Identify variables of your experiment Two key variables will be used in the experiment: the independent variable and the dependent variable. The "dependent variable" represents the output or effect, and the "independent variables" represent the inputs or causes. So independent variable during the experiment will be non-verbal language/ body language and dependent variable will be the outcome of an experiment. State your hypothesis or theory H1: Non verbal communication affects negotiation outcomes positively. H0: Non-verbal communication doesn t affect negotiation outcomes. H2: Turkish people take advantage from the non-verbal communication within the negotiation in comparison to German people. H3: Turkish negotiators will engage in more dominant non-verbal behaviors than German negotiators. H4: Turkish negotiators will display more emotion on their faces than German negotiators.
6 Set the limitation or boundries of your proposed research to provide a clear focus There is a literature gap that links cross-cultural negotiation to non-verbal communication. This thesis in this issue contributes to understand cultural differences in non-verbal communication and the impact of non-verbal communication on the cross-cultural negotiation among German and Turkish business partners. One of the limitations of the experiment is that the participants will be grouped randomly without measuring age, cultural background and the level of knowledge about each other that affect negotiation outcomes. There will be two variables for selecting participants. First one is nationality of participants (German and Turkish) and second one is the integration level of the Turkish participants into the German culture. It means that Turkish people who were born in Germany and have also Turkish nationality are fully integrated into the German culture. Therefore they have more German habits and culture than Turkish habits and culture. Hence, we include Turkish Erasmus students in our experiment. Another limitation of the experiment is the sample size. It is relatively small with 15 negotiating teams (in pairs). Sample size is extremely important in order to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two groups. If the sample size is increased, the means tend to be more stable and more representative. In our experiment, 15 Turkish and 15 German participants are expected to attend which makes data not reliable. As I mentioned above, the reason of having limited Turkish participants is the second variable that is integration level of Turkish participants. Currently, there are only 23 Turkish Erasmus students in Kassel and 15 of them are available to participate the experiment, which is not enough to achieve reliable data. Statement of the Problem I believe that the impact of non-verbal communication within cross-border negotiation is an important subject to study, since it involves all international companies and it is an aspect that all managers should consider carefully. Furthermore, effective and good communication is important issue between foreign business partners because it reduces risk and cost. Both parts can have benefit and save time by understanding and interpretation of non-verbal communication.
7 The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of national culture and nonverbal communication within cross-cultural negotiation process and outcomes. I conduct a comprehensive literature search concerning cross-cultural negotiation and non-verbal communication. After having done this literature search, I have decided to create a link between this study and nine cultural dimensions developed by GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) study that offers the recent theories in this field. In this research paper, primary data will be collected by a case study that will be conducted between German and Turkish students to observe German and Turkish business partners cultural differences in non-verbal communication within the cross-cultural negotiation. Secondary data will be collected from books, online resources and articles. Review of Literature: 1. Concept of Culture It is possible to find numerous definitions of culture. Jandt defined culture in the late 1900s as Sum of total ways of living including behavioral norms, linguistic expression, styles of communication, patterns of thinking, and beliefs and values of a group large enough to be self sustaining transmitted over the course of generations (Intercultural Communication, 1995, p. 404). More recently, GLOBE s definition includes shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives and that are transmitted across generations (House et al., 2004, p. 15). Furthermore, De Long & Fahey (2000) describe culture more general, as a system of values, norms, and practices that are shared among a group of people and that form a model for living. To define the meaning of culture helps to identify what the causes and effects are and how culture can influence negotiation outcomes. Therefore, I have started my literature review as an initial process of the related study in a particular field, which will lead us to explore and gain better understanding of the main objective of our thesis topic, which is Cultural differences in the non-verbal communication within the cross-cultural negotiation
8 1.1. Project Globe and Cultural Dimensions Javidan & House (2002) described the aim of Globe study as improvement of an experimental theory for better description, understanding, prediction of the impact on specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes and the effectiveness of these processes. According to Javidan & House (2002) a useful way of exploring cultural differences and similarities to study cultural clusters. In the cultural clusters, the countries are divided into clusters that share many similarities. As Javidan & House explained, by focusing on clusters we can find out the extent, nature and dynamics of cultural similarities and differences across GLOBE. As I mentioned above, to know the cultural differences play a significant role in business negotiation in terms of having a successful negotiation. To understand the cultural similarities and dissimilarities by applying GLOBE study will help the negotiators or managers to achieve better results within the cross-cultural negotiation. GLOBE study will help me to investigate the cultural dimensions of the different cultural patterns of Germany and Turkey. Further it provides a better understanding of how Germany and Turkey differ in terms of GLOBE s nine cultural dimensions. 2. Cross Cultural Negotiation Research and Non-Verbal Communication In this chapter, my literature review will illustrate, what cultural differences in nonverbal communication will have impact on negotiation outcomes. Business partners have to take into account their partners different way of doing business as a result of cultural differences in the communication style of different cultures. It is useful to be aware of the potential messages of the counterpart s non-verbal behaviors. It is surprising how little research has been conducted so far on the impact of non-verbal behavior on cross-cultural negotiations. A few studies linking these two fields can be found that linked these two fields together. Some authors (e.g Zhou & Zhang, 2008;Azad & Adair, 2011) how cultural differences in non-verbal communication may impact negotiation. As a result, there is a research gap that links non-verbal communication to cross-cultural negotiation.
