Chapter 1. Air Pollution. 1] Background 49 2] Diagnosis: Air Quality 52 3] Causes: Air Pollutant Emissions 60 4] Actions: Air Pollution Control 67

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2 Chapter 1 Air Pollution 1] Background 49 2] Diagnosis: Air Quality 52 3] Causes: Air Pollutant Emissions 60 4] Actions: Air Pollution Control 67

3 50 chapter 1 air pollution Air Quality PM2.5 Maximum Permissible of PM 2.5: 20 µg/m 3 annual average Management Tools } Prevention and Decontamination Plans Emission standards Consumer information Voluntary agreements Hospital Admissions } Heart attacks Dysrhythmia Ischemic heart disease Chronic bronchitis Pneumonia Asthma attacks In Chile, at least 10 million people are exposed to an annual average concentration of PM2.5 higher than 20 micrograms per cubic meter.

4 49 air chapter 1 Introduction Abstract Air quality is one of the environmental issues that most directly affect the population. Despite the efforts and different tools used, the country does not yet comply with the limits established in the current primary and secondary standards. In this context, and given the complexity of the issue, in 2010 the Ministry of the Environment began the preparation and implementation of the Clean Air Program, which seeks to improve air quality in the main urban areas of the country, thus incorporating a national approach to manage this issue. Background 1 Several national and international studies have shown a link between the concentration level of pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (No 2 ) and the incidence of premature deaths and several cardiorespiratory diseases, in both children and adults. There is also evidence of environmental effects, such as visibility impairment, damage to materials and impacts on flora and fauna (table 1). Particulate matter (PM) is the pollutant that has been more significantly associated to mortality and morbidity events in the population (Pope and Dockery, 2006). This pollutant is classified according to its diameter, the characteristic that determines the intensity of its impacts. Two metrics are generally used to classify particulate matter, particles smaller than 10 microns known as PM 10 and particles smaller than 2.5 microns, known as PM 2.5. Thus, two fractions can be distinguished for PM 10 : The coarse fraction, that is, between 2.5 and 10 microns, and the fine fraction, smaller than 2.5 microns.

5 50 chapter 1 air pollution Table 1 Impacts Generated by PM, O 3, SO 2 and No 2 Effect Damage to Human Health Visibility Impairment Damage to Materials Damage to Aquatic Ecosystems Damage to Plants and Forests Description Particles and compounds emitted into the air in certain concentrations can produce harmful effects. on people s health, for instance, reduced pulmonary function, increased susceptibility to respiratory infections, premature deaths and cancer, among others. The presence of particles in the air reduces visibility, causing reduced well-being and quality of life. The excess of air pollution may cause damages in building materials, altering their physical and chemical properties. High concentrations of No 2 and SO 2 can produce acid deposition in the water, modifying its composition and making the survival of aquatic species difficult. Acid deposition in soils can modify the growth of plants and trees. Also, ozone and other particles may enter through the stomata of plants and damage their structure. Source: Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011a. It is worth noting that the fine fraction, PM 2.5, is composed of particles that are small enough to penetrate through airways until they reach the lungs and alveoli, which increases the risk of premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary effects, in both short- and long-term exposures (CONAMA, 2010). Regarding the coarse fraction, PM 10, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), even though there is an apparent relation between short-term exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular effects, there is not enough evidence to verify potential effects for long-term exposure (EPA, 2009).

6 51 air chapter 1 In PM 10 two fractions can be distinguished, the coarse fraction, that is, between 2.5 and 10 microns, and the fine fraction, smaller than 2.5 microns. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is the most aggresive pollutant to human health. Human Hair µm diameter PM 2,5 Combustible particles, organic components, metals, etc. <2.5 µm diameter PM 10 Dust, pollen, mold, etc. <10 µm diameter PM 10 PM 2.5 } Fine beach sand 90 µm diameter fig. 1 Diferences between PM 2,5 and PM 10 Source: Elaboration based on an image from the EPA website.

