Analysis of Internal Efficiency in the Utilization of Human Resources in Selected Secondary Schools of Oyo State, Nigeria

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1 Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(5): Journal Scholarlink of Emerging Research Trends Institute in Educational Journals, 2012 Research (ISSN: and ) Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(5): (ISSN: ) jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.org Analysis of Internal Efficiency in the Utilization of Human Resources in Selected Secondary Schools of Oyo State, Nigeria Pitan, Oluyomi Susan Department of Educational Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. In this study, the relationship between human resource utilization and internal efficiency of some secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria was examined. Given that education is an investment, findings from this research will provide basis for assessing private and public investment on secondary education in Oyo State, Nigeria, and also provide necessary information to educational administrators and planners on how to reduce wastage in order to increase the internal efficiency of secondary schools. The study was carried out using a descriptive survey design, while purposive sampling technique was adopted for selecting eight (8) out of 22 public secondary schools in the local government area of the state. Data were analysed using simple percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results showed that a significant positive relationship existed between student-teacher ratio (STR) and wastage ratio (r =.7959; p<0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between teacher quality (in terms of qualification), teachers workload and wastage ratio (r = 0.121; p>0.05 and r = ; p>0.05, respectively). Using the input-output analysis of the sampled schools, it was established that there was a highly positive relationship between resource utilization and internal efficiency of the school system (r = ; p<0.05). The performance of students in public examination revealed that there were lots of wastages (students failure) in the system, making the system inefficient. Government is therefore enjoined to bridge the gap between the required and available teachers in order to avoid the over-utilisation of the available ones. Also, the professional competence of the teaching force needs to be enhanced through seminars, workshops and in-service trainings in order to minimize wastage in the secondary schools and improve on the level of internal efficiency of the school system. Keywords: internal efficiency, human resource utilization, secondary school system, student teacher ratio. INTRODUCTION The problem of educational wastage at the secondary school level of education, which manifests in high rate of failure in public examinations, is a great concern to every stakeholder in education. Wastage, which is an indication of internal inefficiency, is recorded when an investment does not yield the desired gain or product, or when investment produces result that is considered to be lower than the targeted value (Adesina, 1983). While tracing the history of Nigerian educational development since 1960, Adesina (1983) and Durosaro (1985) identified wastage as one of the impediments to its growth. The authors also identified elements of wastage as dropouts (results of illness, poor academic performance, dismissals, inadequacies on the part of parents), repetition (where government had to pay twice instead of once) and failure at the end of the course. A system is said to be externally inefficient if the graduate turned out is not what the society, economy or higher level of education wants. The expectation is that certificated school leavers from secondary schools would gain admission into higher level of education or become productive workers and good citizens who would be able to contribute to the development of their society and make the nation truly self-reliant. But, the reality is that many of these school leavers have to sit for examinations again and again for them to have the minimum requirements to proceed to the next educational level. With this repetition, many of them waste precious years for failing to pass at one sitting. Longe and Durosaro (1988) described internal efficiency as the extent of the ability of educational systems to minimize costs and reduce wastage resulting from repetitions, dropouts and failures. The authors stated that an internally efficient educational system is one which turns out graduates without wasting any student year. The indicators of internal efficiency are wastage rate and graduation rate. As Abdulkareem, Fasasi and Akinnubi (2011) noted, the question of internal efficiency is ultimately linked to the issue of resource allocation and utilization. Resources are very important in the development of qualitative education. The success or the failure of any system of education depends on the quality and quantity of resources made available to it and the use to which such resources are put (Adeogun, 1989). All 748