9 Methodology: The literature in the non-verbal communication, cross-cultural and intercultural negotiation studies rely heavily on the use of experimental methods. Methodological part will be designed by a quantitative research. Since the study requires the measurement of the variables that affect the outcome of negotiations, experimental method has been considered and chosen as the most appropriate one among other methods of quantitative research design. The empirical finding will be obtained through an experiment that includes the comparisons of the groups and the determination of the relationship between the variables will be reached after approving or disapproving the hypotheses. The target of the experiment is to understand non-verbal communication differences between German and Turkish negotiators and the impact of the non-verbal communication on the negotiation outcome by observing the non-verbal signals and cues and exploring cross-cultural differences in that sense through an experiment. Furthermore, I will analyze that Turkish negotiators can take advantage from non-verbal communication due to high context dimension during the experiment. This experiment splits into two parts. First part of the experiment is the intra-cultural part that is a negotiation between the participants from the same nationalities. But before doing that, the participations will be asked to complete Hofstede's Values Survey Module as a pre-negotiation questionnaire. Afterwards, a case study the used car (Lewicki, Saunders, 2010, p. 409) will be given to the participants from the both countries. The participants from the same countries will negotiate without a time limit. In this part of the experiment I will analyze how native language and national culture affect the non-verbal communication way within the negotiation. It will be shown that the influences of culture and language will cause that the negotiators will engage in more dominant non-verbal behaviors in their native languages. Afterwards the participants will be asked to complete a short questionnaire as a post-negotiation questionnaire. This questionnaire will help to investigate the psychological outcomes of the negotiation including satisfaction, trust, rapport and self-impressions. Soon after the second part of the experiment -the intercultural part -will be conducted between the participants from Germany and Turkey in English. In this part of the experiment, a case study the new house negotiation (Lewicki, Saunders, 2010, p542) will be given to the participants. Right after, completing the same post-negotiation questionnaire will conclude the experiment.
10 Overview of Chapters 1. Globalization 1.1. Increased Globalization Of Business 1.2. The increased Importance of Sensitivity to Cultural Differences 1.3. EU-Turkey Relations 1.4. Turkish-German Trade and Negotiation 1.5. Turkish population in Germany and their business activities 2. Culture and Negotiation 2.1. Definition of Culture 2.2. Definition of Negotiation 2.3. International and Cross Cultural Negotiation 2.4. The Influence of Culture on Negotiation 2.5. Effects Of Culture On Negotiation Outcomes 3. Cultural Dimensions and Culture Clusters 3.1. Power Distance 3.2. Uncertainty Avoidance 3.3. Humane Orientation 3.4. Collectivism I 3.5. Collectivism II 3.6. Assertiveness Gender Egalitarianism Future Orientation Performance Orientation Cultural Divergence Germany and Turkey 4. Non-verbal communication Process 4.1. Non-verbal Communication Relevant to Intercultural Contexts Kinesics Vocalics Proxemics Haptics Oculesics Chronemics Appearance and artifacts
11 5. Cross Cultural Negotiation 5.1. Non-verbal Communication Differences 5.2. Methodology 5.3. Non Verbal Communication Differences among German and Turkish business negotiators 6. Conclusion 6.1. Limitations 6.2. Theoretical implications 6.3. Managerial implications 6.4. Further research