7 52 chapter 1 air pollution 2 Diagnosis: Air Quality 1] Decree N 144 of the Ministry of Health (1961) and Resolution N 1215 of the Ministry of Health (1978). 2] Standard that establishes concentration limits and maximum and minimum permissible periods of elements, compounds, substances, chemical or biological by-products, energies, radiations, vibrations, noise or a combination of them, whose presence or absence in the environment may represent a risk to human life or health. Article 2, letter n, Law N In Chile, although the concern for air pollution dates back to the beginning of the 20th century, the first emission and quality standards were dictated in 1961 and 1978, respectively 1. Since then, new studies and legislative review processes have been carried out resulting in Chile having more primary environmental quality standards 2 at the national level, which regulate the concentration in the air of six types of pollutants, identified as the main and most harmful ones for human health. These standards regulate maximum concentrations of particulate matter, both PM 10 and PM 2.5, as well as sulfur dioxide (So 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (No 2 ), tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and lead (Pb). The following table presents a description of some of the current primary air quality standards in µg/m 3. Table 2 Current primary standards of quality Pollutant Level Metric Exceedance O hour running mean 99th Percentile 50 Triennial arithmetic mean Not allowed Daily arithmetic mean 98th Percentile 20 Annual arithmetic mean Not allowed Daily arithmetic mean 98th Percentile 80 Annual arithmetic mean Not allowed Daily arithmetic mean 99th Percentile 100 Annual arithmetic mean Not allowed Hourly arithmetic mean 99th Percentile Source: Own elaboration.

8 53 air chapter 1 The assessment of the state of air quality, according to the limits established in the primary standards, is based on the analysis of the data collected by the monitoring stations with population representation (EMRP, by its acronym in Spanish) 3. In the country there are also private monitoring stations, most of which have been installed under the framework of the requirements established in the environmental qualification resolutions, as a follow-up mechanism of the impact of projects or decontamination plans, as is the case of the monitoring network of copper foundries. Most of the air quality monitoring carried out throughout Chile has been oriented preferrably to particulate matter PM 10. However, with the entry into force of the PM 2.5 standard, the monitoring coverage of this pollutant is expected to increase in the following years, which will allow a better indicator of the state of air quality. Although there are still no measurements of fine particulate matter in all the country, the PM 10 measurements allow for estimates to be made with regards to the concentration of its finer fraction. Thus, in order to have a broader vision of the national situation, annual PM 2.5 concentrations have been estimated for communes with no available information 4. According these estimates, it is possible to see that the cities located in central and southern areas of our country present high concentration levels of this pollutant, exceeding the 20 micrograms per cubic meter established as the maximum limit in the current annual regulation. On the other hand, cities in the northern area do not register such elevated annual levels of PM 2.5, because the main emission sources of particulate matter in that area are derived from processes of the mining industry, which registers a higher contribution of coarse particulate matter (Kavouras, Koutrakis et al., 2001). Nonetheless, some cities with a greater presence of activities such as thermoelectric generation or copper foundries show higher levels in comparison to other cities in the north that do not have such types of activities. According to this background, it is possible to estimate that, in Chile, at least 10 million people 5 are exposed to an annual PM 2.5 average concentration higher than 20 micrograms per cubic meter. In addition, and following the methodology proposed by MoE (2011a), it is estimated that more than 4,000 people die prematurely each year due to cardiopulmonary diseases associated to chronic PM 2.5 exposure. This figure represents more than double the number of deaths in car accidents (CONASET, 2010). Table 3 3] The conditions that these stations must comply with are established in Decree N 59/1998, Decree N 112/2002, Decree N 113/2002. Decree N 114/2002 and Decree N 115/2002, all of MINSEGPRES. 4] Based on the methodology proposed by DICTUC (2009), which considers the compensation of particulate matter and the type of emission sources in different areas of the country, it is assumed that, on average, 14% of PM 10 corresponds to PM 2.5 in the northern area, 50% of PM 10 corresponds to PM 2.5 in the central area, and 70% of PM 10 corresponds to PM 2.5 in the southern area of the country. In large urban areas, such as the city of Concepcion, it is assumed that 50% of PM 10 corresponds to PM 2,5. 5] The PM 2,5 concentration measured in some communes of the Santiago Province represents, on average, the concentration to which the entire population of the province is exposed.