2 educational resources are vital to the achievement of national objectives. Human resources, especially the teaching staff, are to control other resources and ensure that national goals and objectives are achieved. No matter how beautiful the programmes and assets of an institution are, without the teaching staff, attainment of the institutional goals and objectives would prove abortive. For instance, overstaffing or an unhealthy shortage could usher in negative effects on the school internal efficiency. The number of times a resource can be used in a week compared with the number of times it could be in use is referred to as the use or utilization factor and it is expressed as a percentage. High use factors represent maximum use of resources while low use factors reflect the opposite. On the other hand, resource utilization, according to Okunola (1985), is defined as the quantity of resource provided for use in secondary schools. From this operational definition, educational resources are over-utilised when they are in short supply; this has a negative effect on teaching-learning situations. When there is under-staffing for instance, teacher-student ratio is higher than the standard and teaching learning efficiency and effectiveness become greatly reduced. Under-utilisation of resources is also manifested in several ways - when laboratories play ground, student chairs and tables, and other physical and material resources are not in regular use or when secondary school teachers have an average of 20 teaching periods per week as opposed to a norm of 25 and 30 periods. Ojuawo (1989) showed that a positive significant relationship exists between variables such as class size and teacher-pupil ratio and performance in examinations. Performance in schools is related to size and qualification of teachers as well as teaching quality, which is an indication that teachers are a key input in educational production. Thus, an adequate supply of skilled teachers should be a prominent policy concern of any nation. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem which was investigated in this study was the prevalence of educational wastage (in terms of students performance in public examinations), which is an indication of internal inefficiency in secondary school education. It is very important and deserves attention because of the great challenge it poses on the relevance of secondary school education. This paper therefore, focused on human resource utilisation which was measured in terms of student teacher ratio, teacher quality and teacher workload. The following null hypotheses were tested in the study: 1. There was no significant relationship between student teacher ratio and wastage ratio in Ibadan North Local Government Secondary School 2. There was no significant relationship between teachers quality and wastage ratio Ibadan North Local Government Secondary School 3. There was no significant relationship between teacher workload and wastage ratio in Ibadan North Local Government Secondary School 4. There was no significant relationship between resource utilisation and internal efficiency of Ibadan North Local Government Secondary School. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The major importance of this study is that it will offer basis for assessing how public and private investment in secondary education are being utilized. The result will also provide useful information on the extent of educational wastage in Oyo State Secondary Schools. This is important because it will assist school administrators and planners on strategies for reducing or eliminating wastage; thereby, increasing the internal efficiency of secondary education. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The information supplied was got after several visits to the selected schools, while information on financial resources was not supplied at all. For this reason, only the human resource information provided was utilized for the study. Another limitation was that it was only in eight out of 22 schools visited in Ibadan North Local Government area of Oyo State, Nigeria that the Principal, Vice principal or the School Guidance Counselor agreed to filling the questionnaire. METHODOLOGY The study adopted the descriptive survey research. For the collection of data, Resource Utilisation and Secondary Education Efficiency Questionnaire (RUSEQ) was developed by the researcher for the Principals or Vice Principals of the selected secondary schools. Purposive sampling technique was adopted for choosing eight (35%) out of the twenty-two secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. The validity of the instrument was guaranteed by subjecting it to thorough scrutiny by experts in relevant fields. Data collected were analysed using simple percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Internal efficiency was measured as the inverse of wastage ratio. Wastage ratio = Actual input-output ratio Ideal input output ratio Therefore, internal efficiency = 1 Wastage ratio 749