12 Timeline/Plan of Work ACTIVITY Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March May Hand in Master Thesis Exposé Approval of Master Thesis Exposé Reading literature and collecting Information Construct the simulation cases and the questionnaires Field research (conduct the experiment) Writing the first chapters (introduction, definition and an overview of the Globe Study) Evaluation of results (Simulation game and questionnaires) Discussing results with the Professor and hand in the intermediate report Writing the last chapters of the thesis presenting the results of the field work Writing a conclusion of the thesis + giving further recommendations Final approval of the master thesis Final presentation of the master thesis
13 Bibliography Bülow A.,&Rajesh Kumar (2011). Culture and Negotiation. International Negotiation 16 (2011) Brian J. Hurn, (2007),"The influence of culture on international business negotiations", Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 39 Iss: 7 pp Cardon P. (2008) A Critique of Hall s Contexting Model, Journal of Business and Technical Communication,Vol.22 De Long D. W. & Fahey L. (2000), Diagnosing Cultural Barriers to Knowledge Management, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp Philippidis G.&Karaca O.(2009) The Economic Impacts of Turkish Accession to the European Union. The World Economy(2009). doi: /j x Hui Zhou & Tingqin Zhang.(2008 ). Body Language in Business Negotiation. International Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 3, No. 2 Jandt, F. (1995). Intercultural Communication., California USA, Sage Publications Jeanne M. Brett (2000). Culture and Negotiation. International Journal Of Psychology, 2000, 35 (2), 97± 104 Javidan M. & House R.J. (2002) Leadership and Cultures around the World : Findings from GLOBE An Introduction to the Special Issue,Journal of World Business 37,pp.1-2 Lieh-Ching Chang. (2006) Differences in Business Negotiations between
14 Different Cultures. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning Michele J. Gelfand,Jeanne M. Brett. The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture (2004).Stanford California, Stanford University Press isbn Robert J.House,Paul J.Hanges,Mansour Javidan,Peter W.Dorfman,Vipin Gupta. GLOBE of Study of 62 Societies (2004), California USA, Sage Publications Victor DANCIU(2010).The Impact of the Culture on the International Negociations:An Analysis Based on Contextual Comparaisons. Theoretical and Applied EconomicsVolume VII (2010), No. 8(549), pp Zhaleh Semnani-Azad, Wendi L. Adair (2011) The Display of Dominant Nonverbal Cues in Negotiation: The,Role of Culture and Gender. International Negotiation 16 (2011) Zhaleh Semnani-Azad, Wendi L. Adair (2011). Non Verbal Cues Associated With Negotiation Styles Across Cultures. 24th Annual International Association of Conflict Management Conference Istanbul, Turkey Electronic copy available at: u Huang, Evert Van De Vliert, (2004) A Multilevel Approach to Investigating Cross-National Differences in Negotiation Processes. International Negotiation 9: , 2004.
Lecture Overheads: Communicating Across Cultures 15.279 Fall 2012 1 Effective cross-cultural communication means Being able to recognize cultural variables Understanding how those variables influence business
22 TEACHING INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN BUSINESS CLASSES Roxana CIOLĂNEANU Abstract Teaching a foreign language goes beyond teaching the language itself. Language is rooted in culture; it
12-ICIT 9-11/4/07 in RoC Going for Gold ~ Best Practices in Ed. & Public Paper #: 07-08 Page- 1 /7 Challenges of Intercultural Management: Change implementation in the context of national culture Prof.
Considering the Cultural Issues of Web Design in Implementing Web-Based E-Commerce for International Customers Kyeong. S. Kang The First International Conference on Electronic Business, Faculty of Information
SISU IC MA Curriculum and Core Course Description All English MA Program Summary: Currently offered by the SII for the: College of English Language and Literature (CELL) [CELL IC major 08 Intercultural
Comparing Ethical Attitudes of Expatriates working in UAE K.S. Sujit Institute of Management Technology, Dubai Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract UAE is a multi cultural country with 80% of the population
Intercultural Business Communication and Simulation and Gaming Methodology Victoria Guillén-Nieto, Carmen Marimón-Llorca & Chelo Vargas-Sierra (eds.). Bern: Peter Lang, 2009. 392 pages. ISBN: 978-3-03911-688-1.