9 54 chapter 1 air pollution 0 Annual PM 2.5 Concentration [µg/m 3 ] at a National Level Source: National System and Information on Air Quality. See years of measurements in Appendix Table 4. fig. 2 The maps published in this report that refer to or are related to limits or boundaries of Chile do not commit the State of Chile in any way, according to Article 2, letter g of the Decree with Force of Law N 83 of 1979 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Cartographic information is based on Datum WGS84 and it is mearly referential. Norte Centro Sur Tarapacá Antofagasta Atacama Coquimbo Valparaíso Metropolitana de Santiago Libertador General Bernardo OHiggins Maule Biobío Araucanía Los Ríos Los Lagos Aysén del Gral. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo * Pica * Pozo Almonte * Antofagasta * Mejillones * Calama * Tocopilla * Diego de Almagro * Copiapó * Tierra Amarilla * Huasco * Los Vilos * Salamanca * Andacollo * Cabildo * La Calera * La Cruz * Quillota Concón * Puchuncaví * Quilpué * Quintero Viña Del Mar Los Andes Puente Alto Cerrillos Cerro Navia El Bosque Independencia La Florida Las Condes Pudahuel Quilicura Santiago Talagante * Machalí * Mostazal Rancagua * Rengo * San Fernando Curicó * Talca Los Angeles * Chiguayante * Coronel * Hualpén * Talcahuano * Tomé Chillán * Padre De Las Casas Temuco Valdivia Osorno * Coyhaique

10 55 air chapter µg/m3 annual PM2.5 average N 0 of inhabitants, 2011 (Estimated Population INE) * 105, , ,000-1,020,000 1,020,000-2,050,000 2,050,000-7,000,000 Estimated data It is estimated that more than 4,000 people die prematurely each year due to cardiopulmonary diseases associated to chronic PM 2.5 exposure. The information used (MINSAL monitoring network and private monitoring stations) is for reference only, due to the presence of gaps in information and due to the fact that validation processes have not ended yet. The validated information is going to be presented on the 2012 report of the state of the environment of Chile. The years considered can be viewed in Appendix Table 4.

11 56 chapter 1 air pollution Table 3 Mortality and Morbidity Associated to PM 2.5 exposure* Type of event Event Age Group Cases Premature Mortality Cardiopulmonary All 4,200 Heart Attacks 65+ 2,500 Dysrhythmia 65+ 1,200 Hospital Admissions Ischemic Heart Disease Chronic Bronchitis ,200 Pneumonia 65+ 6,800 Missed Workdays All 1,570,000 Activity Restriction Days with Restricted Activity All 7,670,000 Days with Minor Restricted Activity All 28,900,000 * 10,000,000 people at 25 ug/m 3 annual of PM 2.5 Source: Own elaboration based on Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011a. To perform a more detailed analysis of the concentrations of regulated pollutants, box-and-whisker diagrams have been used to simultaneously show different descriptive measures, thus facilitating their comparison. In this case, these measures also allow an association of the values to the respective regulatory compliance. Figures 3 and 4 show charts of the information available at a national level for PM 2.5 and PM 10, respectively. At the same time, charts for O 3, SO 2 and NO 2 are shown in the Appendix. 98th or 99th percentile, depending on the standard. Maximum Annual average 75th percentile 50th or median 25th percentile 1st or 2nd percentile, depending on the standard Minimum