3 Human resource utilization was determined using student-teacher ratio (STR), teacher workload ratio (TWR) and teacher quality. STR = Total number of pupils Total number of teachers TWR = Actual periods taught Approved number of periods Teacher Quality was determined by qualifications of the existing teaching force in the sampled schools. RESULTS The responses from the questionnaire items were carefully analysed and presented under the following headings. Numerical strength of the teachers in the sampled schools Quality of teachers in the selected schools The performance of students in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) Hypotheses testing. Table 1: Stock of Teachers in the Sampled Secondary Schools S/N Number Number Needed Percentages Available TOTAL From Table 1 above, the number of teachers supplied (488) were below the number needed (601) percent of the required teachers were supplied. This means there was a shortage of 17.2 percent. Table 2: Quality of Teachers in Terms of Number of Teachers by Qualifications in the Sampled Secondary Schools S/N NCE HND B.Sc./ B.A B.Ed TOTAL TOTAL Percentages From the analysis of the qualifications of teachers in the sampled schools on Table 2, graduate teachers with teaching qualification (B.Ed.) had the highest population of 45.29%, followed by those with NCE (43.9%) and then graduates without teaching qualification (B.Sc./B.A) (8.40%) and HND holders (2.46%). Table 3: Input-Output Analysis of the Sampled Schools in Terms of Performances of Students in Senior Secondary School Examinations (SSCE) S/N From Table 3, 19.3% of the total students had 5 credits and above; 56.1% had less than 5 credits and 24.6 had no credit at all. Hypothesis 1: There was no significant relationship between student teacher ratio and wastage ratio in. Table 4: Relationship Between Student Teacher Ratio and Wastage Ratio of Oyo State Secondary School Wastage Ratio Student Teacher Ratio No of candidates 5 credits and above Sig Sig. = Signification at P < 0.05 Less than 5 credits A coefficient of was obtained between student-teacher ratio and wastage ratio. This coefficient was significant at P<0.05. This means that there was a significant positive relationship between the two factors. In other words, as there were more students to a teacher, there tended to be high wastage ratio. Hypothesis 2: There was no significant relationship between teachers quality and wastage ratio in Ibadan North Local Government Secondary School. Table 5: Relationship Between Teachers Quality and Wastage Ratio of Oyo State Secondary School Teachers Quality N R Sig. r Comme nt Wastage Ratio Ns ns. = not signification at P < 0.05 No of credits Total Percentage

4 A correlation coefficient of was obtained between teachers quality and wastage ratio. This correlation coefficient was not significant at P < Therefore, the null hypothesis which stated that there was no significant relationship between the two variables was accepted. Hypothesis 3: There was no significant relationship between teacher workload and wastage ratio in Table 6: Relationship Between Teachers Workload and Wastage Ratio of Oyo State Secondary School Wastage Ratio Teacher workload Ns The table above shows that the negative relationship between teacher workload and wastage ratio in was not significant. Hypothesis 4: There was no significant relationship between resource utilisation and internal efficiency of. Table 7: Relationship Between Resource Utilisation and Internal Efficiency of Oyo State Secondary School Sig. = Signification at P < 0.05 Resource Utilisation Internal efficiency Sig The result revealed that there was a correlation coefficient of between resource utilisation and internal efficiency, and the relationship between the two factors was significant and positive. This means that as resources are well-utilised, the internal efficiency is expected to be high. DISCUSSION This study demonstrated that a significant positive relationship existed between STR and wastage ratio. This means that as there are more students to a teacher, the wastage ratio increases. The secondary school system becomes more inefficient as STR increases. In the sampled schools, STR was found to be 55:1 which was above the norm. This could be as a result of the gap (17.2%) between the demand for and the supply of teachers. This gap is likely to result in over-utilization of the available teachers and could reduce the quality of their job performance and consequently the quality of students turned out from such secondary schools. In order to improve on the extent of internal efficiency of these schools and reduce the wastage rate which manifests in terms of poor performance of students in public examinations, a compromise between the needed and the available teachers has to be reached. The lack of relationship between qualification of teachers and wastage rate indicates that increase in teacher quality did not significantly influence wastage rate. This suggests that there are other likely extraneous factors that make up for teacher quality which were not taken into consideration in this analysis. Examples of such factors are teaching experience, exposure to seminars and workshops, motivation in terms enhanced salaries, allowances, regular promotion, etc. One of the main sources of improving the working conditions of teachers lies in enhanced salaries. Many local and state governments are quick to point at the size of teachers salaries in their total expenditure. Yet, they remain underpaid when compared to other professions even within the same environment. As a result, many teachers indulge in moonlighting, which affects their commitment and quality of teaching (Adedeji and Olaniyan, 2011). Similarly, the lack of significant relationship between teacher workload and wastage ratio indicates that certain aspects of teachers activities were not considered in the definition of the teacher workload, and therefore needs to be revisited. There should be an inclusion of all the work that the teachers do (which include time spent on note preparation, advising/counseling