Master's Degree Program in Marketing (English Language) 1) Name of Curriculum: Master's Degree Program in Marketing (English Language) 2) Name of Degree: Master of Science in Marketing or M.S. (Marketing)
Coffeyville Community College SPCH 211 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR INTERPERSONAL AND GROUP COMMUNICATION ON LINE Salina Meek Instructor COURSE NUMBER: SPCH 211 COURSE TITLE: Interpersonal and Group Communication
Course List 20132014 Bachelor s degree in International Affairs Courses offered in the Bachelor s Degree in International Affairs / Third Year Subjects 5.1 Intercultural Communication FALL SEMESTER Contact
22 April 2013 Study Plan M. A. Degree in Language, Culture, and Communication Linguistics Department 2012/2013 Faculty of Foreign Languages - Jordan University 1 STUDY PLAN M. A. DEGREE IN LANGUAGE, CULTURE
Adaptive course General and Strategic Management Program author: Natalia Guseva, professor, PhD. in Management and Sociological sciences 1. Introductory note General Description of the Course: The course
Leadership and Negotiation Skills for Project Managers Course designed to enhance and develop the personal skills required for effective management of the project team as well as management and involvement
A study using Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine to find out how the attitude of training personnel affects the performance of the introduction of Taiwan TrainQuali System in an enterprise Tung-Shou
2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT 2011) IPCSIT vol. 51 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore DOI: 10.7763/IPCSIT.2012.V51.127 An Investigation on Learning
International Business Negotiation - 7,5 ECTS (Common core course for both concentrations on MA IBC) To achieve the grade 12, students should meet the following learning objectives with no or only minor
Section 1 General Information Module Title Intercultural Business Communication Module code Credit Value: 20 UK Academic Year: 2015-2016 Semester: Summer 2016 Section 2 Details of module Description What
Business and Management Organizational Leadership and Communication Certificate Program Accelerate Your Career extension.uci.edu/olc In today s competitive business environment, leaders are appointed based
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 4 [Special Issue - February 2012] Leader s Interpersonal Skills and Its Effectiveness at different Levels of Management Aamir Khan Dr. Wisal
Communication & Leadership 1 Communication 2 The Importance of Communication Important part of work life consists of interaction Effectiveness of communication is therefore central! Still, communication
DEGREE IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT 2012-2013 Academic Year Programme Guide MODULE: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY PERIOD: Semester 8 Lecturer:
Intercultural relations between engineering student in Denmark, China and Brazil Jan Pedersen, Eagle Eye Consulting Jan Pedersen 2013 Editing: Forlaget Solhøj 1. Edition, 1. printing 2013 ISBN 9788799562640
THE IMPACT OF CULTURE IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHINA AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Ndapwilapo Shimutwikeni * ABSTRACT: Culture is a major element of international business
Working in Teams Moving From High Potential to High Performance Brian A. Griffith Peabody College, Vanderbilt University Ethan B. Dunham Human Capital Performance Partners (DSAGE Los Angeles London New
MNGT 583 Cross-Cultural Management Syllabus FEAS, Yaşar University Fall 2013 Instructor: Özge Can Class Time - Location: Wednesday, 18:00-20:30 @Y 213 Office: İİBF Building, O 004 Phone: +90 (232) 4115215
COMMUNICATION STUDIES Department Office: MUSIC 104 Phone (323) 343-4200 Fax (323) 343-6467 The Department of Communication Studies offers undergraduate programs leading to Bachelor of Arts degrees in TV,
BABEŞ-BOLYAI UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA FACULTY OF LETTERS BRITISH AND ROMANIAN NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENTS. A CROSS-CULTURAL DISCOURSE-ANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE PhD Dissertation-Summary Scientific Advisor: Ştefan
Executive Certificate in Negotiation Curriculum* When filling out your Military TA form, please use for the program you are requesting. Negotiation Essentials Module 1: Introduction to Negotiation Module
Effects of Teaching through Online Teacher versus Real Teacher on Student Learning in the Classroom Sirous Hadadnia Islamic Azad University-Mamasani Branch, Iran Norouz Hadadnia Zargan Office of Education,
Program Overview The PhD in Business Leadership and Administration is designed for professionals located nation wide who desire an advanced degree in business to excel in their careers. In addition, the
Choosing Human Resources Development Interventions JP Singh Singh argues that top management should examine the managerial culture of the group and the organization before introducing change through human
Note: The following list of courses is subject to change based on faculty approval. It includes the 51 hours of business-related courses along with the 9 hours of Upper Division Liberal Arts courses required