12 Daily PM 2.5 [µg/m 3 ] Source: National System and Information on Air Quality. See years of measurements in Appendix Table 4. fig of the monitored communes exceed the annual and daily average allowed by the standard. In the northern area of the country, there are still no monitoring stations with population representativity to allow an adequate diagnosis to be performed. 98 th * or 99 th Percentile Maximum The information used (MINSAL monitoring network and private monitoring stations) is for reference only, due to the presence of gaps in information and due to the fact that validation processes have not ended yet. The validated information is going to be presented on the 2012 report of the state of the environment of Chile. The years considered can be viewed in Appendix Table Annual average 1st or 2nd Percentile 75 th percentile 25 th percentile Minimum Los Andes Concón Viña del Mar Puente Alto Cerrillos Cerro Navia El Bosque Independencia La Florida Las Condes Pudahuel Quilicura Santiago Talagante Rancagua Curicó Talca Chillán Temuco Osorno Valdivia Los Andes Valparaíso Cordillera Santiago Talagante Cachapoal Curicó Talca Ñuble Cautín Osorno Valdivia 5 th th Region Metropolitan Region 6 Region 7 th Region 8 th Region 9 th Region 10 th Region 14 th Region CENTER SOUTH

13 Annual PM 10 Concentration [µg/m 3 ] at a National Level Source: National System and Information on Air Quality. See years of measurements in Appendix Table 4. fig communes exceed the annual average allowed. In the southern area, even though the annual averages are lower than the required limit, there are several cases in which the daily limit (98 th percentile) established by the standard is exceeded. 98 th * or 99 th Percentile Annual average 1st or 2nd Percentile Maximum 75 th percentile 50 th percentile or median 25 th percentile Minimum The information used (MINSAL monitoring network and private monitoring stations) is for reference only, due to the presence of gaps in information and due to the fact that validation processes have not ended yet. The validated information is going to be presented on the 2012 report of the state of the environment of Chile. The years considered can be viewed in Appendix Table Pica Pozo Almonte Antofagasta Mejillones Calama María Elena Tocopilla Diego de Almagro Copiapó Tierra Amarilla Huasco Los Vilos Salamanca Andacollo Cabildo Calera La Cruz Quillota Catemu Concón Puchuncaví Quilpué Quintero Viña del Mar Puente Alto Cerrillos Cerro Navia El Bosque Independencia del Tamarugal Antofagasta El Loa Tocopilla Chañaral Copiapó Huasco Choapa Elqui Petorca Quillota San Felipe de Aconcagua Valparaíso Cordillera Tarapacá Region Antofagasta Region Atacama Region Coquimbo Region Valparaíso Region NORTH CENTER

14 La Florida Las Condes Pudahuel Quilicura Santiago Talagante Codegua Machalí Mostazal Olivar Rancagua Rengo San Fernando Curicó Talca Los Angeles Chiguayante Coronel Hualpén Talcahuano Tomé Portezuelo Chillán Padre las Casas Temuco Máfil Valdivia Osorno Coyhaique Santiago Talagante Cachapoal Colchagua Curicó Talca Biobío Concepción Ñuble Cautín Valdivia Osorno Coyhaique Metropolitan Region Libertador Gral. Bernardo O Higgins Region Maule Region Biobío Region Araucanía Region Los Ríos Region Los Lagos Region Aysén Region SOUTH

15 q 3 Secondary PM 2.5 Formation fig. Source: wordpress.com/2010/03/ 5 Causes: Air Pollution Emissions The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10, So 2 and No 2 are mainly produced by direct emissions of these pollutants into the atmosphere, either from anthropogenic or natural sources. In turn, O 3 is formed by the action of solar radiation, through chemical reactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx and other chemical compounds in the atmosphere (Jorquera, 2007). The particulate matter PM 2.5 can also be formed by chemical reactions between gaseous precursor pollutants of particulate matter, such as So x and No x and other atmospheric compounds. This type of PM 2.5 is known as secondary particulate matter. Secondary particulate matter is formed both by the condensation of gases cooled after their emission, which are added to already existing particles and combine themselves to form larger conglomerates, as well as forming cloud or fog droplets, to which the condensed gases serve as nucleus. evaporation condensation diffusion nucleation coagulation water uptake resuspension oxidation precursor emissions activation dry deposition primary emissions