of students, being a member of one committee or the other and marking of assignments, tests and examinations) to ensure efficient and effective teaching (Ngware and Nafukho, 2002). It is after this inclusion that a significant relationship between teacher workload and wastage ratio would likely occur, since the current measures of teacher workload which are based on number of periods per week do not accurately reflect the amount of work being done. Using the input-output analysis of the sampled schools, a positive significant relationship was found to exist between human resource utilization and internal efficiency (r = ; p < 0.05) of the school system. This suggests that as more human resources are available and are adequately utilized, the more the secondary schools system becomes efficient. In fact, a change in resource level of 100% is likely to increase the level of students performance by as much as 86% (Adedeji, 1997). Regrettably, the performance of students in the public examination examined revealed that there were lots of wastages (students failure) in the system. The input-output 751

5 analysis showed that only 19.3% of the candidates who sat for the examination were successful completers (those with five credits and above) for the session evaluated. About 56.1% would have to sit for the examination again to have their minimum requirements while 24.6% had no credit at all. Since the percentage of the successful completers was found to be very low and wastage rate high, it can be concluded that the system is inefficient. CONCLUSION In this study, it has been established that as the available human resources were well utilized, there was an increase in the level of internal efficiency of the school system. This shows that human resource utilization is an important indicator of internal efficiency, and in any system therefore, the available human resources must be well channeled and utilized. To further determine the extent of utilization of teachers, a more detailed analysis of teacher quality and workload is necessary. The quality of teachers is not only a function of qualification but there are other factors which need to be considered when defining teacher quality; such factors are experience, seminars, workshops, improved working conditions etc. All these, in addition with appropriate financial rewards, will add to the quality of teachers and subsequently increase their performance. In addition, to make the analysis of teacher workload realistic and to accurately determine the utilization of the teaching force in our schools, different measures that reflect the additional work which teachers do would be necessary. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings of this study, the following measures are recommended: The state government should bridge the gap between the required and available human resources (teachers) in order to avoid the overutilisation of the available ones. The professional competence of the teaching force could be enhanced through seminars, workshops, in-service trainings and conferences. It is not enough to be a qualified teacher. While on the job, there should be constant training to update their knowledge. Teachers should be highly motivated (e.g. through better conditions of service etc.) so that they can put a conscientious effort into their teaching which will go a long way at reducing wastage in our schools. There should be proper monitoring of the available resources in the schools through regular inspections by the inspectorate division of the State Ministry of Education. REFERENCES Abdulkareem, A.Y., Fasasi, Y.A., & Akinnubi, O.P. (2011). Human Resource Utilisation and Internal Efficiency in State Owned Universities in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 1(1), Adedeji, S.O. (1997). Resource adequacy and academic performance in Osun state vocational secondary schools. African Journal of Educational Management 5 (1, 2): Adedeji, S.O., & Olaniyan, O. (2011). Improving the conditions of teachers and teaching in rural schools across African countries. Fundamentals of Teacher Education Development. UNESCO-IICBA. 87pp. Adeogun, A.A. (1999). Resource provision and utilization: a case study of technical colleges in Lagos state. African Journal of Educational Management 7(1): Adesina, S. (1983). Education for Development; The Challenges of the 1980s. In Adesina S. (Ed). Nigerian Education Trends Issues. Ife: University of Ife. Durosaro, D.O. (1985). Resource allocation and internal efficiency of secondary education in Bendel state, Nigeria. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Longe, R.S., Durosaro, D.O. (1988). Analysis of Internal Efficiency of Secondary Education in Nigeria: A case study of Bendel State. African Journal of Educational Management. 2(10, Jan Oct, Ngware, M.W., & Nafukho, F.M. (2002. The Quality and Utilization of Technical Education Trainers in Kenya. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 39 (2). Ojuawo, A.O. (1989). Effects of Differential Distribution of Resources on Schools Performance in WASC Examination in Oyo State Secondary School ( ). Ph.D Thesis. University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Okunola, P.O. (1985). Resource utilization and projection in secondary education in Oyo state. PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 752

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