Course Outline Part I Programme Title : Executive Master of Arts in International Educational Leadership and Change Course Title Course code Department : Leading Organizational Change : EDA6009 : Education
Learning Style, Culture, and Delivery Mode in Online Distance Education Dr. Mark Speece School of Management, University of Alaska Southeast Juneau, Alaska 99801-8672 email@example.com Abstract
SolBridge International School of Business MBA Curriculum for Members: Sung Tae Kim* Chia-Hsing Huang YoungHack Song Tahir Hameed 1/15 SolBridge International School of Business Master of Business Administration
Executive Leadership MBA Course Descriptions MBA 608: Interpersonal Leadership and Managing Organizational Behavior (3 credits) This course provides rising stars learning opportunities to take the next
1 of 6 4/27/2013 8:58 AM / USA (change) Welcome, Marcy My Account Find your rep Exam Copy Bookbag Sign out View larger cover Interpersonal Communication Book, The, 13/E Joseph A. DeVito, Hunter College
AAA School of Advertising Part Time Bachelor of Arts in Marketing Communication 2014 CURRICULUM BA IN MARKETING COMMUNICATION DURATION: 4 YEARS COURSE STRUCTURE YEAR 1: 5 MODULES 1. Principles of Marketing
第 1 頁, 共 14 頁 Effectively Leading Public Agencies in a Global Environment Robert C. Myrtle 1 If there is one word that characterizes the last two decades it is Globalization. Yet as Shaw (1997) notes that
Business Management and Leadership (MS) ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: B. Loerinc Helft CUNY School of Professional Studies 101 West 31 st Street, 7 th Floor New York, NY 10001 Email Contact: B. Loerinc Helft, firstname.lastname@example.org
Executive Leadership MBA Course Descriptions MBA 608: Interpersonal Leadership and Managing Organizational Behavior (3 credits) This course provides rising stars learning opportunities to take the next
How Culture Affects your Business Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. How Culure Affects your Business The Reasons of Growing Interest in Culture Study 1) The globalization of business, 2) Quantum advances in telecommunications
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) 800 Series BBA 820: Managerial Functions Natural and scope of management of organizations operations. Systems approach to organizations. The management process planning,
Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies March 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 83-95 ISSN: 2333-6390 (Print), 2333-6404 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved. American Research
Study Program Handbook Psychology Bachelor of Arts Jacobs University Undergraduate Handbook Chemistry - Matriculation Fall 2015 Page: ii Contents 1 The Psychology Study Program 1 1.1 Concept......................................
2011 3rd International Conference on Advanced Management Science IPEDR vol.19 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore Influence of Tactical Factors on ERP Projects Success Shahin Dezdar + Institute for International
ADDENDUM D: NEW COURSES: THEIR DESCRIPTIONS AND LEARNING GOALS Applicable to All New Courses: 1. All courses will be offered primarily for business majors. 2. All courses will have a one-unit value. 3.
THE LINKAGE LEADER Workplace Diversity: Is National or Organizational Culture Predominant? By Ashley M. Guidroz, Lindsey M. Kotrba, and Daniel R. Denison Ashley M. Guidroz, PhD is a member of the Research
Bioethics Program Program Goals and Learning Outcomes Program Goals 1. Students will develop a solid knowledge base in areas of Biology including cell biology, evolution, genetics, and molecular biology.
CIIL An IESE-Mecalux Initiative STUDY-62 February, 2008 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOGISTICS ALLIANCES EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTRACTUAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN LOGISTICS PARTNERSHIPS Joan Jané
The use of ICT in the development of Intercultural Business Communication Ángela Mª Larrea Espinar E-mail: email@example.com University of Córdoba Law & Business School (Spain) Abstract Language learning
I J A B E R, Vol. 13, No. 4, (2015): 1933-1940 THE IMPACT OF COMPETENCY-BASED PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT OF STAFF ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE (CASE STUDY: ENTEKHAB INDUSTRIAL GROUP) Mojtaba Rafiee¹, Iraj
Course Descriptions Mathematics The objective of this course is to obtain a basic understanding of calculus the mathematical technique most frequently used in business and economics. Micro/Macro Economics
Journal of Intercultural Management Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2010, pp. 69 77 Jerzy Mączyński Społeczna Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Zarządzania Jolanta Zamorska Społeczna Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości
Journal of Intercultural Management Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2010, pp. 49 56 Monika Chutnik Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu Katarzyna Grzesik Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu Performance Through Relationships.