16 61 air chapter 1 Main emission sources of pollutants can be classified, according to their characteristics, as stationary, mobile and fugitive sources. Stationary sources are considered to be emissions generated by fuel burning in industrial and residential activities, to generate either energy, heat or steam, and other industrial processes, such as copper smelting. They also include emissions generated by burning other fuels such as biomass, associated to residential heating. Mobile sources correspond to emissions that come from exhaust gases, brakes and tire wear, from different means of transportation, such as cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. Fugitive sources are emissions that are not channeled through pipelines, chimneys, or other systems towards the exterior, such as emissions that come from paved and unpaved roads, as well as from construction, and demolition, among others. The particulate matter associated to this type of source corresponds mainly to coarse particles, of which almost 90 percent are larger than 2.5 micrometers (μm) (Chow and Watson, 1998). Fugitive emissions also have a natural origin, due to dust or rock erosion suspensions by wind. Their emission rates strongly depend on meteorological parameters such as wind speed, environmental humidity and precipitations. Table 4 shows a classification of sources, that corresponds to what is generally used in the preparation of emission inventories in Chile. STATIONARY SOURCES FUGITIVE SOURCES MOBILE SOURCES Table 4 Classification of Emission Sources Type Pollutants Subtype Examples of Activities Stationary Sources Fugitive Sources Mobile sources PM 10, PM 2.5, So x and No x PM 10, PM 2.5 PM 10, PM 2.5, No x, Cov, So x Area Specific (Industry) Resuspended Dust En-route Off-route Source: Own elaboration based on Jorquera, Residential heating, agriculture burns and forest fires. Electric generation, industrial processes such as combustion in steam-generating boilers and industrial furnaces, as well as other industrial processes such as copper smelting. Construction of buildings Unpaved roads Wind Erosion Buses, trucks, private and commercial vehicles, taxis, and motorcycles Construction or agriculture machinery, airport or port operations.

17 62 chapter 1 air pollution fig. 6 To analyze pollutant emissions at a regional level, it is necessary to have accurate information about the location and emitted pollutants by different sources. Few cities in our country have a thoroughly detailed emission inventory and, in general, they are cities with a significant number of inhabitants or areas with mega industrial sources. However, it is possible to perform a general diagnosis based on the information collected by the Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). The 2011 PRTR Report was considered in order to characterize and analyze PM 10, PM 2.5, No x y So x emissions, which includes declared information up to At the same time, it includes other sectors not yet included in the PRTR, such as emissions from firewood burning for residential heating and diffuse emissions from copper smelting, provided by the MoE (Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011b). Based on this information, the following compounds have been measured: Approximately 213,559 tons per year of PM 2.5, 708,782 tons per year of So x and 247,099 tons per year of NO x. The main emission sources at a national level are firewood burning for residential heating for PM 2.5, copper foundries for SO x and thermoelectric power plants for NO x. It is worth noting the significant contribution of area sources, such as agriculture burns, to the direct PM 2.5 emissions at a national level. Distribution by Type of Source, 2009 Source: Own elaboration based on Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011b and Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011c. PM 2,5 NO x SO x 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Areal Boilers Foundries Mobile sources Firewood Other Industrial Processes Thermoelectric Power Plants Other

18 63 fig. 7 air chapter 1 Emissions Map for SOx per Province Emissions Chart for SOx per Region and Sector Source: Own elaboration based on RETC, 2011 and Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011b. Arica and Parinacota Tarapacá Antofagasta Atacama Coquimbo Valparaíso Metropolitana Libertador Gral. Bernardo O Higgins Maule Biobío Araucanía De los Ríos Los Lagos Aysén del Gral. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica 0 50, , , ,000 Areal Boilers Foundries Mobile sources Firewood Thermoelectric Power Plants Other Industrial Processes Other Emissions of SOx (tons/year) 0-9,500 9,500-27,000 27,000-61,500 61, , ,000 Tons/Year The maps published in this report that refer to or are related to limits or boundaries of Chile do not commit the State of Chile in any way, according to Article 2, letter g of the Decree with Force of Law N 83 of 1979 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Cartographic information is based on Datum WGS84 and it is mearly referential.

19 64 chapter 1 air pollution fig. 8 Emissions Map of NO x per Province Emissions Chart of NO x per Region and Sector Source: Own elaboration based on RETC, 2011 and Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011b. Arica and Parinacota Tarapacá Antofagasta Atacama Coquimbo Valparaíso Metropolitana Libertador Gral. Bernardo O Higgins Maule Biobío Araucanía De los Ríos Los Lagos Aysén del Gral. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica 0 50, , , , ,000 Tons/Year Areal Boilers Foundries Mobile Sources Firewood Thermoelectric Other Industrial Processes Other Power Plants Emissions of NO x (tons/year) ,800 2,800-7,100 7,100-35,600 The maps published in this report that refer to or are related to limits or boundaries of Chile do not commit the State of Chile in any way, according to Article 2, letter g of the Decree with Force of Law N 83 of 1979 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Cartographic information is based on Datum WGS84 and it is mearly referential.

20 65 air chapter 1 fig. 9 Emissions of PM 2.5 per Region and Sector Source: Own elaboration based on RETC, 2011 and Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, 2011b. Arica and Parinacota Tarapacá Antofagasta Atacama Coquimbo Valparaíso Metropolitana Libertador Gral. Bernardo O Higgins Maule Biobío Araucanía De los Ríos Los Lagos Aysén del Gral. Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica 0 50, , , , ,000 Tons/Year Areal Boilers Foundries Mobile Sources Firewood Thermoelectric Other Industrial Processes Other Power Plants Emissions of MP 2.5 (tons/year) 0-1,700 1,700-5,500 5,500-12,500 12,500-21,500 The maps published in this report that refer to or are related to limits or boundaries of Chile do not commit the State of Chile in any way, according to Article 2, letter g of the Decree with Force of Law N 83 of 1979 of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Cartographic information is based on Datum WGS84 and it is mearly referential.

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22 67 air chapter 1 Actions: Air Pollution Control In Chile, air quality management began fifty years ago, mainly with command and control measures, such as Decree 144 of the Ministry of Health, issued in This Decree established standards to avoid emissions or air pollutants of any nature ; however, it did not set concentration limits, leaving this at the discretion of the Ministry of Health. Later on, in 1978, through Resolution N of the Ministry of Health, maximum concentration limits for some pollutants were defined, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, tropospheric ozone, and suspended particulates, thus creating the first air quality standard in the country. In this context, it became clear that the Metropolitan Region, the place with the highest concentration of Chilean population, presented one of the largest air pollution problems. This led to the creation of the Special Commission for the Decontamination of the Metropolitan Region (CEDRM by its acronym in Spanish) in 1990, as the agency responsible for the first control measures implemented in the city of Santiago. Later on, after the enactment of the Environmental Framework Law N , efforts to manage air pollution and quality were intensified by establishing different management tools for this purpose, which -besides emission standards- included prevention and decontamination plans, among others. As a result of this management, today the country has emission standards 6 for stationary and mobile sources, described in Table ] According to Law N , emission standards are those that set the maximum amount allowed for a pollutant measured in the effluent of the emission source.