The Fisher Graduate School of International Management Monterey Institute of International Studies International Organizational Behavior IM 501 Fall 2006 Dr. Cary Simon Monday 6-9PM firstname.lastname@example.org 656-2439
Interpersonal Communication Skills Which one of the following traits is most predictive of success? 1. Intelligence 2. Education 3. Experience 4. Knowledge Not intelligence, education, experience, or knowledge
Gelb Consulting Group, Inc. 1011 Highway 6 South P + 281.759.3600 Suite 120 F + 281.759.3607 Houston, Texas 77077 www.gelbconsulting.com An Endeavor Management Company Overview One purpose of marketing
Bachelor s Program Business Administration Field of Program: Business Administration Name of Program: Business Administration Qualification/Academic Degree to be Awarded: Bachelor of Business Administration
Communication Skills B Communication Contexts Courses Overview: In the Communication Contexts category students participate in and develop skills for communication in a variety of modes and contexts and
Kffective. Techniques Cross-Cultural Interviewing in the Hiring Process: Challenges and Strategies Choon-Hwa Lim Richard Winter Christopher C. A. Chan Although interviews arc used widely in the selection
Cotrugli MBA & Executive MBA outline COTRUGLI MBA programs are not only an investment in knowledge, information and networks, nor are they just an investment in career advancement. Our MBA programs inspire
The development of teachers' professional competence for the work in interdisciplinary study environment for linking studies to real life and promoting students' entrepreneurship ESF project Support to
Introduction to the GLOBE Research Project on Leadership Worldwide Cornelius N. Grove, Ed.D., GROVEWELL LLC GLOBE is the acronym for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness, the name
PRACTICE OF EVALUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN LATVIA Līga Peiseniece Tatjana Volkova BA School of Business and Finance, Latvia Abstract Purpose The aim of the paper is to identify connection between
Reshaping Management and Economic Thinking through Integrating Eco-Friendly and Ethical Practices Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Management and Economics 26-27 February 2014 Faculty
Abstract This thesis examines how cultural diversity within an organization might influence managers information-handling process. The models used are; Geert Hofstede s five dimensions of national culture,
Seminar in Chinese Organizational Behavior Fall 2015 (Tentative) Instructor: Shu-Cheng Steve Chi Office Hrs: by appointment Introduction: There has been an increased emphasis on the study of organizational
ISBN 978-1-84626-026-1 Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Business, Economics and Tourism Management (CBETM 2010) Singapore, 26-28 February, 2010 Factors Influencing Activity-Based Costing
SYLLABUS COMM 561-MULTINATIONAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATION CLASS GOALS This course focuses on the communication aspects of multinational businesses, both large and small, particularly directed toward the ways
Bachelor of Arts in Leadership LEAD ON A NEW LEVEL You work hard, but now you re ready for something more. A promotion, a new way to approach your work, or a new career altogether. You re ready to take
The Effect of Internal Marketing on Employees' Customer Orientation in Social Security Organization of Gilan Dr. Shahram Gilaninia 1. Dr. Bijan Shafiei 2. Rashid Shadab 3 1. Department of Industrial Management,
THE MASTER OF ARTS PROGRAM IN INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ARTS AND SCIENCE NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Information Booklet for Applicants Director: Barry H. Cohen, Ph.D Telephone: 212-998-7815
1 AMERICANS DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM: COMMUNICATION DIFFERENCES by Katrine Syppli Kohl COM 9656: International Business Communication Fall 2007 This paper focuses on differences that are likely to cause
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements EDU710 (3.0 credit hours) Ethical and Legal Issues in Education/Leadership This course is an intensive
University of Indianapolis School for Adult Learning COMM 331 AU1: Interpersonal Communication Summer 2015, Session 1 3 credit hours CRN: 41405 CLASS MEETINGS: May 5, 12, 19, 26 and June 2 (Tuesdays) 6:00-9:45
Building organizational trust in virtual teams Dale J. Mancini Argosy University A virtual organizational project team can consist of members from all parts of the world. What makes virtual teams succeed
The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 2, Issue 3, Paper ID: B00381V2I32015 http://www.ijip.in April to June 2015 ABSTRACT: Organizational Commitment
ADVANCES IN EDUCATION VOL.1, NO.1 JANUARY 2012 4 Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2 Abstract- The study was
Worldwide Differences in Business Values and Practices: Overview of GLOBE Research Findings Cornelius N. Grove, Ed.D., GROVEWELL LLC GLOBE is the acronym for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior
Study of Employee Perception towards Performance Appraisal System with Special Reference to Education Sector in Pune City Sunanda Navale Founder Secretary, Sinhgad Technical Education Society, Ambegaon