23 68 chapter 1 air pollution Table 5 Current Emission Standards, by Sources Source Activity Pollutants Scope Supreme Decree Stationary Sources Mobile sources Stationary Sources Emitting Arsenic As National SD 165/1999 MINSEGPRES updated by Decree 75/2008 MINSEGPRES Sulfate-pulp Production H2S National SD 167/1999 MINSEGPRES Incineration and Co-incineration PM, So 2, No x, TOC, CO, heavy metals, HCI, HF, benzene, dioxins and furans. National SD 45/2007 MINSEGPRES Thermoelectric Power Plants PM, So 2, No x, Hg National SD 13/2011MoE Industrial and Commercial Sector Stationary Sources, Specific and Group Sources* Medium Vehicles Heavy Vehicles PM, CO, So 2, No x MR SD 66/2010 MINSEGPRES PM MR SD 4/1992 MINSAL CO, HC, No x, PM, HCNM CO, HC, No x, PM, HCNM National National SD 54/1994 MTT SD55/1994 MTT Motorcycles CO, THC, NO x National SD 04/2000 MTT Public Transportation Buses Light Vehicles Emission Control in Technical Inspection Stations for Light and Medium Vehicles by spark ignition CO, THC, NMHC, CH4, No x and PM HC, CO, No x, PM, HCNM NO, HC and CO MR National MR, V, VI, VIII and IX SD130/2001 MTT SD 211/1991 MTT SD 149/2006MTT MR: Metropolitan Region/ MTT: Ministry of Transportations and Telecommunications/MoE: Ministry of the Environment/MINSEGPRES: Ministry of the General Secretariat of the Presidency. *Stationary Source: Any source designed to operate in a fixed location, whose emissions are discharged through a duct or chimney. Those mounted on vehicles to facilitate their transportation are included. Specific Stationary Source: Any stationary source whose volumetric flow emissions are higher or equal to a thousand cubic meters per hour (1,000 m 3 /hr) under standard conditions, measured at full load. Group Stationary Source: Any stationary source whose volumetric flow emissions are lower than a thousand cubic meters per hour (1,000 m 3 /hr) under standard conditions, measured at full load. Source: Own elaboration

24 69 air chapter 1 Emission standards, along with quality standards, are tools aimed at preventing and controlling the concentration of pollutants in the air. In cases in which they exceed the quality standards, the law establishes other tools such as the prevention and decontamination plans 7, whose preparation begins once the decree declaring the area as latent or saturated has been enacted. Just like the standards, prevention and decontamination plans have been fundamental for the environmental management of the air in Chile 8. According to the Environmental Framework Law N , the actions to be implemented under the Prevention and Decontamination Plans framework may include emission standards, tradable emission permits, emission taxes or fees to users, and other encouragement tools for actions to improve and repair the environment (Art. 47). Table 6 shows current national plans. Likewise, some locations have been declared as saturated or latent areas, the preliminary step to prepare a prevention or decontamination plan. Table 7 shows areas with this milestone. 7] The prevention plan is a tool aimed to avoid surpassing one or more primary or secondary environmental quality standards in an area, while the aim of decontamination plans is to recover the levels indicated in those standards for areas declared as saturated. 8] The conditions for the use and preparation of these tools are established in Law N Table 6 Current Prevention and Decontamination Plans PM 10 SO 2 Region Location Decree establishing Annual 24 Hrs Annual 24 Hrs the Plan María Elena and Pedro de Valdivia S SD 164/1999/MINSEGPRES Antofagasta Chuquicamata L S S SD 206/2001/MINSEGPRES Tocopilla S SD 70/2010/MINSEGPRES Atacama Potrerillos S S S SD 179/1999/MINSEGPRES Paipote S SD 180/1995/MINSEGPRES Valparaíso Puchuncaví (Ventanas) S S S SD 252/1992/MIN MINERIA Metropolitan* All communes S S SD 66/2009/MINSEGPRES Libertador General Bernardo O Higgins Caletones S S SD 81/1998/MINSEGPRES Araucanía Temuco and Padre Las Casas S SD 78/2009/MINSEGPRES (S) Saturated area (L) Latent area * Supreme Decree N 131 (1996) of the MINSEGPRES declared the Metropolitan Region as an area saturated with ozone, breathable particulate matter, suspended particulates and carbon monoxide, and as a latent area due to the amount of nitrogen dioxide. Source: Own elaboration.

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